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Bakary Sanneh, Abou Kebbeh, Haruna S Jallow, Yaya Camara, Lusubilo Witson Mwamakamba, Ida Fatou Ceesay, Ebrima Barrow, Fatou O Sowe, Sana M Sambou, Ignatius Baldeh, Alpha Jallow, Matheu Alvarez Jorge Raul, Antoine Andremont
BACKGROUND: The isolation of Extended spectrum βlactamase (ESBLs) producing Enterobacteriaceae among food handlers and their implication as sources of food borne outbreaks are a public health concern. This study seeks to investigate the prevalence of faecal carriage of these bacteria among food handlers in the West Coast Region of The Gambia. METHOD: This study enrolled 600 participants from 60 Lower Basic Schools in West Coast Region of the country. Stool samples collected from the participants were presumptively screened for the ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae, using Drigalski agar, supplemented with 2mg/L cefotaxime...
2018: PloS One
Yuanting Tang, Fan Yu, Lairong Huang, Zhengqiang Hu
OBJECTIVE: This study was to investigate the changes of antifungal susceptibilities caused by the phenotypic switching in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). METHODS: 229 women were enrolled in this study. The vaginal smears of these patients were collected and gram stained for fungal microscopic observation. The vaginal discharge of them in cotton swabs was cultured in sabouraud's agar with chloramphenicol medium. After fungal culture, fungal identification was analyzed using CHROM agar Candida chromogenic and identification medium...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Dustin R Bunch, Adam J McShane, Sihe Wang
BACKGROUND: A transition ion ratio (TIR) is the ratio of one fragment over another from the same precursor and is frequently monitored in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays for analyte identification. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) C50-A guidelines give a static percent allowable TIR deviation based on the TIR level. Anecdotally, we observed failures of these rules for some of our LC-MS/MS assays. We determined what parameters may affect TIRs in a clinical setting and whether TIR variations may be analyte, matrix, instrument service, and/or concentration dependent...
August 9, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Katherine Miranda-Cadena, Cristina Marcos-Arias, Estibaliz Mateo, José Manuel Aguirre, Guillermo Quindós, Elena Eraso
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the importance of Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and their close-related species, Candida bracarensis, Candida nivariensis, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis in patients with oral candidiasis and, to determine the in vitro activities of antifungal drugs currently used for the treatment. METHODS: One hundred fourteen isolates of C. glabrata and 97 of C. parapsilosis, previously identified by conventional mycological methods, were analysed by molecular techniques...
July 31, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Alessandra Vecchione, Francesco Celandroni, Antonella Lupetti, Eleonora Favuzza, Rita Mencucci, Emilia Ghelardi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a novel preservative-free lid wipe formulation containing Aloe vera gel and hyaluronic acid that is commercialized for the hygiene of the periocular area. METHODS: In vitro susceptibility testing of the solution contained in wipes against bacteria and fungi commonly colonizing the periocular area, both reference strains and multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolates, was assessed following the CLSI M07-A9 and M27-A3 broth methods, respectively...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Hsuan-Chen Wang, Ming-I Hsieh, Pui-Ching Choi, Chi-Jung Wu
This study compared the YeastOne and reference CLSI M38-A2 broth microdilution methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents were determined for 100 Aspergillus isolates, including 54 A. fumigatus (24 TR34 /L98H isolates), 23 A. flavus , 13 A. terreus , and 10 A. niger isolates. The overall agreement (within two two-fold dilutions) between the two methods was 100%, 95%, 92%, and 90% for voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B, respectively...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Shahnaz Armin, Fatemeh Fallah, Leila Azimi, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Kiarash Ghazvini, Sepide Hasanzadeh, Abdollah Karimi
NDM-1 producing gram-negative bacteria can be resistant to every beta-lactam antibiotic, including carbapenem which is one of the last-lines of antibiotic therapy against multi-drug resistant bacteria. This study aimed to detect the metallo-beta-lactamase in the isolated gram-negative bacteria of the Iranian clinical specimens collected from two major cities in Iran. In this cross sectional study 171 Acinetobacter baumannii, 120 Enterobacter spp. and 145 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from clinical specimens of two training hospitals in Tabriz and Mashhad were evaluated...
July 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Chinmoy Sahu, Vidhi Jain, Prabhakar Mishra, Kashi Nath Prasad
BACKGROUND: Carbapenems show excellent activity against resistant uropathogens, and they are the antibiotics of choice for urinary tract infections (UTIs). The choice of carbapenem prescription is strongly influenced by antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) report. With the publication of recent AST guidelines by the European Committee on AST (EUCAST), we were curious to evaluate the difference in results between Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the EUCAST guidelines for the interpretation of carbapenems...
July 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
Xueping Liu, Jiayuan Liu, Tao Jiang, Lili Zhang, Yixi Huang, Jiangfan Wan, Guoqiang Song, Haoqi Lin, Zhibin Shen, Chunping Tang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott is a deciduous perennial herb, which has been used traditionally for treatment of ringworm infections and others skin diseases in the north of China. AIM OF THE STUDY: To characterize the chemical composition, evaluate the antifungal activity and explore possible mechanisms about action of ethanol extracts of D. fragrans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemical components in the ethanol extracts of D...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Michael A Pfaller, Paul R Rhomberg, Nathan P Wiederhold, Connie Gibas, Carmita Sanders, Hongxin Fan, James Mele, Laura L Kovanda, Mariana Castanheira
Monitoring antifungal susceptibility patterns for new and established antifungal agents seems prudent given the increasing prevalence of uncommon species associated with higher antifungal resistance. We evaluated the activity of isavuconazole against 4,856 invasive yeasts and moulds collected worldwide.The 4,856 clinical fungal isolates, including 2351 Candida spp. isolates, 97 non- Candida yeasts, 1,972 Aspergillus spp. isolates, and 361 non- Aspergillus moulds, including 292 Mucorales isolates collected in 2015-2016, were tested using CLSI methods...
July 30, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Wright W Nichols, Gregory G Stone, Paul Newell, Helen Broadhurst, Angela Wardman, Merran MacPherson, Katrina Yates, Todd Riccobene, Ian A Critchley, Shampa Das
Clinical susceptibility breakpoints against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the ceftazidime-avibactam dosage regimen of 2000-500 mg every 8 hours (q8h) by 2-h intravenous infusion (adjusted for renal function) have been established by the FDA, CLSI and EUCAST as susceptible, MIC ≤8 mg/L, and resistant, MIC >8 mg/L. The key supportive data from PK/PD analyses, in vitro surveillance including molecular understanding of relevant resistance mechanisms, and efficacy in regulatory clinical trials, are collated and analyzed here...
July 30, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Liyun Liu, Daoli Chen, Liqin Liu, Ruiting Lan, Shuai Hao, Wenjie Jin, Hui Sun, Yiting Wang, Ying Liang, Jianguo Xu
Objectives: Citrobacter freundii is a frequent cause of nosocomial infections and a known cause of diarrheal infections, and has increasingly become multidrug resistant (MDR). In this study, we aimed to determine the genetic diversity, the antimicrobial resistance profiles and in vitro virulence properties of C. freundii from diarrheal patients and healthy individuals. Methods: 82 C. freundii isolates were obtained from human diarrheal outpatients and healthy individuals. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) of seven housekeeping genes was performed...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Saad Bakrim, Youssef Motiaa, Mohamed Benajiba, Ali Ouarour, Azlarab Masrar
Introduction: Among the most useful biological examinations in common medical practice, blood count is the most prescribed. The reference intervals of the hematological parameters of this examination are of major importance for clinical orientations and therapeutic decisions. In Morocco, the reference values used by the laboratories of medical biology and used by doctors are ones collected from Caucasian and European individuals. These values could be different in the Moroccan population...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Teshale Worku, Dejene Derseh, Abera Kumalo
Background: Nosocomial infections occur among patients during their stay in hospitals. The severity of infection depends on the characteristics of microorganisms with a high risk of being acquired when the environment is contaminated. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are emerging rapidly around the globe creating a serious threat. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2016-February 2017 at Mizan-Tepi University Teaching Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Estelle J Ramchuran, Anou M Somboro, Shimaa A H Abdel Monaim, Daniel G Amoako, Raveen Parboosing, Hezekiel M Kumalo, Nikhil Agrawal, Fernando Albericio, Beatriz G de La Torre, Linda A Bester
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) are included on the WHO high priority list of pathogens that require urgent intervention. Hence emphasis needs to be placed on developing novel class of molecules to tackle these pathogens. Teixobactin is a new class of antibiotic that has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against common bacteria. Here we examined the antimicrobial properties of three Teixobactin derivatives against clinically relevant bacterial isolates taken from South African patients...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Amanda K Kidsley, Sam Abraham, Jan M Bell, Mark O'Dea, Tanya J Laird, David Jordan, Pat Mitchell, Christopher A McDevitt, Darren J Trott
This study investigated the frequency of antimicrobial non-susceptibility (defined as the frequency of isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations above the CLSI susceptible clinical breakpoint) among E. coli and Salmonella spp. isolated from healthy Australian finisher pigs. E. coli ( n = 201) and Salmonella spp. ( n = 69) were isolated from cecal contents of slaughter-age pigs, originating from 19 farms distributed throughout Australia during July-December 2015. Isolates underwent minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) susceptibility testing to 11 antimicrobials...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sarah G Whaley, Qing Zhang, Kelly E Caudle, P David Rogers
The utility of the azole antifungals for the treatment of invasive candidiasis is severely hampered by azole resistance in Candida glabrata This resistance is mediated almost exclusively by activating mutations in the zinc cluster transcription factor Pdr1, which controls the genes encoding the multidrug resistance transporters Cdr1, Pdh1, and Snq2. However, the specific relative contribution of these transporters to resistance is not known. To address this question, the SAT1 flipper method was used to delete CDR1, PDH1 , and SNQ2 in a strain of C...
July 23, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Irene Galani, Panagiota Adamou, Ilias Karaiskos, Helen Giamarellou, Maria Souli
BACKGROUND: Colistin is often the last option to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms, such as carbapenem-resistant K.pneumoniae. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of colistin has been fraught with difficulties which resulted in the need for updated recommendations from CLSI and EUCAST. Both committees proposed that the ISO 20776-1-2016 standard broth microdilution (BMD) must be the preferred method for colistin MIC testing. The objective of our study was to evaluate the commercial ComASP™ Colistin (Liofilchem® srl, Roseto degli Abruzzi, Italy), a compact panel containing the antibiotic in 7 two-fold dilutions (0...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
William M Huggins, William T Barker, James T Baker, Nicholas A Hahn, Roberta J Melander, Christian Melander
In the last 30 years, development of new classes of antibiotics has slowed, increasing the necessity for new options to treat multidrug resistant bacterial infections. Development of antibiotic adjuvants that increase the effectiveness of currently available antibiotics is a promising alternative approach to classical antibiotic development. Reports of the ability of the natural product meridianin D to modulate bacterial behavior have been rare. Herein, we describe the ability of meridianin D to inhibit biofilm formation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and to increase the potency of colistin against colistin-resistant and sensitive Gram-negative bacteria...
July 12, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Sakina Fatima, Iyad Naeem Muhammad, Muhammad Naseem Khan, Subia Jamil
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence rate of ESBL producing Gram negative isolates of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis, to determine the association of various factors with ESBL production and therapeutic options for the treatment. Total 352 isolates were subjected for identification of ESBL by double disc synergy test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using CLSI guidelines and statistical association between ESBL/Non ESBL producers were determined by chi square at significant level of 0...
July 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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