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Mental oxide

Li Chen, Chao Huang, Zhuo Chen
Depression is a mental disease that causes severe economic and social burdens. The mechanism for the onset of depression remains largely unknown. Recently, more and more attention is being given to the role of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in depression. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a clinically available agent used to treat cholesterol gallstone and protect neurons against neurodegeneration, has been reported to prevent neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effect of TUDCA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression-like behavior, neuroinflammation, and oxido-nitrosative stress in mice...
December 5, 2018: Pharmacology
Susan Woolley, Ray Goetz, Pam Factor-Litvak, Jennifer Murphy, Jonathan Hupf, Catherine Lomen-Hoerth, Howard Andrews, Daragh Heitzman, Richard Bedlack, Jonathan Katz, Richard Barohn, Eric Sorenson, Bjorn Oskarsson, Americo Fernandes Filho, Edward Kasarskis, Tahseen Mozaffar, Sharon Nations, Andrea Swenson, Agnes Koczon-Jaremko, Georgia Christodoulou, Hiroshi Mitsumoto
Objective: To evaluate longitudinal cognitive/behavioral change over 12 months in participants enrolled in the ALS Multicenter Cohort Study of Oxidative Stress (ALS COSMOS). Methods: We analyzed data from 294 ALS participants, 134 of whom were studied serially. Change over time was evaluated controlling for age, sex, symptom duration, education, race, and ethnicity. Using multiple regression, we evaluated associations among decline in ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) scores, forced vital capacity (FVC), and cognitive/behavioral changes...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Ramires Alsamir Tibana, Nuno Manuel Frade de Sousa
Extreme conditioning programmes (ECPs, eg, CrossFit, Insanity and Gym Jones) are a growing fitness regimen characterised by functional movements performed at high-intensity and with constantly varying movements. While the popularity and number of practitioners of ECPs are growing, a debate has been established between what is observed in the scientific literature and anecdotal reports from athletes, coaches and physicians about safety (incidence and prevalence of injuries and rhabdomyolysis) and benefits (physical and mental health)...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Rajasekharreddy Pala, Maha Jamal, Qamar Alshammari, Surya M Nauli
Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles found in most mammalian cell types. Cilia act as sensory organelles that transmit extracellular clues into intracellular signals for molecular and cellular responses. Biochemical and molecular defects in primary cilia are associated with a wide range of diseases, termed ciliopathies, with phenotypes ranging from polycystic kidney disease, liver disorders, mental retardation, and obesity to cardiovascular diseases. Primary cilia in vascular endothelia protrude into the lumen of blood vessels and function as molecular switches for calcium (Ca2+ ) and nitric oxide (NO) signaling...
November 27, 2018: Cells
Shampa Ghosh, Jitendra Kumar Sinha, Nitin Khandelwal, Sumana Chakravarty, Arvind Kumar, Manchala Raghunath
A sub-optimal nutritional environment from early life can be envisaged as a stressor that translates into mental health problems in adulthood. Considering the widespread prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency especially amongst women in developing countries and the importance of vitamin B12 in normal brain function, in this study we have elucidated the behavioural correlates of chronic severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiency in C57BL/6 mouse model established by us earlier. Female weanling mice were assigned to three dietary groups: (a) control AIN-76A diet with cellulose as dietary fibre (b) vitamin B12 restricted AIN-76A diet with pectin as dietary fibre (severe deficiency group) and (c) vitamin B12 restricted AIN-76A diet with cellulose as dietary fibre (moderate deficiency group)...
November 25, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Dmitrii Pavlov, Lucien Bettendorff, Anna Gorlova, Andrey Olkhovik, Allan Kalueff, Eugene Ponomarev, Anatoly Inozemtsev, Vladimir Chekhonin, Klaus-Peter Lesсh, Daniel C Anthony, Tatyana Strekalova
Emotional stress is a form of stress evoked by processing negative mental experience rather than an organic or physical disturbance and is a frequent cause of neuropsychiatric pathologies, including depression. Susceptibility to emotional stress is commonly regarded as a human-specific trait that is challenging to model in other species. Recently, we showed that a 3-week-long exposure to ultrasound of unpredictable alternating frequencies within the ranges of 20-25 kHz and 25-45 kHz can induce depression-like characteristics in laboratory mice and rats...
November 22, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Ewa Jówko, Jerzy Sadowski, Barbara Długołęcka, Dariusz Gierczuk, Benedykt Opaszowski, Igor Cieśliński
Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic Rhodiola rosea ( R. rosea ) supplementation on mental and physical performance, as well as hormonal and oxidative stress biomarkers. Methods: Twenty-six healthy male students received either R. rosea extract (600 mg/day; RR) or placebo (PL) in a randomized double-blind trial. Prior to supplementation (Term I) and following 4 weeks of supplementation (Term II), the students underwent psychomotor tests for simple and choice reaction time, included in the Vienna Test System...
October 2018: Journal of Sport and Health Science
Morgane Perrotte, Aurélie Le Page, Marianne Fournet, Mélanie Le Sayec, Éric Rassart, Tamas Fulop, Charles Ramassamy
Oxidative stress plays a pivotal and early role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is convincing evidence that oxidative alterations in AD and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients are not limited to the brain but are extended to the blood compartment. However, the pattern of oxidative in plasma is still inconclusive. Moreover, their potential association with the clinical scores MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination) and MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) is poorly investigated...
November 13, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Ping Li, Xiaohui Shi, Haibin Xiao, Qi Ding, Xiaoyi Bai, Chuanchen Wu, Wen Zhang, Bo Tang
Depression is a common mental illness with high morbidity and mortality. Mounting evidence suggests that an imbalance of the oxidant-antioxidant defence system is strongly correlated with depression and the dysfunction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is strongly related to the oxidative stress. Therefore, as vital and abundant antioxidants in the ER, biothiols may contribute to the etiology of depression. However, ideal two-photon (TP) fluorescent probes for in vivo imaging of ER-associated thiols in the brains of mice with depression phenotypes are still lacking...
November 15, 2018: Analyst
Mahtab Ramezani, Zahra Sahraei, Leila Simani, Kamran Heydari, Farzad Shahidi
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Clinical studies demonstrated that the efficacy of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as an adjuvant therapeutic agent in several neurological diseases such as Parkinson disease (PD), Huntington disease (HD), and migraine. The purpose of this study is to investigate oxidative stress effects, antioxidant enzymes activity, neuroinflammatory markers levels, and neurological outcome in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients following administration of CoQ10 (300 mg/day). METHODS: Patients with AIS (n = 60) were randomly assigned to a placebo group (wheat starch, n = 30) or CoQ10-supplemented group (300 mg/day, n = 30)...
November 7, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Faezeh Rafieipour, Elham Hadipour, Seyed Ahmad Emami, Javad Asili, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran
Alzheimer's disease is a type of cerebrovascular problem with progressive mental disabilities for the patient. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of safranal on toxicity and oxidative damage induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) in PC12 cells as an appropriate model of Alzheimer's cell damage. PC12 cells pretreated with saffron extract (2.5-40 μg/ml), essential oil (2.5-40 μg/ml), safranal (2.5-5-40 μM) and donepezil (5, 10 and 20 μM) for 120 min. Then exposed to either Aβ (25 μM) for 48 h or H2 O2 (150 μM) for 24 h...
November 6, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Yahya Altınkaynak, Birgül Kural, Buket A Akcan, Akın Bodur, Serap Özer, Esin Yuluğ, Sevdegül Munğan, Cansu Kaya, Asım Örem
BACKGROUND/AIM: L-theanine is the unique amino acid found in tea plants, has antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities, and functions in mental concentration and sleep quality. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the effects of L-theanine on doxorubicin (DOX, a chemotherapeutic agent) induced nephrotoxicity in rats, especially via GSH related enzymes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 32 male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 300-400 g were randomly assigned into 4 groups (n = 8) and the substances were given intraperitoneally to them: Control group (saline for 5 days); Theanine group (200 mg/kg/day theanine for 5 days); DOX group (single dose of 20 mg/kg DOX); DOX + Theanine group (20 mg/kg DOX at first day and 200 mg/kg/day theanine for 5 days)...
December 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Durgesh Kumar Dwivedi, Dinesh Kumar, Mohit Kwatra, Surya Narayan Pandey, Priyansha Choubey, Mangala Lahkar, Ashok Jangra
Modern sedentary lifestyle with altered dietary habits imposes the risk of human health towards several metabolic disorders such as obesity. The metabolic insults negatively affect the mental health status and quality life of affected individuals. Melatonin is a potent antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of melatonin on the cognitive and neurochemical deficits induced by the high-fat diet (HFD) and alcohol (ALC) alone or in combination (HFD + ALC) in rats...
December 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Rosa María Martínez García, Ana Isabel Jiménez Ortega, Ana M López Sobaler, Rosa M Ortega
Cognitive capacity can be influenced by components of the diet. Low glycemic index foods seem to improve attention, memory and functional capacity, while those rich in simple sugars are associated with difficulty in concentration and attention. The brain needs a continuous supply of amino acids for the synthesis of neurotransmitters, especially serotonin and catecholamines. Low levels of serotonin have been linked to decreased learning, reasoning and memory. The quality and type of dietary fat can also affect intellectual and mental capacity...
September 7, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Li-Jun Zuo, Peng Guo, Li Liu, Shu-Yang Yu, Teng-Hong Lian, Qiu-Jin Yu, Yang Hu, Zhao Jin, Rui-Dan Wang, Ying-Shan Piao, Li-Xia Li, Ya-Jie Wang, Xiao-Min Wang, Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND: OD is common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the relationship between OD and clinical symptoms and the potential mechanisms of OD in AD patients are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between OD and clinical symptoms and the potential mechanisms of OD in AD patients. METHODS: We evaluated OD using the Hyposmia Rating Scale (HRS), classified patients into AD with OD (AD-OD) and AD with no OD (AD-NOD) groups, and detected the levels of free radicals and inflammatory factors, including hydroxyl radical (•OH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and prostaglandin E2 in serum from AD patients...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Monireh-Sadat Mousavi, Gholamhossein Riazi, Alireza Imani, Sogol Meknatkhah, Nahid Fakhraei, Shahriar Pooyan, Nahid Tofigh
Multiple adult health problems are associated with adolescent stress. As the brain discriminates physical and psychological stressors by activation of different neural networks, we hypothesized that behavioral and physiological performance would be modulated differently based on the nature of the stressors. Thus, we studied the comparative effects of adolescent repeated physical and psychological stresses on adult cognitive performance, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) and heart rate in female rats. The aim was to differentiate disparate potency of chronic psychological and physical stresses leading to long-term behavioral and physiological alterations...
October 20, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Ying Shi, Yanjiao Pang, Ning Huang, Chaoqun Sun, Yadi Pan, Yuan Cheng, Yijuan Long, Huzhi Zheng
Dopamine (DA), a catecholamine neurotransmitter, is considered to be an important indicator for mental diseases detection in the clinic. In this study, a novel fluorescent sensing platform consisting of the ficin-H2 O2 -tyramine system for determining DA in cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) was established. The proposed method is based on the fact that ficin, a mimetic peroxidase, can catalyze H2 O2 decomposition into OH radicals, which can oxidize non-fluorescent tyramine into fluorescent dityramine. When DA was introduced, DA can compete with tyramine for OH and resulting in the oxidation reaction of tyramine inhibited along with the fluorescence intensity of the system decreased, which provides a unique strategy for fluorescence detection of DA...
February 15, 2019: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Benhong Zhou, Qiaoling Li, Jing Wang, Peng Chen, Shan Jiang
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of chronic renal disease. Accumulating evidence suggested that oxidative stress and inflammatory processes are involved in the development of DN. In the present study, the DN model was established by injecting mice with STZ (180 mg*kg-1) intraperitoneally, and treated with EA (50, 100 and 150 mg*kg-1) and IRB (positive control) once daily by intragastric gavage. At the same time, rat kidney NRK-52E cells were cultured and incubated with EA and TAK-242 (inhibitor of TLR4) respectively before stimulating with LPS...
October 17, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Matthew J McAllister, Steven A Basham, Hunter S Waldman, JohnEric W Smith, Joni A Mettler, Matthew B Butawan, Richard J Bloomer
PURPOSE: Those engaged in high stress occupations such as firefighters and military personnel are exposed to a variety of psychological and physiological stressors. The combination of mental and physical stress [i.e., dual stress challenges (DSC)] results in significant increases in stress hormones, which causes oxidative stress (OS) and contributes to elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. However, data are needed to determine the impact of DSC on markers of OS in exercise-trained individuals...
October 17, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Corona Solana, Diana Pereira, Raquel Tarazona
Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic mental disorder characterized by delusions and hallucinations. Several evidences support the link of schizophrenia with accelerated telomeres shortening and accelerated aging. Thus, schizophrenia patients show higher mortality compared to age-matched healthy donors. The etiology of schizophrenia is multifactorial, involving genetic and environmental factors. Telomere erosion has been shown to be accelerated by different factors including environmental factors such as cigarette smoking and chronic alcohol consumption or by psychosocial stress such as childhood maltreatment...
October 18, 2018: Brain Sciences
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