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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111595/genetic-determination-of-migration-strategies-in-large-soaring-birds-evidence-from-hybrid-eagles
#1
Ülo Väli, Paweł Mirski, Urmas Sellis, Mindaugas Dagys, Grzegorz Maciorowski
The relative contributions of genetic and social factors in shaping the living world are a crucial question in ecology. The annual migration of birds to their wintering grounds and back provides significant knowledge in this field of research. Migratory movements are predominantly genetically determined in passerine birds, while in large soaring birds, it is presumed that social (cultural) factors play the largest role. In this study, we show that genetic factors in soaring birds are more important than previously assumed...
August 15, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103413/characterization-of-plastidial-and-nuclear-ssr-markers-for-understanding-invasion-histories-and-genetic-diversity-of-schinus-molle-l
#2
Rafael Plá Matielo Lemos, Cristiane Barbosa D'Oliveira Matielo, Dalvan Carlos Beise, Vanessa Gonçalves da Rosa, Deise Schröder Sarzi, Luiz Fernando Würdig Roesch, Valdir Marcos Stefenon
Invasive plant species are expected to display high dispersal capacity but low levels of genetic diversity due to the founder effect occurring at each invasion episode. Understanding the history of invasions and the levels of genetic diversity of such species is an important task for planning management and monitoring strategy for these events. Peruvian Peppertree ( Schinus molle L.) is a pioneer tree species native from South America which was introduced in North America, Europe and Africa, becoming a threat to these non-native habitats...
August 10, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103037/predicting-the-impacts-of-climate-change-soils-and-vegetation-types-on-the-geographic-distribution-of-polyporus-umbellatus-in-china
#3
Yanlong Guo, Xin Li, Zefang Zhao, Zain Nawaz
Polyporus umbellatus is a fungus that has been used medically as a diuretic for thousands of years in China. To evaluate the impacts of climatic change on the distribution of P. umbellatus, we selected the annual mean air temperature, isothermality, minimum temperature of the coldest month, annual temperature range, annual precipitation and precipitation seasonality and used observations from the 2000s and simulated values from two future periods (2041 to 2060 and 2061 to 2080) to build an ensemble model (EM); then, we developed a comprehensive habitat suitability model by integrating soil and vegetation conditions into the EM to assess the distribution of suitable P...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101192/the-environmental-niche-of-the-global-high-seas-pelagic-longline-fleet
#4
Guillermo Ortuño Crespo, Daniel C Dunn, Gabriel Reygondeau, Kristina Boerder, Boris Worm, William Cheung, Derek P Tittensor, Patrick N Halpin
International interest in the protection and sustainable use of high seas biodiversity has grown in recent years. There is an opportunity for new technologies to enable improvements in management of these areas beyond national jurisdiction. We explore the spatial ecology and drivers of the global distribution of the high seas longline fishing fleet by creating predictive models of the distribution of fishing effort from newly available automatic identification system (AIS) data. Our results show how longline fishing effort can be predicted using environmental variables, many related to the expected distribution of the species targeted by longliners...
August 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092534/expression-patterns-of-heat-shock-protein-genes-in-rita-rita-from-natural-riverine-habitat-as-biomarker-response-against-environmental-pollution
#5
Tandrima Mitra, Arabinda Mahanty, Satabdi Ganguly, Gopal Krishna Purohit, Sasmita Mohanty, Pranaya Kumar Parida, Prajna Ritambhara Behera, Rohan Kumar Raman, Bimal Prasanna Mohanty
River pollution is one of the principal environmental concerns and biomonitoring tools can play an important role in pollution assessment in the riverine environment. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) have been found to be suitable tools for monitoring stress response. In the present study, expression analyses of hsp genes (hsp27, hsp47, hsp60, hsp70, hsc70, and hsp90) and selected hsp-regulatory genes (hsf1, hyou1, ask1, jnk) were carried out by RT-qPCR in catfish Rita rita collected from selected stretches of river Ganga to investigate changes in their expression patterns as biomarker response...
July 23, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30088318/climatically-driven-changes-in-primary-production-propagate-through-trophic-levels
#6
David C Stoner, Joseph O Sexton, David M Choate, Jyothy Nagol, Heather H Bernales, Steven A Sims, Kirsten E Ironside, Kathleen M Longshore, Thomas C Edwards
Climate and land-use change are the major drivers of global biodiversity loss. Their effects are particularly acute for wide-ranging consumers, but little is known about how these factors interact to affect the abundance of large carnivores and their herbivore prey. We analyzed population densities of a primary and secondary consumer (mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, and mountain lion, Puma concolor) across a climatic gradient in western North America by combining satellite-based maps of plant productivity with estimates of animal abundance and foraging area derived from Global Positioning Systems telemetry data (GPS)...
August 7, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083182/selection-of-reliable-reference-genes-for-rt-qpcr-analysis-of-bursaphelenchus-mucronatus-gene-expression-from-different-habitats-and-developmental-stages
#7
Lifeng Zhou, Fengmao Chen, Jianren Ye, Hongyang Pan
Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a sensitive technique for gene expression analysis, depends on the stability of the reference genes used for data normalization under different experimental conditions. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus , a pine-parasitic nematode varying in virulence, is widely distributed in natural pine forests throughout the northern hemisphere, but has not been investigated with respect to the identification of reference genes suitable for the normalization of RT-qPCR data...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073075/the-future-of-cold-adapted-plants-in-changing-climates-micranthes-saxifragaceae-as-a-case-study
#8
Rebecca L Stubbs, Douglas E Soltis, Nico Cellinese
Research has shown species undergoing range contractions and/or northward and higher elevational movements as a result of changing climates. Here, we evaluate how the distribution of a group of cold-adapted plant species with similar evolutionary histories changes in response to warming climates. We selected 29 species of Micranthes (Saxifragaceae) representing the mountain and Arctic biomes of the Northern Hemisphere. For this analysis, 24,755 data points were input into ecological niche models to assess both present fundamental niches and predicted future ranges under climate change scenarios...
July 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073050/effect-of-climate-change-in-lizards-of-the-genus-xenosaurus-xenosauridae-based-on-projected-changes-in-climatic-suitability-and-climatic-niche-conservatism
#9
Christian Berriozabal-Islas, João Fabrício Mota Rodrigues, Aurelio Ramírez-Bautista, Jorge L Becerra-López, Adrián Nieto-Montes de Oca
Accelerated climate change represents a major threat to the health of the planet's biodiversity. Particularly, lizards of the genus Xenosaurus might be negatively affected by this phenomenon because several of its species have restricted distributions, low vagility, and preference for low temperatures. No study, however, has examined the climatic niche of the species of this genus and how their distribution might be influenced by different climate change scenarios. In this project, we used a maximum entropy approach to model the climatic niche of 10 species of the genus Xenosaurus under present and future suitable habitat, considering a climatic niche conservatism context...
July 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072614/changes-in-the-geographic-distribution-of-the-diana-fritillary-speyeria-diana-nymphalidae-under-forecasted-predictions-of-climate-change
#10
Carrie N Wells, David Tonkyn
Climate change is predicted to alter the geographic distribution of a wide variety of taxa, including butterfly species. Research has focused primarily on high latitude species in North America, with no known studies examining responses of taxa in the southeastern United States. The Diana fritillary ( Speyeria diana ) has experienced a recent range retraction in that region, disappearing from lowland sites and now persisting in two phylogenetically distinct high elevation populations. These findings are consistent with the predicted effects of a warming climate on numerous taxa, including other butterfly species in North America and Europe...
August 2, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067851/landscape-heterogeneity-rather-than-crop-diversity-mediates-bird-diversity-in-agricultural-landscapes
#11
Sarah Redlich, Emily A Martin, Beate Wende, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Crop diversification has been proposed as farm management tool that could mitigate the externalities of conventional farming while reducing productivity-biodiversity trade-offs. Yet evidence for the acclaimed biodiversity benefits of landscape-level crop diversity is ambiguous. Effects may strongly depend on spatial scale and the level of landscape heterogeneity (e.g. overall habitat diversity). At the same time, contrasting within-taxon responses obscure benefits to specific functional groups (i.e. species with shared characteristics or requirements) if studied at the community level...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067290/crown-damage-and-the-mortality-of-tropical-trees
#12
Gabriel Arellano, Nagore G Medina, Sylvester Tan, Mohizah Mohamad, Stuart J Davies
What causes individual tree death in tropical forests remains a major gap in our understanding of the biology of tropical trees and leads to significant uncertainty in predicting global carbon cycle dynamics. We measured individual characteristics (diameter at breast height, wood density, growth rate, crown illumination and crown form) and environmental conditions (soil fertility and habitat suitability) for 26 425 trees ≥ 10 cm diameter at breast height belonging to 416 species in a 52-ha plot in Lambir Hills National Park, Malaysia...
August 1, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30061424/fatty-acid-derivative-acts-as-a-sea-lamprey-migratory-pheromone
#13
Ke Li, Cory O Brant, Mar Huertas, Edward J Hessler, Gellert Mezei, Anne M Scott, Thomas R Hoye, Weiming Li
Olfactory cues provide critical information for spatial orientation of fish, especially in the context of anadromous migrations. Born in freshwater, juveniles of anadromous fish descend to the ocean where they grow into adults before migrating back into freshwater to spawn. The reproductive migrants, therefore, are under selective pressures to locate streams optimal for offspring survival. Many anadromous fish use olfactory cues to orient toward suitable streams. However, no behaviorally active compounds have been identified as migratory cues...
July 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30061113/sustainable-production-and-use-of-cleaner-fish-for-the-biological-control-of-sea-lice-recent-advances-and-current-challenges
#14
REVIEW
Adam J Brooker, Athina Papadopoulou, Carolina Gutierrez, Sonia Rey, Andrew Davie, Herve Migaud
Currently, cleaner fish are one of the most widely used sea lice control strategies in Atlantic salmon aquaculture. Two species are currently being farmed in North Atlantic countries, ballan wrasse ( Labrus bergylta ) and lumpfish ( Cyclopterus lumpus ), and the sector in most countries is rapidly expanding towards self-sufficiency. The species are very different both in terms of their biology and life histories and, consequently, production and husbandry methods must be tailored to each species. There are numerous health challenges currently experienced in both species, with bacterial and parasitic diseases being the most prevalent, and cohabitation with salmon may increase the risk of disease...
July 30, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30059562/influence-of-habitat-suitability-and-sex-related-detectability-on-density-and-population-size-estimates-of-habitat-specialist-warblers
#15
Óscar Frías, Luis M Bautista, Francisco V Dénes, Jesús A Cuevas, Félix Martínez, Guillermo Blanco
Knowledge about the population size and trends of common bird species is crucial for setting conservation priorities and management actions. Multi-species large-scale monitoring schemes have often provided such estimates relying on extrapolation of relative abundances in particular habitats to large-scale areas. Here we show an alternative to inference-rich predictive models, proposing methods to deal with caveats of population size estimations in habitat-specialist species, reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus and Acrocephalus arundinaceus)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30059494/ecological-niche-modelling-and-predicted-geographic-distribution-of-lutzomyia-cruzi-vector-of-leishmania-infantum-in-south-america
#16
Everton Falcão de Oliveira, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati, Alessandra Gutierrez de Oliveira, Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel, Bruno Moreira de Carvalho
In some transmission foci of Leishmania infantum in Brazil, Lutzomyia cruzi could be considered the main vector of this pathogen. In addition, L. cruzi is a permissive vector of L. amazonensis. Its geographical distribution seems to be restricted and limited to Cerrado and Pantanal biomes, which includes some areas in Brazil and Bolivia. Considering that predicting the distribution of the species involved in transmission cycles is an effective approach for assessing human disease risk, this study aims to predict the spatial distribution of L...
July 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055061/hindcasting-the-impacts-of-land-use-changes-on-bird-communities-with-species-distribution-models-of-bird-atlas-data
#17
Adrián Regos, Louis Imbeau, Mélanie Desrochers, Alain Leduc, Michel Robert, Benoît Jobin, Lluís Brotons, Pierre Drapeau
Habitat loss and degradation induced by human development are among the major threats to biodiversity worldwide. In this study, we tested our ability to predict the response of bird communities (128 species) to land-use changes in southern Québec (c. 483,100 km2 ) over the last 30 years (between '1984-89' and '2010-2014') by using species distribution models (299 302 occurrences in 30 408 locations) from a hindcasting perspective. Results were grouped by functional guilds to infer potential impacts on ecosystem services, and to relate model transferability (i...
July 28, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30054367/fructophilic-lactic-acid-bacteria-a-unique-group-of-fructose-fermenting-microbes
#18
Akihito Endo, Shintaro Maeno, Yasuhiro Tanizawa, Wolfgang Kneifel, Masanori Arita, Leon Dicks, Seppo Salminen
Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) are a recently discovered group, consisting of a few Fructobacillus and Lactobacillus species. Because of their unique characteristics, including poor growth on glucose and preference of oxygen, they are regarded as "unconventional" lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Their unusual growth characteristics are due to an incomplete gene encoding a bi-functional alcohol/acetaldehyde dehydrogenase ( adhE ). This results in the imbalance of NAD/NADH and the requirement of additional electron acceptors to metabolize glucose...
July 27, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30054358/diversity-of-bacterial-microbiota-of-coastal-halophyte-limonium-sinense-and-amelioration-of-salinity-stress-damage-by-symbiotic-plant-growth-promoting-actinobacterium-glutamicibacter-halophytocola-klbmp-5180
#19
Sheng Qin, Wei-Wei Feng, Yue-Ji Zhang, Tian-Tian Wang, You-Wei Xiong, Ke Xing
Plant-associated microorganisms are considered a key determinant of plant health and growth. However, little information is available regarding the composition and ecological function of the roots and leaves bacterial microbiota of halophytes. Here, using both culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, we characterized the bacterial communities of the roots, leaves as well as the rhizosphere and bulk soils of the coastal halophyte Limonium sinense in Jiangsu Province, China. We identified 49 representative bacterial strains belonging to 17 genera across all samples, with Glutamicibacter as the most dominant genus...
July 27, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050585/efficacy-of-achyranthes-aspera-l-as-a-molluscicidal-bait-formulation-against-fresh-water-snail-biomphalaria-pfeifferi
#20
Belayhun Mandefro, Seid Tiku Mereta, Argaw Ambelu
Molluscicidal plant products have interesting attributes of environmental friendliness and accessibility to local communities. Their bait formulations are more economical and target specific as they are applied only to the snail-infested sections of the water habitat. Their active ingestion by target snails could also increase gastric concentrations and enhance effectiveness. This study aimed to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of Achyranthes aspera ( A. aspera ) leaf hydroethanolic extract in bait and immersion applications...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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