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Chronical kidney disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110327/mortality-after-renal-allograft-failure-and-return-to-dialysis
#1
Amarpali Brar, Mariana Markell, Dimitre G Stefanov, Edem Timpo, Rahul M Jindal, Robert Nee, Nabil Sumrani, Devon John, Fasika Tedla, Moro O Salifu
INTRODUCTION: The outcomes of patients who fail their kidney transplant and return to dialysis (RTD) has not been investigated in a nationally representative sample. We hypothesized that variations in management of transplant chronic kidney disease stage 5 leading to kidney allograft failure (KAF) and RTD, such as access, nutrition, timing of dialysis, and anemia management predict long-term survival. METHODS: We used an incident cohort of patients from the United States Renal Data System who initiated hemodialysis between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2008, after KAF...
January 21, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110120/effects-of-two-different-dialytic-treatments-on-inflammatory-markers-in-people-with-end-stage-renal-disease-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Giuseppe Derosa, Carmelo Libetta, Pasquale Esposito, Ilaria Borettaz, Carmine Tinelli, Angela D'angelo, Pamela Maffioli
This study was aimed to evaluate the effects on some inflammatory markers of two dialytic treatments [bicarbonate dialysis (BHD) and hemodiafiltration (HDF)] in patients with severe chronic kidney disease. We evaluated: blood glucose, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index, homocistein (Hcs), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen, lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], metalloproteinases-2, and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9), and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE). Considering the all sample, we observed a decrease of sRAGE with BHD, but not with HDF...
January 18, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109968/hemoglobin-and-change-in-hemoglobin-status-predict-mortality-cardiovascular-events-and-bleeding-in-stable-coronary-artery-disease
#3
Paul R Kalra, Nicola Greenlaw, Roberto Ferrari, Ian Ford, Jean-Claude Tardif, Michal Tendera, Christopher M Reid, Nicolas Danchin, Janina Stepinska, Ph Gabriel Steg, Kim M Fox
BACKGROUND: Anemia is a predictor of adverse outcomes in acute myocardial infarction. We studied the relationship of hemoglobin, or its change over time, and outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease. METHODS: CLARIFY is a prospective, cohort study of outpatients with stable coronary artery disease (32,901 in 45 countries 2009-2010); 21,829 with baseline hemoglobin levels. They were divided into hemoglobin quintiles and anemia status (anemic [A] or normal [N]) at baseline/follow-up: N/N; A/N; N/A; A/A...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109856/adenosine-contribution-to-normal-renal-physiology-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
REVIEW
Carlos Oyarzún, Wallys Garrido, Sebastián Alarcón, Alejandro Yáñez, Luis Sobrevia, Claudia Quezada, Rody San Martín
Adenosine is a nucleoside that is particularly interesting to many scientific and clinical communities as it has important physiological and pathophysiological roles in the kidney. The distribution of adenosine receptors has only recently been elucidated; therefore it is likely that more biological roles of this nucleoside will be unveiled in the near future. Since the discovery of the involvement of adenosine in renal vasoconstriction and regulation of local renin production, further evidence has shown that adenosine signaling is also involved in the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism, sodium reabsorption and the adaptive response to acute insults, such as ischemia...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109072/assessment-of-acute-kidney-injury-and-renal-fibrosis-after-renal-ischemia-protocols-in-cats
#5
Vanna M
In an attempt to identify a feline model of acute or chronic kidney disease, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of 15 or 30 min of bilateral renal ischemia (RI) and 60 min of unilateral RI with delayed contralateral nephrectomy as models of acute kidney injury and chronic interstitial fibrosis in cats. Adult, purpose-bred, USDA Class A cats (n = 14) were randomly assigned to receive bilateral RI for 15 min (n = 3) or 30 min (n = 3), unilateral RI for 60 min with a delayed (2 wk) contralateral nephrectomy (n = 5), or sham unilateral RI with a delayed contralateral nephrectomy (n = 3)...
January 20, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108363/endothelial-maintenance-in-health-and-disease-importance-of-sex-differences
#6
REVIEW
Neja Mudrovcic, Samsul Arefin, Amaryllis H Van Craenenbroeck, Karolina Kublickiene
The vascular endothelium has emerged as more than just an inert monolayer of cells lining the vascular bed. It represents the interface between the blood stream and vessel wall, and has a strategic role in regulating vascular homeostasis by the release of vasoactive substances. Endothelial dysfunction contributes to the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Recognition of sex-specific factors implicated in endothelial cell biology is important for the identification of clinically relevant preventive and/or therapeutic strategies...
January 17, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108282/hyperfiltration-associated-biomechanical-forces-in-glomerular-injury-and-response-potential-role-for-eicosanoids
#7
REVIEW
Mukut Sharma, Ram Sharma, Ellen T McCarthy, Virginia J Savin, Tarak Srivastava
Hyperfiltration is a well-known risk factor in progressive loss of renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) secondary to various diseases. A reduced number of functional nephrons due to congenital or acquired cause(s) results in hyperfiltration in the remnant kidney. Hyperfiltration-associated increase in biomechanical forces namely pressure-induced tensile stress and fluid flow-induced shear stress (FFSS) determine cellular injury and response. We believe the current treatment of CKD yields limited success because it largely attenuates pressure-induced tensile stress changes but not the effect of FFSS on podocytes...
January 17, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108166/predictive-performance-of-different-kidney-function-estimation-equations-in-lung-transplant-patients
#8
Dov A Degen, Jyotsna Janardan, Katherine A Barraclough, Hans G Schneider, Thomas Barber, Howard Barton, Gregory Snell, Bronwyn Levvey, Rowan G Walker
BACKGROUND: There has been limited examination of the performance of glomerular filtration rate estimation (eGFR) equations in lung transplant populations. This study aimed to compare the performance of serum creatinine and cystatin C based eGFR equations with Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) GFR measurements in individuals with end-stage lung disease, either prior to, or following, lung transplantation. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, participants underwent GFR measurements with Tc-99m Pentetate...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108129/cardiovascular-impact-in-patients-undergoing-maintenance-hemodialysis-clinical-management-considerations
#9
REVIEW
Srisakul Chirakarnjanakorn, Sankar D Navaneethan, Gary S Francis, W H Wilson Tang
Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis develop both structural and functional cardiovascular abnormalities. Despite improvement of dialysis technology, cardiovascular mortality of this population remains high. The pathophysiological mechanisms of these changes are complex and not well understood. It has been postulated that several non-traditional, uremic-related risk factors, especially the long-term uremic state, which may affect the cardiovascular system. There are many cardiovascular changes that occur in chronic kidney disease including left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, microvascular disease, accelerated atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107900/quality-of-sleep-in-renal-transplant-recipients-and-patients-on-hemodialysis
#10
Paraskevi G Liaveri, Dimitris Dikeos, Ioannis Ilias, Eirini P Lygkoni, Ioannis N Boletis, Chryssanthi Skalioti, Thomas Paparrigopoulos
BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders are very common in patients with chronic kidney disease and they may not always subside after kidney transplantation. AIM AND METHODS: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the self-reported quality of sleep, insomnia problems in particular, and examine the factors that disturb sleep of kidney transplant recipients (KTx: n=152) in comparison to age- and sex-matched patients on dialysis (HD: n=67) and participants with normal renal function (NOR: n=49), through the administration of the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) at least six months after transplantation...
February 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107707/uremia-modulates-the-phenotype-of-aortic-smooth-muscle-cells
#11
Marie Madsen, Annemarie Aarup, Sebastian Albinsson, Karsten Hartvigsen, Charlotte M Sørensen, Karolina Turczynska, Lars B Nielsen, Tanja Xenia Pedersen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic kidney disease leads to uremia and markedly accelerates atherosclerosis. Phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the arterial media plays a key role in accelerating atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether uremia per se modulates the phenotype of aortic SMCs in vivo. METHODS: Moderate uremia was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) and wildtype C57Bl/6 mice. Plasma analysis, gene expression, histology, and myography were used to determine uremia-mediated changes in the arterial wall...
December 23, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107583/chronic-hepatitis-c-and-chronic-kidney-disease-advances-limitations-and-unchartered-territories
#12
Manuel Mendizabal, K Rajender Reddy
Over the past few years, treatment options for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have evolved dramatically. The current approved interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have been shown to be safe and effective with sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of >90% in most patients. Unique issues yet remain such as the challenges in patients with impaired renal function or decompensated cirrhosis. Patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a higher prevalence of HCV infection compared with the general population...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107527/effects-of-the-administration-of-25-oh-vitamin-d3-in-an-experimental-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-animals-null-for-1-alpha-hydroxylase
#13
Noelia Torremadé, Milica Bozic, David Goltzman, Elvira Fernandez, José M Valdivielso
The final step in vitamin D activation is catalyzed by 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by low levels of both 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 provoking secondary hyperparathyroidism (2HPT). Therefore, treatments with active or native vitamin D compounds are common in CKD to restore 25(OH)D3 levels and also to decrease PTH. This study evaluates the dose of 25(OH)D3 that restores parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels in a model of CKD in CYP27B1-/- mice. Furthermore, we compare the safety and efficacy of the same dose in CYP27B1+/+ animals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107445/beta-glucans-supplementation-associates-with-reduction-in-p-cresyl-sulfate-levels-and-improved-endothelial-vascular-reactivity-in-healthy-individuals
#14
Carmela Cosola, Maria De Angelis, Maria Teresa Rocchetti, Eustacchio Montemurno, Valentina Maranzano, Giuseppe Dalfino, Carlo Manno, Annapaola Zito, Michele Gesualdo, Marco Matteo Ciccone, Marco Gobbetti, Loreto Gesualdo
BACKGROUND: Oat and barley beta-glucans are prebiotic fibers known for their cholesterol-lowering activity, but their action on the human gut microbiota metabolism is still under research. Although the induction of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) following their ingestion has previously been reported, no study has investigated their effects on proteolytic uremic toxins p-cresyl sulfate (pCS) and indoxyl sulfate (IS) levels, while others have failed to demonstrate an effect on the endothelial function measured through flow-mediated dilation (FMD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107415/serum-uric-acid-and-progression-of-kidney-disease-a-longitudinal-analysis-and-mini-review
#15
Ching-Wei Tsai, Shih-Yi Lin, Chin-Chi Kuo, Chiu-Ching Huang
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence supports the association between hyperuricemia and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, there are conflicting data regarding the role of hyperuricemia in the progression of CKD. This study retrospectively assessed the longitudinal association between uric acid (UA) level and CKD progression in a Chinese population lived in Taiwan. METHODS: Patients with physician diagnosis of hyperuricemia or receiving urate-lowering therapy between 2003 and 2005 were identified in the electronic medical records (EMR) of a tertiary medical center and were followed up until December 31, 2011...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106734/glycative-stress-and-its-defense-machinery-glyoxalase-1-in-renal-pathogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Yosuke Hirakawa, Reiko Inagi
Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem around the world. Because the kidney plays a role in reducing glycative stress, renal dysfunction results in increased glycative stress. In turn, glycative stress, especially that due to advanced glycated end products (AGEs) and their precursors such as reactive carbonyl compounds, exacerbates chronic kidney disease and is related to premature aging in chronic kidney disease, whether caused by diabetes mellitus or otherwise. Factors which hinder a sufficient reduction in glycative stress include the inhibition of anti-glycation enzymes (e...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106712/very-low-protein-diet-vlpd-reduces-metabolic-acidosis-in-subjects-with-chronic-kidney-disease-the-nutritional-light-signal-of-the-renal-acid-load
#17
Biagio Raffaele Di Iorio, Lucia Di Micco, Stefania Marzocco, Emanuele De Simone, Antonietta De Blasio, Maria Luisa Sirico, Luca Nardone, On Behalf Of Ubi Study Group
BACKGROUND: Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease; current guidelines recommend treatment with alkali if bicarbonate levels are lower than 22 mMol/L. In fact, recent studies have shown that an early administration of alkali reduces progression of CKD. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of fruit and vegetables to reduce the acid load in CKD. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in 146 patients who received sodium bicarbonate...
January 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106663/the-role-of-laser-doppler-flowmetry-tests-serum-angiopoietin-2-asymmetric-and-symmetric-dimethylarginine-to-predict-outcome-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
János Nemcsik, Orsolya Cseprekál, József Egresits, Jan Kielstein, Philipp Kümpers, Alexander Lukasz, Ádám Tabák, Adrienn Marton, Zsófia K Németh, Zoltán Járai, Gabriella Godina, László Sallai, Katalin Farkas, István Kiss, András Tislér
OBJECTIVE: The role of biochemical and functional markers of microvascular dysfunction to predict cardiovascular outcomes in nondialyzed chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. In this prospective cohort study, we assessed whether biochemical [serum level of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginin] and functional (laser Doppler flowmetry) measures of microvascular function predicted cardiovascular events, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in CKD patients...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105998/simultaneous-transfemoral-aortic-and-transseptal-mitral-valve-replacement-utilising-sapien-3-valves-in-native-aortic-and-mitral-valves
#19
Mohammad Bashir, Gardar Sigurdsson, Phillip A Horwitz, Firas Zahr
AIMS: Concomitant severe calcific aortic and mitral stenosis is a relatively uncommon but very challenging valvular heart disease to manage. We sought to evaluate the feasibility of a fully percutaneous approach to replace both stenotic native mitral and aortic valves using SAPIEN 3 valves. METHODS AND RESULTS: An 87-year-old woman with chronic kidney disease stage 3, pul-monary hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a permanent pacemaker, and atrial fibrillation was referred with Class III heart failure symptoms...
January 20, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105483/gastric-acid-secretion-and-gastrin-release-during-continuous-vagal-neuromonitoring-in-thyroid-surgery
#20
Liu Xiaoli, Che-Wei Wu, Hoon Yub Kim, Wen Tian, Feng-Yu Chiang, Renbin Liu, Angkoon Anuwong, Gregory W Randolph, Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Matteo Lavazza
PURPOSE: The vagus nerve (VN) has essential regulatory roles in the gastric acid secretion and gastrin release. Continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring (CIONM) via VN stimulation is a promising technique in thyroid surgery because it potentially avoids injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. However, no studies have investigated changes in gastric acid secretion and gastrin release during CIONM. METHOD: This prospective study of 58 thyroid surgery patients compared gastric acid and serum gastrin at five time points: (1) before skin incision, (2) after baseline calibration of CIONM probe, (3) +20 min from baseline, (4) before probe removal, and (5) after extubation...
January 19, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
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