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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116976/the-effects-of-homocysteine-on-the-skeleton
#1
REVIEW
Mitsuru Saito, Keishi Marumo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Homocystinuria is a congenital metabolic disorder in which cystathionine β-synthase deficiency results in a prominent increase in homocysteine (serum levels > 100 μM), causing mental retardation, atherosclerotic cerebral infarction, and osteoporosis accompanied by fragility fractures. Encountering a case with excessive homocysteinemia such as that seen in hereditary homocystinuria is unlikely during usual medical examinations. However, in individuals who have vitamin B or folate deficiency, serum homocysteine concentrations are known to increase...
August 17, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115913/transcriptomic-signatures-of-schizophrenia-revealed-by-dopamine-perturbation-in-an-ex-vivo-model
#2
Jubao Duan, Harald H H Göring, Alan R Sanders, Winton Moy, Jessica Freda, Eugene I Drigalenko, Mark Kos, Deli He, Pablo V Gejman
The dopaminergic hypothesis of schizophrenia (SZ) postulates that dopaminergic over activity causes psychosis, a central feature of SZ, based on the observation that blocking dopamine (DA) improves psychotic symptoms. DA is known to have both receptor- and non-receptor-mediated effects, including oxidative mechanisms that lead to apoptosis. The role of DA-mediated oxidative processes in SZ has been little studied. Here, we have used a cell perturbation approach and measured transcriptomic profiles by RNAseq to study the effect of DA exposure on transcription in B-cell transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from 514 SZ cases and 690 controls...
August 16, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094579/serum-coenzyme-q10-is-associated-with-clinical-neurological-outcomes-in-acute-stroke-patients
#3
Leila Simani, Fari Ryan, Shadab Hashemifard, Etrat Hooshmandi, Maryam Madahi, Zahra Sahraei, Omidvar Rezaei, Kamran Heydari, Mahtab Ramezani
Disruption of prooxidant-antioxidant balance may lead to oxidative stress which is known as a mechanism contributing to ischemic stroke. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an endogenous antioxidant that could be effective in preventing oxidative stress. However, the contribution of serum levels of CoQ10 in clinical neurological outcomes following ischemic stroke has not been clearly established. This study aims at measuring serum concentration of CoQ10 along with major indicators of antioxidant and oxidant among patients within 24 h after onset of the stroke symptoms, and investigating their relation with the clinical status of patients...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093853/immune-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-physical-activity-on-the-brain-in-depression
#4
REVIEW
Cristy Phillips, Atoossa Fahimi
Physical activity-a lifestyle factor that is associated with immune function, neuroprotection, and energy metabolism-modulates the cellular and molecular processes in the brain that are vital for emotional and cognitive health, collective mechanisms that can go awry in depression. Physical activity optimizes the stress response, neurotransmitter level and function (e.g., serotonergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic), myokine production (e.g., interleukin-6), transcription factor levels and correlates [e...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087539/role-of-nrf2-in-protection-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-against-oxidative-stress
#5
REVIEW
Akinori Yanaka
The gastrointestinal tract is exposed to a variety of noxious factors, such as Helicobacter pylori , nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, gastric acid, ischemia-reperfusion, and mental stresses. Theses stressors generate free radicals within gastrointestinal tissues, causing organ injury and functional disturbance. Although the gastrointestinal tract can withstand such oxidative stresses to some extent by enhancing its antioxidant system via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-Kelch-like erythroid cell-derived protein with CNC homology-associated protein 1-mediated pathways, acute or chronic exposure to oxidative stress can cause several gastrointestinal tract disorders, such as inflammation, ulcers, cancers, and various functional disturbances...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083453/anxiolytic-and-anti-stress-effects-of-acute-administration-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-in-zebrafish
#6
Lais Pancotto, Ricieri Mocelin, Matheus Marcon, Ana P Herrmann, Angelo Piato
Studies have suggested that oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of mental disorders. In this context, molecules with antioxidant activity may be promising agents in the treatment of these deleterious conditions. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is a multi-target molecule that modulates the uptake of acetyl-CoA into the mitochondria during fatty acid oxidation, acetylcholine production, protein, and membrane phospholipid synthesis, capable of promoting neurogenesis in case of neuronal death. Moreover, neurochemical effects of ALC include modulation of brain energy and synaptic transmission of multiple neurotransmitters, including expression of type 2 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2) receptors...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075165/ketogenic-diet-as-a-metabolic-therapy-for-mood-disorders-evidence-and-developments
#7
REVIEW
Elisa Brietzke, Rodrigo B Mansur, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Vicent Balanzá Martinez, Maj Vinberg, Ana González-Pinto, Joshua D Rosenblat, Roger Ho, Roger S McIntyre
Despite significant advances in pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, mood disorders remain a significant source of mental capital loss, with high rates of treatment resistance, requiring a coordinated effort in investigation and development of efficient, tolerable and accessible novel interventions. Ketogenic diet (KD) is a low-carb diet that substantially changes the energetic matrix of the body including the brain. It has been established as an effective anticonvulsant treatment, and more recently, the role of KD for mental disorders has been explored...
July 31, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074145/preventive-and-therapeutic-potential-of-vitamin-c-in-mental-disorders
#8
Qian-Qian Han, Tian-Tian Shen, Fang Wang, Peng-Fei Wu, Jian-Guo Chen
In this review, we summarize the involvement of vitamin C in mental disorders by presenting available evidence on its pharmacological effects in animal models as well as in clinical studies. Vitamin C, especially its reduced form, has gained interest for its multiple functions in various tissues and organs, including central nervous system (CNS). Vitamin C protects the neuron against oxidative stress, alleviates inflammation, regulates the neurotransmission, affects neuronal development and controls epigenetic function...
February 2018: Current medical science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057015/the-effects-of-probiotic-and-selenium-co-supplementation-on-mental-health-parameters-and-metabolic-profiles-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Fariba Raygan, Vahidreza Ostadmohammadi, Zatollah Asemi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The objective of this investigation was to assess the effects of probiotic and selenium co-supplementation on indicators of mental health and metabolic profiles in diabetic people with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 54 diabetic people with CHD. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either 200 μg/day selenium plus 8 × 109  CFU/day probiotic (n = 27) or placebo (n = 27) for 12 weeks...
July 21, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30049290/persistent-accumulation-of-unrepaired-dna-damage-in-rat-cortical-neurons-nuclear-organization-and-chip-seq-analysis-of-damaged-dna
#10
Jorge Mata-Garrido, Olga Tapia, Iñigo Casafont, Maria T Berciano, Ana Cuadrado, Miguel Lafarga
Neurons are highly vulnerable to DNA damage induced by genotoxic agents such as topoisomerase activity, oxidative stress, ionizing radiation (IR) and chemotherapeutic drugs. To avert the detrimental effects of DNA lesions in genome stability, transcription and apoptosis, neurons activate robust DNA repair mechanisms. However, defective DNA repair with accumulation of unrepaired DNA are at the basis of brain ageing and several neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the mechanisms by which neurons tolerate DNA damage accumulation as well as defining the genomic regions that are more vulnerable to DNA damage or refractory to DNA repair and therefore constitute potential targets in neurodegenerative diseases are essential issues in the field...
July 26, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024661/extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-field-reduces-oxidative-stress-during-the-rehabilitation-of-post-acute-stroke-patients
#11
Natalia Cichoń, Paulina Rzeźnicka, Michał Bijak, Elżbieta Miller, Sergiusz Miller, Joanna Saluk
BACKGROUND: One of the therapeutic methods used in stroke rehabilitation is magnetotherapy using extremely low frequency and variable pulse shape electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF). OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of magnetotherapy on the condition of postacute stroke patients, as measured by plasma oxidative stress markers and clinical parameters which show the progress of rehabilitation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The selected 57 post-stroke patients were divided into 2 groups, those with ELFEMF therapy and those without...
July 19, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29973990/feasibility-and-safety-of-perilla-seed-oil-as-an-additional-antioxidative-therapy-in-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-dementia
#12
Chuntida Kamalashiran, Junya Pattaraarchachai, Sombat Muengtaweepongsa
Dementia is a broad-spectrum terminology for a degenerate in cognitive function severe enough to intervene in activities of daily living. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the neurodegenerative cascade, leading to the irreversible mechanism in dementia. Perilla seed oil is extracted from its seeds and contains a high source of antioxidative substances such as omega-3 fatty acid. With its prominent antioxidative property, perilla seed oil demonstrates neuroprotective effects against dementia in preclinical studies...
2018: Journal of Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29960678/from-dental-to-mental-institutions-an-american-dentist-and-a-british-psychiatrist-highlight-insanity-following-nitrous-oxide-administration
#13
Matthew L Edwards, George S Bause
In 1887, American dentist Samuel J. Hayes published reports associating unoxygenated anesthetics with asphyxia and insanity, and then British psychiatrist George H. Savage published a report of cases of insanity following nitrous-oxide anesthesia in British journals.
April 2018: Journal of Anesthesia History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950831/construction-of-injectable-ph-sensitive-antibacterial-mineralized-amino-acid-yolk-shell-microspheres-for-potential-minimally-invasive-treatment-of-bone-infection
#14
Zhenhua Chen, Mengen Zhao, Jie Zhang, Kang Zhou, Xiuli Ren, Xifan Mei
Introduction: Treatment of infection within bone is difficult, and conventional surgical treatment brings intense pain to the patients physically and mentally. There is an urgent need to develop injectable nano- and/or micro-medicine for minimally invasive treatment of osteomyelitis. Methods: In this paper, amino acid (L-lysine [Lys]) was mineralized into yolk-shell structured CaCO3 microspheres (MSs). The morphologies of the obtained MSs were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950123/intravenous-vitamin-c-in-the-treatment-of-allergies-an-interim-subgroup-analysis-of-a-long-term-observational-study
#15
Claudia Vollbracht, Martin Raithel, Bianka Krick, Karin Kraft, Alexander F Hagel
Objective Oxidative stress appears to be a key factor in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and a potential therapeutic target in allergy treatment. Allergic diseases are reportedly associated with reduced plasma levels of ascorbate, which is a key physiological antioxidant. Ascorbate prevents excessive inflammation without reducing the defensive capacity of the immune system. Methods An interim analysis of a multicenter, prospective, observational study was conducted to investigate the change in disease-specific and nonspecific symptoms (fatigue, sleep disorders, depression, and lack of mental concentration) during adjuvant treatment with intravenous vitamin C (Pascorbin®; Pascoe, Giessen, Germany) in 71 patients with allergy-related respiratory or cutaneous indications...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950058/-analysis-of-protective-effects-of-chaihu-jia-longgu-muli-tang-against-ischemic-stroke-by-combining-traditional-chinese-medicine-pathogenesis-and-efficacy-with-modern-pathology-and-pharmacology
#16
Peng-Qian Wang, Yin Wu, Miao Zhang, Hai-Ru Huo, Xin-Ling Du, Feng Sui
Chaihu Jia Longgu Muli Tang is a classical Chinese formulas treating Shaoyang syndrome complicated with Yangming syndrome according to Treatise on Febrile Diseases. This formula is used in mental disorder, nervous system, gynecologic, andrologic, and cardiovascular disease. However, its therapeutic effect on ischemia stroke and its mechanism is far from clear. In clinical practice, we have found that this formula is effective in treating ischemic stroke, which can shorten the course of the disease and reduce recurrence...
June 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896244/mental-and-physical-stress-of-the-fukushima-disaster-evacuees-as-estimated-by-the-measurement-of-urinary-8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine
#17
Yasuyo Fukushi, Ayumi Nakamura, Chieko Itaki, Shinji Tokonami, Masatoshi Yamada, Yasushi Mariya
Following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, a number of evacuees were forced to live in temporary housing and suffered mental and physical stress. However, few reports have used objective or quantitative indicators to determine the evacuee's level of stress. The aim of the present study was to serially estimate the mental and physical stress of the evacuees from 2013 to 2015 by using the oxidative stress marker, urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). A total of 773 evacuees from Namie town in Fukushima prefecture participated in the study...
July 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893510/chlorogenic-acid-from-hawthorn-berry-crataegus-pinnatifida-fruit-prevents-stress-hormone-induced-depressive-behavior-through-monoamine-oxidase-b-reactive-oxygen-species-signaling-in-hippocampal-astrocytes-of-mice
#18
Dong Wook Lim, Taewon Han, Jonghoon Jung, Yuri Song, Min Young Um, Minseok Yoon, Yun Tai Kim, Seungmok Cho, In-Ho Kim, Daeseok Han, Changho Lee, Jaekwang Lee
SCOPE: Oxidative stress has been implicated in mental disorders, including depression. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), one of the abundant phenolic compounds in herbs and fruits, has the properties of a natural antioxidant and free-radical scavenger. Therfore, we investigated the antidepressant-like effects and active mechanisms of CGA from the extract of Crataegus pinnatifida (CP) fruit. METHODS AND RESULTS: Depression-like phenotypes were induced in mice by daily injection of stress hormone for 1-2 weeks...
June 12, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890213/pathologic-role-of-nitrergic-neurotransmission-in-mood-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Mehdi Ghasemi, Joshua Claunch, Kathy Niu
Mood disorders are chronic, recurrent mental diseases that affect millions of individuals worldwide. Although over the past 40 years the biogenic amine models have provided meaningful links with the clinical phenomena of, and the pharmacological treatments currently employed in, mood disorders, there is still a need to examine the contribution of other systems to the neurobiology and treatment of mood disorders. This article reviews the current literature describing the potential role of nitric oxide (NO) signaling in the pathophysiology and thereby the treatment of mood disorders...
June 8, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883762/is-there-a-link-between-air-pollution-and-mental-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Massimiliano Buoli, Silvia Grassi, Alice Caldiroli, Greta Silvia Carnevali, Francesco Mucci, Simona Iodice, Laura Cantone, Laura Pergoli, Valentina Bollati
Several studies have demonstrated the association between air pollution and different medical conditions including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Air pollutants might have a role also in the etiology of mental disorders in the light of their toxicity on central nervous system. Purpose of the present manuscript was to review and summarize available data about an association between psychiatric disorders and air pollution. A research in the main database sources has been conducted to identify relevant papers about the topic...
September 2018: Environment International
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