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Bone mineral disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921145/compressive-loading-of-the-murine-tibia-reveals-site-specific-micro-scale-differences-in-adaptation-and-maturation-rates-of-bone
#1
I Bergström, J G Kerns, A E Törnqvist, C Perdikouri, N Mathavan, A Koskela, H B Henriksson, J Tuukkanen, G Andersson, H Isaksson, A E Goodship, S H Windahl
: Loading increases bone mass and strength in a site-specific manner; however, possible effects of loading on bone matrix composition have not been evaluated. Site-specific structural and material properties of mouse bone were analyzed on the macro- and micro/molecular scale in the presence and absence of axial loading. The response of bone to load is heterogeneous, adapting at molecular, micro-, and macro-levels. INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a degenerative disease resulting in reduced bone mineral density, structure, and strength...
December 5, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920812/evaluation-of-the-bone-mineral-density-of-the-subjects-with-avascular-necrosis-of-hip-joint
#2
Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Seyed Mohammad Mousavi Nodoshan
BACKGROUND: The head of femur is deformed in subjects with Leg Calve Perthes Disease (LCPD). It may be due to an increase in loads applied on the hip, decrease in hip joint containment and decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) of femur. Unfortunately there is not enough evidence regarding BMD of femur in subjects with LCPD. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate BMD in subjects with Perthes disease. METHOD: Two subjects with LCPD participated in this study...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919752/bioavailable-25-oh-d-but-not-total-25-oh-d-is-an-independent-determinant-for-bone-mineral-density-in-chinese-postmenopausal-women
#3
Chenguang Li, Peizhan Chen, Xiaohua Duan, Jing Wang, Bing Shu, Xiaoguang Li, Qian Ba, Jingquan Li, Yongjun Wang, Hui Wang
Total 25(OH)D levels were determined to assess bone health in elderly populations; however, the bioavailability of 25(OH)D is regulated by the albumin and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) levels and DBP variations. Whether bioavailable 25(OH)D level is a superior biomarker for vitamin D than total 25(OH)D level regarding the BMD and the bone metabolism were not yet fully understood. With a community based cross-sectional study of 967 postmenopausal women, we found that the variant rs7041, but not rs4588, of DBP was significantly associated with the blood DBP level, which was positively correlated with the total 25(OH)D level but negatively associated with bioavailable 25(OH)D levels...
November 28, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919248/bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-hereditary-ataxia-or-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia-after-at-least-10%C3%A2-years-of-disease-a-case-control-study
#4
Cecilia Smith Simonsen, Elisabeth Gulowsen Celius, Cathrine Brunborg, Chantal Tallaksen, Erik Fink Eriksen, Trygve Holmøy, Stine Marit Moen
BACKGROUND: Although disability is considered the main cause of low bone mineral density (BMD) in multiple sclerosis (MS), other factors related to the disease process or treatment could also be involved. The aim of this study was to assess whether patients with MS are more likely to develop low BMD (osteopenia or osteoporosis) than patients with the non-inflammatory neurological diseases Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) and Hereditary Ataxia (HA). METHODS: We performed a case control study comparing BMD (spine, hip and total body) and biochemical measures of bone metabolism in 91 MS patients and 77 patients with HSP or HA, matched for age, gender and disability...
December 5, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918081/st1926-attenuates-steroid-induced-osteoporosis-in-rats-by-inhibiting-inflammation-response
#5
Hong-Xing Zhao, Yuan-Xia Huang, Jin-Gang Tao
Steroid, also known as glucocorticoid, induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in young adults, which has been a challenging disorder for the frequent incidence of collapse of femoral head, leading to dysfunction of hip joint and impairing life quality of human. Bioavailable and less toxic synthetic retinoids, such as the atypical adamantyl retinoid ST1926, have been developed and investigated in clinical trials for many diseases. Serum lipid-related indicators were assessed to elucidate the role of ST1926 in regulating lipid metabolism...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915991/control-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-colorectal-cancer-by-synthetic-vitamin-d-receptor-ligands
#6
Ichiro Takada, Makoto Makishima
Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are associated with an increased risk of cancer, autoimmune disease, inflammation, infection, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease, as well as bone and mineral disorders. The vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a receptor for the active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], and mediates vitamin D regulation of specific target gene expression. The secondary bile acid lithocholic acid, which is produced by intestinal bacteria, is another natural VDR ligand...
December 2, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915097/effects-of-chronic-lead-exposure-on-bone-mineral-properties-in-femurs-of-growing-rats
#7
Pedro Álvarez-Lloret, Ching Ming Lee, María Inés Conti, Antonela Romina Terrizzi, Santiago González-López, María Pilar Martínez
Lead exposure has been associated with several defective skeletal growth processes and bone mineral alterations. The aim of the present study is to make a more detailed description of the toxic effects of lead intoxication on bone intrinsic material properties as mineral composition, morphology and microstructural characteristics. For this purpose, Wistar rats were exposed (n=12) to 1000ppm lead acetate in drinking water for 90days while control group (n=8) were treated with sodium acetate. Femurs were examined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Computed Tomography (μCT)...
November 30, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914707/adiponectin-alters-renal-calcium-and-phosphate-excretion-through-regulation-of-klotho-expression
#8
Joseph M Rutkowski, Johanne Pastor, Kai Sun, Sun K Park, I Alexandru Bobulescu, Christopher T Chen, Orson W Moe, Philipp E Scherer
The kidney controls systemic calcium and phosphate levels and disturbances of its control mechanisms can lead to a variety of diseases. The insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin is renoprotective and accelerates functional recovery following renal injury. However, unlike other adipokines, adiponectin is reduced in obesity. High adiponectin levels are also correlated with bone loss, suggestive of an additional action in mineral metabolism. Using knockout, wild-type, and adiponectin-overexpressing transgenic mice, we sought to identify the mechanistic basis for adiponectin's ability to regulate calcium and phosphate balance at the level of the kidney...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913900/bone-mineral-density-of-extremities-is-associated-with-coronary-calcification-and-biopsy-verified-vascular-calcification-in-living-donor-renal-transplant-recipients
#9
Zhimin Chen, Jia Sun, Mathias Haarhaus, Peter Barany, Lars Wennberg, Jonaz Ripsweden, Torkel B Brismar, Bengt Lindholm, Annika Wernerson, Magnus Söderberg, Peter Stenvinkel, Abdul Rashid Qureshi
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD) may lead to low bone mineral density (BMD) and vascular calcification (VC), but links to the latter are unclear. Here we investigated associations between BMD, coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, and histological signs of VC in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing living-donor kidney transplantation (LD-Rtx). In 66 ESRD patients (median age 45 years, 68% males), BMD (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, DXA), CAC score (by computed tomography, CT; n = 54), and degree of VC score (graded by histological examination of epigastric artery specimens collected at LD-Rtx; n = 55) were assessed at the time of LD-Rtx...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909782/associations-between-serum-vitamin-e-concentration-and-bone-mineral-density-in-the-us-elderly-population
#10
J Zhang, X Hu, J Zhang
: Mixed findings regarding effects of vitamin E on bone metabolism existed. We were the first to find a negative association between serum α-tocopherol concentration and bone mineral density in the US elderly population. Using vitamin E supplement as α-tocopherol to promote bone health was not warranted at this time. INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study is to examine the associations between serum vitamin E (α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol) status and bone mineral density (BMD) among the US elderly population...
December 1, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907047/rage-deficiency-impairs-bacterial-clearance-in-murine-staphylococcal-sepsis-but-has-no-significant-impact-on-staphylococcal-septic-arthritis
#11
Majd Mohammad, Manli Na, Amanda Welin, Mattias N D Svensson, Abukar Ali, Tao Jin, Rille Pullerits
BACKGROUND: Septic arthritis is a serious joint disease often caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE) has an important role in several infections. We sought to investigate the role of RAGE in staphylococcal septic arthritis and sepsis in mice. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) and RAGE deficient (RAGE-/-) mice were intra-articularly or intravenously inoculated with an arthritic or septic dose of S. aureus LS-1 strain...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906743/vertebral-body-hounsfield-units-are-associated-with-cage-subsidence-after-transforaminal-lumbar-interbody-fusion-with-unilateral-pedicle-screw-fixation
#12
Jie Mi, Kang Li, Xin Zhao, Chang-Qing Zhao, Hua Li, Jie Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between Hounsfield units (HU) measurement and cage subsidence after lumbar interbody fusion. BACKGROUND: Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with unilateral fixation becomes a popular treatment modality for lumbar degenerative disease. Cage subsidence is a potentially devastating complication after lumbar interbody fusion with unilateral fixation. Recently, a new technique for assessing bone mineral density using HU values from computed tomography has been proposed...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906690/the-long-road-to-leptin
#13
Jeffrey Friedman
Leptin is an adipose tissue hormone that functions as an afferent signal in a negative feedback loop that maintains homeostatic control of adipose tissue mass. This endocrine system thus serves a critical evolutionary function by protecting individuals from the risks associated with being too thin (starvation) or too obese (predation and temperature dysregulation). Mutations in leptin or its receptor cause massive obesity in mice and humans, and leptin can effectively treat obesity in leptin-deficient patients...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904825/can-acetazolamide-be-used-to-treat-diseases-involving-increased-bone-mineral-density
#14
Juan David González-Rodríguez, María Isabel Luis-Yanes, Esther Inglés-Torres, Pedro Arango-Sancho, José Eugenio Cabrera-Sevilla, María Rosario Duque-Fernández, Salvador Gil-Sánchez, Víctor Manuel García-Nieto
Sclerosing bone dysplasias are a series of clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases characterized by functional failure of the osteoclasts in bone resorption, leading to an excessive amount of bone mineral density (BMD) which could have serious clinical consequences. We treated three children affected with seriously high levels of BMD with acetazolamide, with the intention of inducing metabolic acidosis, thus increasing bone resorption and reducing BMD. All our patients tolerated and followed the treatment well and the clinical response was satisfactory in all cases...
November 2016: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903853/intraperitoneal-calcitriol-for-treatment-of-severe-hyperparathyroidism-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-therapy-forgotten
#15
Rahul Chanchlani, Susan Ackerman, Elizabeth Piva, Elizabeth Harvey
Active Vitamin D sterols such as calcitriol and alfacalcidol are quite effective in the treatment of mineral bone disease secondary to chronic kidney disease. However, some children on peritoneal dialysis (PD) are resistant to oral formulations of active Vitamin D, and use of an intravenous formulation in such patients is inconvenient. In these children, intraperitoneal (IP) calcitriol has been shown to be effective in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, its use has declined. We report 2 children, aged 1 and 9...
November 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900568/control-of-phosphate-balance-by-the-kidney-and-intestine
#16
REVIEW
Ichiro Kaneko, Sawako Tatsumi, Hiroko Segawa, Ken-Ichi Miyamoto
The prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia are major goals of the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD)-bone mineral disorders, and thus, Pi balance requires special attention. Pi balance is maintained by intestinal absorption, renal excretion, and bone accretion. The kidney is mainly responsible for the plasma Pi concentration. In CKD, reduced glomerular filtration rate leads to various Pi metabolism abnormalities, and Pi absorption in the small intestine also has an important role in Pi metabolism...
November 30, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900426/the-lumbar-spine-age-related-degenerative-disease-influences-the-bmd-not-the-tbs-the-osteolaus-cohort
#17
I Padlina, E Gonzalez-Rodriguez, D Hans, M Metzger, D Stoll, B Aubry-Rozier, O Lamy
: We evaluated the influence of degenerative disease and fractured vertebra on lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone score (TBS) in 1500 women aged 50-80 years. TBS was not affected by a degenerative disease. While BMD increases after 62.5 years, TBS continues to decline. TBS should play a leading role in lumbar spine evaluation. INTRODUCTION: After menopause, lumbar spine (LS) BMD and TBS values decrease. Degenerative disease (DD) increases with age and affect LS BMD...
November 30, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896453/management-of-phosphorus-load-in-ckd-patients
#18
REVIEW
Yutaka Taketani, Fumihiko Koiwa, Keitaro Yokoyama
Disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The term "renal osteodystrophy" has recently been replaced with "CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD)", which includes vascular calcification as well as bone abnormalities. In Japan, proportions of the aged and long-term dialysis patients are increasing which makes management of vascular calcification and parathyroid function increasingly more important...
November 28, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896266/in-vitro-bone-cell-models-impact-of-fluid-shear-stress-on-bone-formation
#19
REVIEW
Claudia Wittkowske, Gwendolen C Reilly, Damien Lacroix, Cecile M Perrault
This review describes the role of bone cells and their surrounding matrix in maintaining bone strength through the process of bone remodeling. Subsequently, this work focusses on how bone formation is guided by mechanical forces and fluid shear stress in particular. It has been demonstrated that mechanical stimulation is an important regulator of bone metabolism. Shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow in the lacunar-canalicular network influences maintenance and healing of bone tissue. Fluid flow is primarily caused by compressive loading of bone as a result of physical activity...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895472/safety-and-effectiveness-of-daily-teriparatide-for-osteoporosis-in-patients-with-severe-stages-of-chronic-kidney-disease-post-hoc-analysis-of-a-postmarketing-observational-study
#20
Atsushi Nishikawa, Fumito Yoshiki, Masanori Taketsuna, Kenta Kajimoto, Hiroyuki Enomoto
Teriparatide (recombinant 1-34 N-terminal sequence of human parathyroid hormone) for the treatment of osteoporosis should be prescribed with caution in patients with severe stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, in clinical settings, physicians and surgeons who treat such patients have few available options. We sought to further explore the safety and effectiveness of teriparatide for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japanese patients with severe stages of CKD. This was a post hoc analysis of a postmarketing surveillance study that included patients with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture and stage 4 or 5 CKD...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
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