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"smoking cessation"

John F Kelly, M Claire Greene, Brandon Bergman, Bettina Hoeppner
BACKGROUND: Tobacco and alcohol and other drug (AOD) use remain prominent risk factors for morbidity, mortality, and health care utilization. Moreover, these often cluster together within persons, exponentiating health risks. Little is known regarding if and when people resolving AOD problems stop smoking, who stops, and whether recent general population trends toward smoking cessation are evident also among persons more recently entering recovery. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: National cross-sectional sample resolving AOD problems (final sample n = 2002)...
December 8, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jasper A J Smits, Michael J Zvolensky, David Rosenfield, Richard A Brown, Slaton Z Freeman, Christina D Dutcher, Haley E Conroy, Noura Alavi
Extant evidence suggests that exercise can reduce anxiety related vulnerability factors, such as anxiety sensitivity (AS), or fear of bodily sensations related to anxiety, that negatively impact smoking cessation outcomes. Building upon emerging evidence supporting the efficacy of exercise as an aid for smoking cessation in adults with high AS, we are conducting a trial to examine the efficacy and feasibility of this clinical application when implemented in a community setting. Partnering with the YMCA, this study aims to enroll 150 adults in a standard smoking cessation protocol (i...
December 14, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Damon J Vidrine, Summer G Frank-Pearce, Jennifer I Vidrine, Patricia D Tahay, Salma K Marani, Sixia Chen, Ying Yuan, Scott B Cantor, Alexander V Prokhorov
Importance: Limited evidence supports mobile phone-delivered cessation interventions for socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals. Objective: To assess the efficacy of mobile phone-delivered cessation interventions targeted to smokers at neighborhood sites serving racial/ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This group-randomized clinical trial with neighborhood site serving as the sampling unit compared smoking cessation interventions that included (1) nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), (2) NRT plus text messaging, and (3) NRT plus text messaging plus proactive counseling via mobile phone...
December 17, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
N Najeeb, M Halawani, N G McElvaney, F Doyle
Aim We aimed to determine the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation advice received by inpatients in Beaumont Hospital and compared results to previous similar studies. Method Cross-sectional survey where we interviewed eligible in-patients over a two-week period. Results 14.8% (30/203) of participants were current smokers, which is lower than the smoking prevalence found by previous studies. The rate of cessation advice delivery was 53.3% (16/30). An increasing socioeconomic gap between smokers and non-smokers over time was found...
October 11, 2018: Irish Medical Journal
Bertram J Jobst, Oliver Weinheimer, Torben Buschulte, Mila Trauth, Jan Tremper, Stefan Delorme, Nikolaus Becker, Erna Motsch, Marie-Luise Groß, Anke Trotter, Monika Eichinger, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Mark O Wielpütz
OBJECTIVES: To longitudinally investigate smoking cessation-related changes of quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based airway metrics in a group of heavy smokers. METHODS: CT scans were acquired in a lung cancer screening population over 4 years at 12-month intervals in 284 long-term ex-smokers (ES), 405 continuously active smokers (CS), and 31 subjects who quitted smoking within 2 years after baseline CT (recent quitters, RQ). Total diameter (TD), lumen area (LA), and wall percentage (WP) of 1st-8th generation airways were computed using airway analysis software...
December 14, 2018: European Radiology
Nancy C Jao, Marcia M Tan, Phoenix A Matthews, Melissa A Simon, Robert Schnoll, Brian Hitsman
Introduction: Despite the overall decline in the prevalence of cigarette use in the United States, menthol cigarette use among smokers is rising, and evidence shows that it may lead to more detrimental effects on public health than regular cigarette use. One of the mechanisms by which nicotine sustains tobacco use and dependence is due to its cognitive enhancing properties, and basic science literature suggests that menthol may also enhance nicotine's acute effect on cognition. Aims and Methods: The purpose of this review is to suggest that the cognitive enhancing effects of menthol may be a potentially important neuropsychological mechanism that has yet to be examined...
December 14, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Emily R Jeffries, Michael J Zvolensky, Julia D Buckner
Introduction: Despite negative effects of smoking, smokers have difficulty quitting, suggesting a need for additional strategies to help them quit. A single-session hatha yoga intervention acutely reduced craving among nicotine-deprived smokers not attempting to reduce or quit, yet it is unknown if it reduces craving among those attempting to change their smoking. Thus, the current study tested the efficacy of a single-session hatha yoga intervention for acutely reducing craving among smokers attempting to reduce or quit smoking...
December 14, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu, Inti Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Luis Zavala-Arciniega, Edna Arillo-Santillán
The new tobacco products that include electronic cigarettes (called "E Cig", "e-hookahs", "mods", "vape-pens"), electronic nicotine delivery systems (SEAN, Spanish acronym), similar systems without nicotine (SSSN, Spanish acronym) and alternative nicotine consumption systems (SACN, Spanish acronym), are positioned in the global market with a discourse of harm reduction and risk minimization. This manuscript summarizes the scientific evidence and presents a regulatory proposal for this technological innovation, oriented to guide the decision making of legislators, government institutions and organized civil society...
September 2018: Salud Pública de México
Guadalupe Ponciano-Rodríguez, Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu, Rosibel Rodríguez-Bolaños, Javier Pruñonosa-Santana, Francisco Cartujano-Barrera, Ana Paula Cupertino
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an e-Health tool designed to enhance smoking cessation in Mexico in primary healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Smokers 18 years of age and older were recruited in the waiting room of two primary healthcare clinics in Mexico City. Participants used an eHealth smoking cessation tool that included smoking-related assessments, education on pharmacotherapy, and motivational videos. A follow-up assessment was conducted at 12 weeks week on smoking status...
September 2018: Salud Pública de México
David T Levy, Zhe Yuan, Yameng Li, Anthony J Alberg, K Michael Cummings
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The long term population health impact of nicotine vaping products (NVPs) use among smokers is unknown and subject to a range of plausible assumptions about the use and health consequences of NVPs. While NVPs use may substitute for cigarette smoking and thereby aid in quitting cigarette use, it is also possible that smokers who would have otherwise quit would instead delay quitting cigarettes. We aimed to develop a cohort-specific simulation model of the impact of NVPs on smoking cessation by adult smokers and resulting premature deaths (PD) and life-years lost (LYL)...
December 12, 2018: Addiction
Chao Wang, Peiyu Huang, Zhujing Shen, Wei Qian, Kaicheng Li, Xiao Luo, Qingze Zeng, Tao Guo, Hualiang Yu, Yihong Yang, Minming Zhang
The insula, a cortical region that integrates heterogeneous signals about internal states and contributes to executive functions, has been implicated as an important role in the maintenance of nicotine dependence. Previous studies have indicated that insula damage may contribute to quitting smoking successfully, but few studies have examined whether quitting successfully is related to cortical structural integrity of insular subregions before smoking cessation treatment. Moreover, although prior researches have shown group differences in insular cortex structure in chronic cigarette smokers compared to nonsmokers, less is known about how cortical structural integrity of insular subregions relate to smoking behaviors in smokers...
December 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Nick Wilson, Frederieke Sanne Petrović-van der Deen, Richard Edwards, Andrew Waa, Tony Blakely
AIM: To estimate the numbers of people required to quit smoking in New Zealand to achieve the Smokefree 2025 goal and to compare these with current levels of quitting. METHODS: We used the established BODE3 tobacco forecasting model to project smoking prevalence separately for Māori and non-Māori to 2025 under a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario. We then determined by what factor current annual cessation rates would have to increase to achieve an adult smoking prevalence of under 5% by the year 2025, while annual smoking uptake rates continued to follow BAU patterns...
December 14, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
E Meijer, M Kampman, M S Geisler, N H Chavannes
BACKGROUND: Little research has investigated in-depth how physicians perceive their role in smoking cessation care. This qualitative study sought to understand physicians' perceptions of responsibility for smoking cessation. METHODS: Data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews between June and November 2017 in The Netherlands. We interviewed 5 addiction specialists, 5 anesthesiologist, 4 cardiologists, 8 GPs, 5 internists, 5 neurologists, 2 pediatricians, 6 pulmonologists, 7 surgeons, and 8 youth healthcare physicians (N = 55)...
December 12, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Michelle L Giles, Coral Gartner, Mark A Boyd
The World Health Organization estimates that smoking poses one of the greatest global health risks in the general population. Rates of current smoking among people living with HIV (PLHIV) are 2-3 times that of the general population, which contributes to the higher incidence of non-AIDS-related morbidity and mortality in PLHIV. Given the benefit of smoking cessation, strategies to assist individuals who smoke to quit should be a primary focus in modern HIV care. Tobacco harm reduction focuses on reducing health risk without necessarily requiring abstinence...
December 12, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Eline Meijer, Eleni Vangeli, Winifred A Gebhardt, Colette van Laar
The importance of identity in smoking cessation is increasingly becoming recognized by researchers. This study is the first in-depth longitudinal qualitative investigation of identity change processes among smokers who intend to quit. Participants' accounts of smoking, attempts to quit and sense of identity were explored over time to examine identity continuity and change. Ten smokers with a quit intention were interviewed three times, approximately 1 month apart, and approached for follow-up 2 years later...
December 12, 2018: Health (London)
Anna Schneider, Marieke Bak, Catherine Mahoney, Louise Hoyle, Muireann Kelly, Iain M Atherton, Richard G Kyle
AIMS: To estimate the prevalence and co-occurrence of health-related behaviours among nurses in Scotland relative to other healthcare workers and those in non-healthcare occupations. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional data, reported following STROBE guidelines. METHODS: Five rounds (2008-2012) of the Scottish Health Survey were aggregated to estimate the prevalence and co-occurrence of health-related behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, fruit/vegetable intake)...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Sarah S Tonkin, Trevor F Williams, Leonard J Simms, Stephen T Tiffany, Martin C Mahoney, Robert A Schnoll, Paul M Cinciripini, Larry W Hawk
Introduction: Assessment of withdrawal symptoms, treatment mechanisms, and side effects is central to understanding and improving smoking cessation interventions. Though each domain is typically assessed separately with widely-used questionnaires to separately assess each domain (e.g., MNWS = withdrawal; QSU-B = craving; PANAS = affect; symptom checklist = side effects), there are substantial problems with this implicit "one questionnaire equals one construct" measurement model, including item overlap across questionnaires...
December 11, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Fuxing Chen, Pengwei Hu, Wang Chang, Chulin Chen, Tianyuan Ding, Xiaorong Liu
Introduction: The military is a risk environment for cigarette smoking. This study determined the prevalence of, cessation attempts, knowledge, and attitudes regarding smoking, and factors related to it in the Chinese navy. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of military personnel on active duty in the Chinese navy, Guangdong province. Data were collected using a standard structured questionnaire and analyzed through SPSS. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with smoking...
December 7, 2018: Military Medicine
Katherine Ni, Binhuan Wang, Alissa Link, Scott Sherman
Introduction: Though many interventions have been shown to be effective in helping smokers quit, outcomes may differ between light and heavy smokers. We identified differences in baseline characteristics and post-intervention cessation rates among smoker groups at two safety-net hospitals. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed cessation rates in 1,604 patients randomized to either a quitline referral (1-2 telephone counseling sessions) or intensive counseling program (7 telephone sessions)...
December 11, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Richard Templeton, Donna Greenhalgh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lung resection provides the best outcome for patients with early stage lung cancer. However, lung cancer surgery carries a significant risk of perioperative complications. Patient risk may be reduced by addressing modifiable risk factors in the preoperative period. We review how this can be achieved through preoperative rehabilitation pathways. RECENT FINDINGS: Cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent predictor of survival for nonsmall cell cancer...
December 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
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