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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537470/efficiency-of-excitation-energy-trapping-in-the-green-photosynthetic-bacterium-chlorobaculum-tepidum
#1
Reza Ranjbar Choubeh, Rob B M Koehorst, David Bína, Paul C Struik, Jakub Pšenčík, Herbert van Amerongen
During the millions of years of evolution, photosynthetic organisms have adapted to almost all terrestrial and aquatic habitats, although some environments are obviously more suitable for photosynthesis than others. Photosynthetic organisms living in low-light conditions require on the one hand a large light-harvesting apparatus to absorb as many photons as possible. On the other hand, the excitation trapping time scales with the size of the light-harvesting system, and the longer the distance over which the formed excitations have to be transferred, the larger the probability to lose excitations...
December 8, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Bioenergetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30522031/an-environmental-flow-determination-method-for-integrating-multiple-scale-ecohydrological-and-complex-ecosystem-processes-in-estuaries
#2
Lara Van Niekerk, Susan Taljaard, Janine B Adams, Stephen J Lamberth, Piet Huizinga, Jane K Turpie, Tris H Wooldridge
This paper presents an environmental flow methodology that was developed to accommodate shallow, highly dynamic micro-tidal estuaries found along the wave-dominated coast of South Arica. This method differs to most other approaches that primarily focus on larger permanently open systems having unrestricted inlets. Following an adaptive, design science research approach, the 7-step method adopted both ecohydrological and ecosystem-based concepts, encapsulating key hydrologicalhydrodynamic-biogeochemical processes, as well as biotic responses...
November 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517155/high-genetic-diversity-and-distinct-ancient-lineage-of-asiatic-black-bears-revealed-by-non-invasive-surveys-in-the-annapurna-conservation-area-nepal
#3
Rabin Kadariya, Michito Shimozuru, Jesús E Maldonado, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed Moustafa, Mariko Sashika, Toshio Tsubota
Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) have a widespread distribution in mountain landscapes, and are considered vulnerable globally, but are low-priority species for conservation in Nepal. Habitat fragmentation, illegal hunting, and human-bear conflict are the major threats to Asiatic black bears across their global range. Having an adequate level of genetic variation in a population helps with adapting to rapidly changing environments, and thus is important for the long-term health of bear populations. Accordingly, we conducted non-invasive surveys of bear populations in the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) to elucidate genetic diversity, genetic structure, and the phylogenetic relationship of Asiatic black bears from this region of Nepal to other subspecies...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517135/bird-diversity-along-elevational-gradients-in-the-dry-tropical-andes-of-northern-chile-the-potential-role-of-aymara-indigenous-traditional-agriculture
#4
Paola Araneda, Walter Sielfeld, Cristián Bonacic, José Tomás Ibarra
Understanding diversity patterns along environmental gradients lies at the heart of community ecology and conservation. Previous studies have found variation in bird diversity and density along "natural" elevational gradients in the Tropical Andes Hotspot. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how bird communities respond to traditional land-use patterns, in association with other multiple drivers, along elevations. In the present study, we investigated biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic sources of variation associated with bird species diversity, density and turnover along a 3000-m elevational gradient, in southern limit of the Tropical Andes Hotspot, northern Chile...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514253/flower-strip-networks-offer-promising-long-term-effects-on-pollinator-species-richness-in-intensively-cultivated-agricultural-areas
#5
Constanze Buhk, Rainer Oppermann, Arno Schanowski, Richard Bleil, Julian Lüdemann, Christian Maus
BACKGROUND: Intensively cultivated agricultural landscapes often suffer from substantial pollinator losses, which may be leading to decreasing pollination services for crops and wild flowering plants. Conservation measures that are easy to implement and accepted by farmers are needed to halt a further loss of pollinators in large areas under intensive agricultural management. Here we report the results of a replicated long-term study involving networks of mostly perennial flower strips covering 10% of a conventionally managed agricultural landscape in southwestern Germany...
December 4, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30502837/comparison-of-wormlions-and-their-immediate-habitat-under-man-made-and-natural-shelters-suggesting-factors-making-wormlions-successful-in-cities
#6
Michael A Bar-Ziv, Aziz Subach, Armin Hirsch-Ionescu, Jonathan Belmaker, Adi Zweifler, Inon Scharf
Wormlions are fly larvae that construct pit-traps in loose soil and ambush prey that fall into their pits. They occur in high numbers in cities, below any man-made shelter providing protection from direct sunlight, such as a concrete roof with a thin layer of sand at the ground. Their natural habitat is either caves or any natural structure that provides full shade. We characterized a large urban habitat and compared it to two natural habitats, where wormlions occur in caves. Wormlions were abundant in all studied habitats...
October 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500847/responses-of-snow-leopards-wolves-and-wild-ungulates-to-livestock-grazing-in-the-zorkul-strictly-protected-area-tajikistan
#7
Khalil Karimov, Shannon M Kachel, Klaus Hackländer
Long recognized as a threat to wildlife, livestock grazing in protected areas has the potential to undermine conservation goals, via competition, habitat degradation, human-carnivore conflict and disruption of predator-prey relationships. In the Strictly Protected Area Zorkul in Tajikistan (Zorkul Reserve), grazing is commonplace despite official prohibition, with potentially detrimental effects on local fauna, in particular, snow leopard Panthera uncia, wolf Canis lupus, brown bear Ursus arctos, argali sheep Ovis ammon, Asiatic ibex Capra sibirica, and long-tailed marmot Marmota caudata...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30499411/ao-bbo-a-novel-optimization-algorithm-and-its-application-in-plant-drug-extraction
#8
Bote Lv, Juan Chen, Boyan Liu, Cuiying Dong
It is well-known that the biogeography-based optimization (BBO) algorithm lacks searching power in some circumstances. In order to address this issue, an adaptive opposition-based biogeography-based optimization algorithm (AO-BBO) is proposed. Based on the BBO algorithm and opposite learning strategy, this algorithm chooses different opposite learning probabilities for each individual according to the habitat suitability index (HSI), so as to avoid elite individuals from returning to local optimal solution...
November 30, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30498774/northern-cod-species-face-spawning-habitat-losses-if-global-warming-exceeds-1-5%C3%A2-c
#9
Flemming T Dahlke, Martin Butzin, Jasmine Nahrgang, Velmurugu Puvanendran, Atle Mortensen, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Daniela Storch
Rapid climate change in the Northeast Atlantic and Arctic poses a threat to some of the world's largest fish populations. Impacts of warming and acidification may become accessible through mechanism-based risk assessments and projections of future habitat suitability. We show that ocean acidification causes a narrowing of embryonic thermal ranges, which identifies the suitability of spawning habitats as a critical life-history bottleneck for two abundant cod species. Embryonic tolerance ranges linked to climate simulations reveal that ever-increasing CO2 emissions [Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8...
November 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496534/tracking-host-trees-the-phylogeography-of-endemic-psittacanthus-sonorae-loranthaceae-mistletoe-in-the-sonoran-desert
#10
Juan Francisco Ornelas, José Manuel García, Andrés E Ortiz-Rodriguez, Yuyini Licona-Vera, Etelvina Gándara, Francisco Molina-Freaner, Antonio A Vásquez-Aguilar
The host-dependence of mistletoes suggests that they track the distributions of their hosts. However, the factors that determine the geographic distribution of mistletoes are not well understood. In this study, the phylogeography of Psittacanthus sonorae was reconstructed by sequencing one nuclear (ITS) and two plastid (trnL-F and atpB-rbcL) regions of 148 plants from populations separated by the Sea of Cortez. Divergence time and gene flow were estimated to gain insight into the historical demography and geographic structuring of genetic variation...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30485301/mark-release-recapture-meets-species-distribution-models-identifying-micro-habitats-of-grassland-butterflies-in-agricultural-landscapes
#11
Jan C Habel, Mike Teucher, Dennis Rödder
Habitat demands and species mobility strongly determine the occurrence of species. Sedentary species with specific habitat requirements are assumed to occur more patchy than mobile habitat generalist species, and thus suffer stronger under habitat fragmentation and habitat deterioration. In this study we measured dispersal and habitat preference of three selected butterfly species using mark-release-recapture technique. We used data on species abundance to calculate Species Distribution Models based on high-resolution aerial photographs taken using RGB / NIR cameras mounted on a UAV...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30485266/demographic-characteristics-of-an-avian-predator-louisiana-waterthrush-parkesia-motacilla-in-response-to-its-aquatic-prey-in-a-central-appalachian-usa-watershed-impacted-by-shale-gas-development
#12
Mack W Frantz, Petra B Wood, George T Merovich
We related Louisiana Waterthrush (Parkesia motacilla) demographic response and nest survival to benthic macroinvertebrate aquatic prey and to shale gas development parameters using models that accounted for both spatial and non-spatial sources of variability in a Central Appalachian USA watershed. In 2013, aquatic prey density and pollution intolerant genera (i.e., pollution tolerance value <4) decreased statistically with increased waterthrush territory length but not in 2014 when territory densities were lower...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30481222/combining-species-distribution-modeling-and-field-surveys-to-reappraise-the-geographic-distribution-and-conservation-status-of-the-threatened-thin-spined-porcupine-chaetomys-subspinosus
#13
Gastón Andrés Fernandez Giné, Deborah Faria
The threatened thin-spined porcupine (Chaetomys subspinosus), a forest-specialist endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic forest, was rarely detected in the wild during the 20th century. Previous geographic distribution assessments were carried out nearly three decades ago and were based on interview data. We performed extensive field surveys (based on active search and interviews), a literature review, and species distribution modeling to predict and validate a more reliable picture of its geographic distribution and environmental suitability gradient...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30481174/a-new-method-for-modelling-biological-invasions-from-early-spread-data-accounting-for-anthropogenic-dispersal
#14
Luca Butikofer, Beatrix Jones, Roberto Sacchi, Marco Mangiacotti, Weihong Ji
Biological invasions are one of the major causes of biodiversity loss worldwide. In spite of human aided (anthropogenic) dispersal being the key element in the spread of invasive species, no framework published so far accounts for its peculiar characteristics, such as very rapid dispersal and independence from the existing species distribution. We present a new method for modelling biological invasions using historical spatio-temporal records. This method first discriminates between data points of anthropogenic origin and those originating from natural dispersal, then estimates the natural dispersal kernel...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30479222/cryopreservation-of-orchids-a-review
#15
Saranjeet Kaur
BACKGROUND: The orchids are one of the beautiful creations of nature which stand apart from any other assemblage of flowering plants. They are highly evolutionary and ecologically significant group of plants that have effectively occupied almost every habitat on the earth. Indiscriminate collections and extermination of their natural habitats have threatened many species of orchids with extinction, resulting into severe reduction of their genetic resources in nature. It is necessary to adopt sound scientific protocols for preservation of orchid species...
November 27, 2018: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30464826/predicting-the-potential-distribution-of-the-endangered-red-panda-across-its-entire-range-using-maxent-modeling
#16
Arjun Thapa, Ruidong Wu, Yibo Hu, Yonggang Nie, Paras B Singh, Janak R Khatiwada, Li Yan, Xiaodong Gu, Fuwen Wei
An upsurge in anthropogenic impacts has hastened the decline of the red panda ( Ailurus fulgens ). The red panda is a global conservation icon, but holistic conservation management has been hampered by research being restricted to certain locations and population clusters. Building a comprehensive potential habitat map for the red panda is imperative to advance the conservation effort and ensure coordinated management across international boundaries. Here, we use occurrence records of both subspecies of red pandas from across their entire range to build a habitat model using the maximum entropy algorithm (MaxEnt 3...
November 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30464065/discovery-and-exploitation-of-a-natural-ecological-trap-for-a-mosquito-disease-vector
#17
Allison M Gardner, Ephantus J Muturi, Brian F Allan
Ecological traps occur due to a mismatch between a habitat's attractiveness and quality, wherein organisms show preference for low-quality habitats over other available high-quality habitats. Our previous research identified leaf litter from common blackberry ( Rubus allegheniensis ) as a natural ecological trap for an important vector for West Nile virus ( Culex pipiens ), attracting mosquitoes to oviposit in habitats deleterious to the survival of their larvae. Here we demonstrate that manipulation of leaf litter in stormwater catch basins, an important source of disease vector mosquitoes in urban environments, can increase Cx...
November 21, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30460817/-potential-geographical-distribution-of-pyrus-calleryana-under-different-climate-change-scena-rios-based-on-the-maxent-model
#18
Chao Liu, Hong Liang Huo, Lu Ming Tian, Xing Guang Dong, Dan Qi, Ying Zhang, Jia Yu Xu, Yu Fen Cao
To resovle the problems of in-situ conservation and resource utilization of Pyrus caller-yana, maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) and geographic information system (GIS) were used to predict the global ecological suitable region of P. calleryana in different climate scenarios based on 236 distribution data and 19 ecological factors. The results showed that the ecological suitable regions of P. calleryana were mainly concentrated in North America, Asia and other regions, with a total area of 1.6×107 km2 . In China, the regions with high ecological suitability were Hunan, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Fujian provinces...
November 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30451475/air-versus-water-temperature-of-aquatic-habitats-in-delhi-implications-for-transmission-dynamics-of-aedes-aegypti
#19
Gaurav Kumar, Veena Pande, Shweta Pasi, Vijay P Ojha, Ramesh C Dhiman
The present study was planned to characterize the microclimate experienced by Aedes larvae in different breeding habitats by determining the temperature variations in water kept in containers during different months under natural conditions. The study was conducted in three municipal zones of Delhi. In each site, four types of container material (plastic, cement, iron and ceramic) were chosen for recording the water temperature in the containers. Daily air and water temperatures (mean, maximum and minimum values) recorded by HOBO and Tidbit data loggers, respectively, were compared using analysis of variance and Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) tests...
November 9, 2018: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30444890/restoring-oysters-to-urban-estuaries-redefining-habitat-quality-for-eastern-oyster-performance-near-new-york-city
#20
Katherine McFarland, Matthew P Hare
Restoring and conserving coastal resilience faces increasing challenges under current climate change predictions. Oyster restoration, in particular, faces threats from alterations in precipitation, warming water temperatures, and urbanization of coastlines that dramatically change salinity patterns, foster the proliferation and spread disease, and disrupt habitat connectivity, respectively. New York City (NYC) coastal waters, once home to a booming oyster fishery for eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica), are now nearly devoid of live oyster reefs...
2018: PloS One
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