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Murwantoko Murwantoko, Arif Bimantara, Roosmanto Roosmanto, Masashi Kawaichi
A pathogen of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, was recently recorded in a hatchery in Yogyakarta. The clinical symptom in post-larvae (PL) was a whitish appearance of the muscles in the tail. Histological examination revealed myonecrosis with massive infiltration of myonuclei and hemocytes. RT-PCR products of 850 bp were obtained when using RNA from diseased PL as a template. The clinical signs and RT-PCR amplicon were reproduced in M. rosenbergii inoculated with bacteria-free inocula. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the M...
2016: SpringerPlus
María Emilia Garcia Denegri, Gladys P Teibler, Silvana L Maruñak, David R Hernández, Ofelia C Acosta, Laura C Leiva
Bothrops alternatus snake venom is particularly characterized for inducing a prominent haemorrhage and affecting hemostasis as a consequence of 43.1% of metallo-proteinases and less than 10% of PLA2 (almost all non-myotoxic phospholipases) in its venomics. In addition, myonecrosis is the major local effect in viper envenoming which might lead to permanent sequela. Then, the rebuilding of the microvasculature at the local injured site acquires significance since represents one of the pivotal stages for subsequent skeletal muscle regeneration either at morphological or functional aspects...
October 6, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Jason P Burnham, John P Kirby, Marin H Kollef
PURPOSE: To review the salient features of the diagnosis and management of the most common skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). This review focuses on severe SSTIs that require care in an intensive care unit (ICU), including toxic shock syndrome, myonecrosis/gas gangrene, and necrotizing fasciitis. METHODS: Guidelines, expert opinion, and local institutional policies were reviewed. RESULTS: Severe SSTIs are common and their management complex due to regional variation in predominant pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns, as well as variations in host immune responses...
October 3, 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
Jocelyn M Choo, Jackie K Cheung, Jessica A Wisniewski, David L Steer, Dieter M Bulach, Thomas J Hiscox, Anjana Chakravorty, A Ian Smith, David A Gell, Julian I Rood, Milena M Awad
The ability of a pathogenic bacterium to scavenge iron from its host is important for its growth and survival during an infection. Our studies on C. perfringens gas gangrene strain JIR325, a derivative of strain 13, showed that it is capable of utilizing both human hemoglobin and ferric chloride, but not human holo-transferrin, as an iron source for in vitro growth. Analysis of the C. perfringens strain 13 genome sequence identified a putative heme acquisition system encoded by an iron-regulated surface gene region that we have named the Cht (Clostridium perfringens heme transport) locus...
2016: PloS One
Americo Testa, Rosangela Giannuzzi, Valeria De Biasio
BACKGROUND: Myonecrosis can rapidly develop in soft tissue necrotizing infections, often with initial sparing of the skin. Despite the improvements in management of necrotizing soft tissue infections, mortality remains high, according to the location, microbial agents and comorbidities, ranging between 17 and 46 %. A prompt diagnosis represents the greatest challenge for the emergency physician. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a patient with a history of hypertension and arrhythmia who developed nonclostridial necrotizing fasciitis with extensive myonecrosis, after articular infiltration procedure...
September 2016: Journal of Ultrasound
S M Momany, M Ayesh, H Z Omari
Atraumatic painful swollen lower extremity has limited differential diagnosis and in patients with risk factors for venous thromboembolism offers little challenge. Poor awareness of rare entities results in misdiagnosis and mismanagement. Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare complication of longstanding uncontrolled diabetes mellitus causing ischaemic skeletal myonecrosis and similar presentation.
November 4, 2015: West Indian Medical Journal
Kenta Okamoto, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Daniel S D Larsson, Daisuke Kobayashi, Martin Svenda, Kerstin Mühlig, Filipe R N C Maia, Laura H Gunn, Haruhiko Isawa, Mutsuo Kobayashi, Kyoko Sawabe, Kazuyoshi Murata, Janos Hajdu
Omono River virus (OmRV) is a double-stranded RNA virus isolated from Culex mosquitos, and it belongs to a group of unassigned insect viruses that appear to be related to Totiviridae. This paper describes electron cryo-microscopy (cryoEM) structures for the intact OmRV virion to 8.9 Å resolution and the structure of the empty virus-like-particle, that lacks RNA, to 8.3 Å resolution. The icosahedral capsid contains 120-subunits and resembles another closely related arthropod-borne totivirus-like virus, the infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) from shrimps...
2016: Scientific Reports
Rita de Cássia O Collaço, Priscila Randazzo-Moura, Mariana L Tamascia, Igor Rapp F da Silva, Thalita Rocha, José C Cogo, Stephen Hyslop, Charles G Sanny, Léa Rodrigues-Simioni
In this work, we examined some biochemical and biological activities of Bothrops fonsecai venom, a pitviper endemic to southeastern Brazil, and assessed their neutralization by commercial bothropic antivenom (CAv). Cross-reactivity of venom with CAv was also assessed by immunoblotting and size-exclusion high performance chromatography (SE-HPLC). Bothrops fonsecai venom had PLA2, proteolytic and esterase activities that were neutralized to varying extents by venom:antivenom ratios of 5:1 and 5:2 (PLA2 and esterase activities) or not significantly by either venom:antivenom ratio (proteolytic activity)...
August 30, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Rodolfo Melaré, Rafael Stuani Floriano, Marta Gracia, Léa Rodrigues-Simioni, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling, Thalita Rocha
Bites by Bothrops snakes normally induce local pain, haemorrhage, oedema and myonecrosis. Mammalian isolated nerve-muscle preparations exposed to Bothrops venoms and their phospholipase A2 toxins (PLA2 ) can exhibit a neurotoxic pattern as increase in frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (MEPPs) as well as in amplitude of end-plate potentials (EPPs); neuromuscular facilitation followed by complete and irreversible blockade without morphological evidence for muscle damage. In this work, we analysed the ultrastructural damage induced by Bothrops jararacussu and Bothrops bilineatus venoms and their PLA2 toxins (BthTX-I and Bbil-TX) in mouse isolated nerve-phrenic diaphragm preparations (PND)...
August 18, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Hanna Renshaw, Shreyans Gandhi, Asad Shah, Robin Ireland, Judith C Marsh, Ghulam J Mufti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Shigeki Kimura, Tomoyo Sugiyama, Keiichi Hishikari, Shun Nakamura, Shun Nakagama, Toru Misawa, Masafumi Mizusawa, Kazuto Hayasaka, Yosuke Yamakami, Yuichiro Sagawa, Keisuke Kojima, Hirofumi Ohtani, Hiroyuki Hikita, Atsushi Takahashi, Mitsuaki Isobe
Several characteristics of neointimal tissues, including neoatherosclerotic progression, have been reported in lesions with in-stent restenosis (ISR). However, the effects of these characteristics on outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ISR lesions remain unclear. We assessed the relationships between neointimal tissue characteristics and the occurrence of periprocedural myonecrosis (PMN) after PCI in ISR lesions. We investigated 72 ISR lesions in 72 patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who underwent pre- and post-revascularization optical coherence tomography (OCT) and coronary angioscopy (CAS)...
October 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Willians Fernando Vieira, Bruno Kenzo-Kagawa, José Carlos Cogo, Vitor Baranauskas, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling
Myotoxins present in Bothrops venom disrupt the sarcolemma of muscle fibers leading to the release of sarcoplasmic proteins and loss of muscle homeostasis. Myonecrosis and tissue anoxia induced by vascularization impairment can lead to amputation or motor functional deficit. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic behavior of motor function in mice subjected to injection of Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu) and exposed to low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Male Swiss mice received Bjssu injection (830 μg/kg) into the medial portion of the right gastrocnemius muscle...
2016: PloS One
Eliécer Jiménez-Charris, Leonel Montealegre-Sánchez, Luis Solano-Redondo, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Leonardo Fierro-Pérez, Bruno Lomonte
The Lansberg's hognose pitviper, Porthidium lansbergii lansbergii, inhabits northern Colombia. A recent proteomic characterization of its venom (J. Proteomics [2015] 114, 287-299) revealed the presence of phospholipases A2 (PLA2) accounting for 16.2% of its proteins. The two most abundant PLA2s were biochemically and functionally characterized. Pllans-I is a basic, dimeric enzyme with a monomer mass of 14,136 Da, while Pllans-II is an acidic, monomeric enzyme of 13,901 Da. Both have Asp49 in their partial amino acid sequences and, accordingly, are catalytically active upon natural or synthetic substrates...
September 1, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Rolf P Kreutz, Jeffrey A Breall, Anjan Sinha, Elisabeth von der Lohe, Richard J Kovacs, David A Flockhart
BACKGROUND: Reloading with high-dose atorvastatin shortly before percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) has been proposed as a strategy to reduce periprocedural myonecrosis. There has been a concern that statins that are metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 may interfere with clopidogrel metabolism at high doses. The impact of simultaneous administration of high doses of atorvastatin and clopidogrel on the efficacy of platelet inhibition has not been established. METHODS: Subjects (n=60) were randomized to receive atorvastatin 80 mg together with clopidogrel 600 mg loading dose (n=28) versus clopidogrel 600 mg alone (n=32) at the time of PCI...
2016: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
J Bauquier, A Stent, J Gibney, I Jerrett, J White, B Tennent-Brown, A Pearce, J Pitt
REASON FOR PERFORMING THE STUDY: Investigation of toxicosis caused by Malva parviflora was required after four horses from the same farm developed severe muscle fasciculations, tachycardia, sweating and periods of recumbency leading to death or euthanasia after ingesting the plant. OBJECTIVES: Describe historical, clinical, clinicopathological and pathological findings of four horses with suspected Malva parviflora toxicosis. The role of cyclopropene fatty acids (found in Malva parviflora) and mechanism for toxicosis are proposed...
June 24, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
M Verdoia, A Schaffer, L Barbieri, G Di Giovine, G Bellomo, P Marino, H Suryapranata, G De Luca
BACKGROUND: Pro-thrombotic conditions importantly influence myocardial perfusion and procedural results after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has emerged as a predictor of cardiovascular events and of long-term prognosis, especially in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary PCI. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of NLR on periprocedural myocardial infarction (MI) in patients undergoing non-urgent PCI...
July 2016: Netherlands Heart Journal
Jackie K Cheung, Jessica A Wisniewski, Vicki M Adams, Noelene S Quinsey, Julian I Rood
Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that causes human gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis) and food poisoning. Early studies showed that virulence was regulated by the VirSR two-component signal transduction system. However, our identification of the RevR orphan response regulator indicated that more than one system was involved in controlling virulence. To further characterize this virulence-associated regulator, gel mobility shift experiments, coupled with DNase I footprinting, were used to identify the RevR DNA binding sequence...
September 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Vichai Senthong, Xinmin S Li, Timothy Hudec, John Coughlin, Yuping Wu, Bruce Levison, Zeneng Wang, Stanley L Hazen, W H Wilson Tang
BACKGROUND: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbiota metabolite from dietary phosphatidylcholine, has mechanistic links to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) pathogenesis and is associated with adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the relationship between plasma TMAO levels and the complexity and burden of CAD and degree of subclinical myonecrosis. METHODS: We studied 353 consecutive stable patients with evidence of atherosclerotic CAD detected by elective coronary angiography between 2012 and 2014...
June 7, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Nathaniel R Smilowitz, Matthew C Weiss, Rina Mauricio, Asha M Mahajan, Kaitlyn E Dugan, Arvind Devanabanda, Claudia Pulgarin, Eugenia Gianos, Binita Shah, Steven P Sedlis, Martha Radford, Harmony R Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Type 2 myocardial infarction (MI) is defined as myocardial necrosis (myonecrosis) due to an imbalance in supply and demand with clinical evidence of ischemia. Some clinical scenarios of supply-demand mismatch predispose to myonecrosis but limit the identification of symptoms and ECG changes referable to ischemia; therefore, the MI definition may not be met. Factors that predispose to type 2 MI and myonecrosis without definite MI, approaches to treatment, and outcomes remain poorly characterized...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Sunil Kumar Mor, Nicholas Benjamin Daniel Phelps
During regulatory and routine surveillance sampling of apparently healthy baitfish from the state of Minnesota, a novel totivirus (tentatively named "golden shiner totivirus", GSTV) was detected in a homogenate of kidney and spleen of golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas). The nearly complete genome is 7788 nt long with a complete 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 135 nt (1-135 nt position), complete open reading frames (ORFs) and a partial 3' UTR of 54 nt (7734-7788). The sequence is comprised of two ORFs (ORF1 and ORF2)...
August 2016: Archives of Virology
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