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Mental oxide

Md Jakaria, Md Ezazul Haque, Joonsoo Kim, Duk-Yeon Cho, In-Su Kim, Dong-Kug Choi
Cognitive impairment is a state that affects thinking, communication, understanding, and memory, and is very common in various neurological disorders. Among many factors, age-related cognitive decline is an important area in mental health research. Research to find therapeutic medications or supplements to treat cognitive deficits and maintain cognitive health has been ongoing. Ginseng and its active components may have played a role in treating chronic disorders. Numerous preclinical studies have confirmed that ginseng and its active components such as ginsenosides, gintonin, and compound K are pharmacologically efficacious in different models of and are linked to cognitive impairment...
September 11, 2018: Oncotarget
Luis Enrique Arroyo-Garcia, Antonio Rodríguez-Moreno, Gonzalo Flores
Apomorphine is a non-specific dopamine receptor agonist that has been used in the treatment of some diseases and mental disorders. Its use has particularly well documented in Parkinson's disease (PD). The dopaminergic agonists like apomorphine are related to oxidative processes that could induce cell damage and the functional impairment of some structures in the brain. However, most information about apomorphine in literature is focused on the improvement of the motor problems characteristic of PD, but little is known about the effects on cognitive behaviors and brain structures indirectly related to motor function...
December 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Yanqing Wu, Yiyang Li, Ting Jiang, Yuan Yuan, Rui Li, Zeping Xu, Xingfeng Zhong, Gaili Jia, Yanlong Liu, Ling Xie, Ke Xu, Hongyu Zhang, Xiaokun Li, Jian Xiao
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of general and common complication of diabetes, which severely affects the physical and mental health of diabetic patients. Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1), an effective control agent of blood glucose, plays an effective treatment role on diabetes-induced renal injury. But the specific molecule mechanism underlying it is still unclear. Since induction of cellular stress is the main and common mechanism of diabetes-induced complication, we hypothesized that reduction of cellular stress is also the molecular mechanism of FGF1 treatment for DN...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Zhang Ping, Wu Xiaomu, Xie Xufang, Shao Liang
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is complex; it includes mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. Notably, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may activate inflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses in Parkinson's disease. Vinpocetine has been tested as an anti-inflammatory in both animal and in vitro research. Thus, it is important to test whether the anti-inflammatory properties of vinpocetine may have a protective effect in PD patients. METHODS: Eighty-nine Parkinson's disease patients and 42 healthy controls were recruited for this study...
October 12, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Emilio Siendones, Manuel Ballesteros, Plácido Navas
Cytochrome b5 reductase 3 (CYB5R3) is a membrane-bound NADH-dependent redox enzyme anchored to the mitochondrial outer membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, and plasma membrane. Recessive hereditary methaemoglobinaemia (RHM) type II is caused by CYB5R3 deficiency and is an incurable disease characterized by severe encephalopathy with mental retardation, microcephaly, generalized dystonia, and movement disorders. Currently, the etiology of type II RHM is poorly understood and there is no treatment for encephalopathy associated with this disease...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Alexandre S Hilel, Bruna Gysemans, Maria E M Lisbôa, Ana C Heymanns, Viviane Freiberger, Letícia Ventura, Rachel F Magnago, Clarissa M Comim, Verônica Horewics, Daniel F Martins, Franciane Bobinski, Anna P Piovezan
Citrus species are widely related to antihyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate if treatment with ethanolic extract from peels of mature Citrus reticulata Blanco causes antihyperalgesic effects on the referred mechanical hyperalgesia in a model of dextran sulphate of sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, as well as the possible oxidative damage in different regions of the brain induced by its inflammatory reaction. Antihyperalgesia (30 to 300 mg/kg) was investigated by behavioral response (frequency of response to von Frey filament stimulation) in Swiss mice, while damage to central nervous system was investigated through techniques that evaluated oxidative stress using male black C57 BL6 mice (n=8)...
July 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Anna Gładka, Joanna Rymaszewska, Tomasz Zatoński
Air pollution is one of the greatest public health threats worldwide. All substances appearing in excessive quantities in the atmosphere, such as particulate matter, nitrogen oxides or sulphur oxides may be its ingredients. Depending on their size and nature, these compounds may cause greater risk of suffering from respiratory or cardiovascular diseases for exposed people as well as exacerbation and increased mortality due to these illnesses. Smaller particles may penetrate the brain's blood barrier and thus affect the central nervous system...
October 3, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Stefania Marzocco, Gholamreza Fazeli, Lucia Di Micco, Giuseppina Autore, Simona Adesso, Fabrizio Dal Piaz, August Heidland, Biagio Di Iorio
BACKGROUND: In end-stage renal disease (ESRD), gut-derived uremic toxins play a fundamental role in the systemic inflammation and oxidative stress promoting the excess morbidity and mortality. The biochemical derangement is in part a consequence of an insufficient generation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) due to the dysbiosis of the gut and an insufficient consumption of the fermentable complex carbohydrates. AIM OF THE STUDY: The primary end-point was to evaluate the potential efficacy of SCFA (specifically, sodium propionate (SP)) for patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) on systemic inflammation...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Jieqiang Zhu, Ji-Eun Seo, Sanlong Wang, Kristin Ashby, Rodney Ballard, Dianke Yu, Baitang Ning, Rajiv Agarwal, Jürgen Borlak, Weida Tong, Minjun Chen
The growing use of herbal dietary supplements (HDS) in the United States provides compelling evidence for risk of herbal-induced liver injury (HILI). Information on HDS products was retrieved from MedlinePlus of the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the herbal monograph of the European Medicines Agency. The hepatotoxic potential of HDS was ascertained by considering published case reports. Other relevant data were collected from governmental documents, public databases, web sources, and the literature. We collected information for 296 unique HDS products...
September 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Klara Coello, Tue Haldor Hansen, Nikolaj Sørensen, Klaus Munkholm, Lars Vedel Kessing, Oluf Pedersen, Maj Vinberg
OBJECTIVE: An aberrant gut microbiota may be associated with a broad spectrum of diseases including mental illness. The gut microbiota is scarcely studied in bipolar disorder (BD). We examined the gut microbiota composition in patients with newly diagnosed BD, their unaffected first-degree relatives and healthy individuals. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 113 patients with BD, 39 unaffected first-degree relatives and 77 healthy individuals and the microbiota was profiled using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing...
September 24, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
M J Frutos, E Valero-Cases, L Rincon-Frutos
BACKGROUND: Neurological disorders represent a high incidence in our society throughout the world. Although the symptoms arising from those diseases are well known, the causes and mechanisms are complex and depending on multiple factors. Some food components consumed as part of our diet have been studied regarding their incidence in different common neurological diseases such as Alzheimer disease, major depression, Parkinson disease, autism and schizophrenia among others. OBJECTIVE: In this review, information has been gathered on the main evidences arising from studies on the most promising food components, related to their therapeutic potential, as part of dietary supplements or through the diet, as an alternative or a complement of the traditional drug treatments...
September 25, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Marco Aurélio Vinhosa Bastos, Paulo Roberto Haidamus de Oliveira Bastos, Maria Lucília Dos Santos, Décio Iandoli, Renata Boschi Portella, Giancarlo Lucchetti
CONTEXT: Mediumship is the alleged ability to communicate with deceased personalities. Previous studies have suggested that the endogenous psychotomimetic molecules bufotenine (BT) and dimethyltryptamine (DMT) may play a role in the pathogenesis of psychotic disorders. Distortion of perceptions observed during spiritual experiences could supposedly relate to these substances. OBJECTIVE: To compare the presence of BT and DMT in human urine samples between individuals with and without mediumistic experiences...
August 23, 2018: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Mehrdad Amini, Fereshteh Bahmani, Fatemeh Foroozanfard, Zahra Vahedpoor, Amir Ghaderi, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Hassan Karbassizadeh, Zatollah Asemi
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fish oil omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on mental health parameters and metabolic status of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 60 women with PCOS, aged 18-40 years old. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either 2 × 1000 mg/day fish oil omega-3 fatty acid (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) after lunch for 12 weeks...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Piotr Gałecki, Monika Talarowska
Brain diseases are one of the most socially and economically burdening diseases in Europe. Among all brain diseases, more than 60% of social and economic costs are generated by mental disorders (mainly depressive disorders and anxiety disorders). Recurrent depressive disorders have been a significant civilizational problem in recent times. Among the biological and psychological theories explaining the causes of depression, the hypothesis involving an active inflammatory process taking place in a human organism is becoming increasingly important...
June 30, 2018: Psychiatria Polska
Matthew L Edwards, George S Bause
As popularized by Elmer McKesson, MD, "secondary saturation" with nitrous oxide could expose patients to a second burst of 100% laughing gas to relax their muscles to assist surgeons. On rare occasions, this technique could provide a second opportunity for hypoxic brain damage and possible admission postoperatively to insane asylums.
July 2018: Journal of Anesthesia History
Mehri Jamilian, Shirin Mansury, Fereshteh Bahmani, Zahra Heidar, Elaheh Amirani, Zatollah Asemi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the co-administration of probiotic and selenium on parameters of mental health, hormonal profiles, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in women with PCOS. Data on the effects of selenium and probiotic co-supplementation on mental health, hormonal and inflammatory parameters of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are scarce. This investigation was carried out to evaluate the effects of selenium and probiotic co-supplementation on mental health, hormonal and inflammatory parameters in women with PCOS...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
Peter Joerg Rohdewald
Extension of the healthy life span is of primary importance for the aging society. Among exercise, healthy nutrition and mental training, food supplements are widely used as preventive measures to postpone the diverse symptoms of aging. The extract from the bark of the French maritime pine, Pycnogenol, rich on flavonoids, has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activity, proven in in-vivo studies. The extract reduces oxidative stress and improves endothelial health. Its anti-thrombotic properties are based on inhibition of platelet aggregation...
September 14, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
Abhai Kumar, Smita Singh, Anup Singh, Ashish Verma, Vijay Nath Mishra
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an early stage of dementia. The changes in white matter integrity and antioxidant enzymes levels are crucial in onset and progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD). To elucidate the changes in cognitive performance, white matter integrity, oxidative stress marker, for early detection of prodromal state of AD. Fifty cases of MCI and controls (55-75 years) were subjected to Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) followed by estimation of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and lipid peroxidation in serum of MCI and control population...
September 7, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Eleonora Napoli, Andrea Schneider, Jun Yi Wang, Aditi Trivedi, Nika Roa Carrillo, Flora Tassone, Michael Rogawski, Randi J Hagerman, Cecilia Giulivi
Currently, there is no effective treatment for the fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder. In this pilot study, we evaluated whether allopregnanolone, a natural neurosteroid that exerts beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases, nervous system injury, and peripheral neuropathies, could improve lymphocytic bioenergetics and plasma pharmacometabolomics in six males with FXTAS (68 ± 3 years old; FMR1 CGG repeats 94 ± 4; FXTAS stages ranging from 3 to 5) enrolled in a 12-week open-label intervention study conducted at the University of California Davis from December 2015 through July 2016...
September 5, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Jiasheng Bao, Chen Ye, Zhelan Zheng, Zhengwen Zhou
The present study explored the mechanisms by which fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) overexpression inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiomyocyte injury. Factors including oxidative stress reaction, mitochondrial membrane potential variation and cell apoptosis were evaluated. The viability of H9c2 cells was evaluated with a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay after cells were treated with LPS at different concentrations (0, 1, 3, 6 and 9 µg/ml) for various durations (4, 12 and 24 h). Flow cytometry was used to determine variations in reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential and cell apoptosis...
September 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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