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Dermal AND (adipose OR Adipocyte OR Fat)

Wei-Ze Syu, Shyi-Gen Chen, James Yi-Hsin Chan, Chih-Hsin Wang, Niann-Tzyy Dai, Shih-Ming Huang
INTRODUCTION: Reconstruction of segmental peripheral nerve gap is still challenging when the autografts are unavailable owing to limited availability of donor site and functional recovery. The creation of artificial conduits composed of biological or synthetic materials is still developing. Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has been widely studied and its extension and plasticity properties may become suitable nerve conduits under different forms of nerve gaps. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have the potential to differentiate into various cell types of different germ layers including neural stem cells (NSCs)...
January 2019: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Marek Kucharzewski, Ewa Rojczyk, Katarzyna Wilemska-Kucharzewska, Renata Wilk, Jacek Hudecki, Marek J Los
The latest findings indicate the huge therapeutic potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine, including the healing of chronic wounds. Main stem cell types involved in wound healing process are: epidermal and dermal stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In the therapy of chronic wounds, they can be administrated either topically or using different matrix like hydrogels, scaffolds, dermal substitutes and extracellular matrix (ECM) derivatives...
December 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Yates Y Y Chao
A 3-dimensional, multi-layered approach combining modalities targeting different manifestations is recommended for achieving optimal esthetic outcomes. To date, studies reporting same-day treatment with dermal fillers and botulinum toxin have not been published. This article documents the practical use of a single-visit, pan-facial multimodal approach in addressing the varying esthetic needs of 8 Asian adults. The case series included male or female patients of varying age and degrees of facial fat, who received combination treatment with calcium hydroxylapatite filler, polydensified hyaluronic acid filler, and incobotulinumtoxin A in a single visit in August 2016 at a treatment center in Taiwan...
October 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Shuyi Wei, Dennis P Orgill, Giorgio Giatsidis
INTRODUCTION: External Volume Expansion (EVE) promotes angiogenesis in tissues by inducing a sub-critical hypoxia, mechanically stimulating endothelia, and creating mild inflammation. Application of EVE to less-vascularized tissues with endothelial cell dysfunction (ECD) (e.g., diabetic skin) poses a risk for ineffectiveness or ischemic damage. We investigated the effects of EVE on a murine model of diabetes type-2 and tested whether the adoption of micro-deformational interfaces of EVE optimizes its angiogenic properties while limiting complications to tissues...
November 26, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Jenna N Harvestine, Hakan Orbay, Jonathan Y Chen, David E Sahar, J Kent Leach
Lipoaspirates contain a readily accessible heterogeneous cell source for use in bone regeneration collectively referred to as the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). However, the osteogenic potential of SVF is inferior to other progenitor cell populations, thereby requiring alternative strategies to potentiate its effective use in cell-based therapies of bone repair. Cell-secreted extracellular matrix (ECM) is a promising substrate to guide cell phenotype or for use in biomaterial design, yet the instructional capacity of ECMs produced by various cell types is unknown...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
Veera Nikkola, Maija E Miettinen, Piia Karisola, Mari Grönroos, Lasse Ylianttila, Harri Alenius, Erna Snellman, Timo Partonen
BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggest that circadian time regulates cellular functions in the skin and may affect protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). It is not known, however, whether UVR through skin directly affects the expression of circadian genes. We investigated the effect of ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure on cryptochrome circadian clock 1 (CRY1), cryptochrome circadian clock 2 (CRY2), and circadian associated repressor of transcription (CIART) genes. METHODS: Healthy volunteers (n=12) were exposed to narrow-band UVB radiation of 4 standard erythemal dose (SED)...
November 25, 2018: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
Charles Miles Maliska Iii, Robert Lloyd Archer, Sharon Kaye Tarpley, Archibald Sanford Miller Iii
Sternal malunion, or loss, developed after a median sternotomy cannot only be difficult to manage and treat, but also may diminish one's quality-of-life drastically. The technique presented here represents a multispecialty approach in one stage for the reconstruction of an unstable thoracic cage. The procedure utilized a donated sternum and ribs. The sternum with ribs harvested from a single donor included adipose derived stromal vascular fraction (ADSVF) cells with marrow also from the same donor. Autologous muscle flaps, stabilized with acellular dermal matrix were utilized to provide a robust blood supply to the ADSVF cells and bone grafts...
November 2018: Archives of Plastic Surgery
Benedetto Longo, Michail Sorotos, Rosaria Laporta, Fabio Santanelli di Pompeo
Despite its reliability, radial forearm (RF) flap is still affected by high donor site morbidity with poor cosmetic and functional outcomes after coverage with skin grafts. Having fat grafting demonstrated promising and effective filling and rejuvenating properties, we considered and tested it as a valuable alternative to dermal substitutes for the aesthetic improvement of RF flap donor site. Thirty-three patients with previous RF free flap reconstruction and poor donor site outcomes after full-thickness skin grafting to RF region were evaluated for secondary fat injection to improve outcomes...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
Wan-Hua Cho, Ming-Tse Sung, Pei-Wen Lin, Hun-Ju Yu
RATIONALE: Limbal dermoids are choristomas known as congenital benign tumors found in abnormal locations. Despite the benign nature, enlarging limbal dermoids may cause visual abnormalities by cornea infiltration with fat component, visual axis invasion, gradually induced corneal astigmatism, and finally result in anisometropic amblyopia. Here we report a rare case of progressive, large pediatric corneal limbal dermoid in a newborn, managed with tissue glue-assisted monolayer amniotic membrane transplantation...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Marion Claudia Salzer, Atefeh Lafzi, Antoni Berenguer-Llergo, Catrin Youssif, Andrés Castellanos, Guiomar Solanas, Francisca Oliveira Peixoto, Camille Stephan-Otto Attolini, Neus Prats, Mònica Aguilera, Juan Martín-Caballero, Holger Heyn, Salvador Aznar Benitah
During aging, stromal functions are thought to be impaired, but little is known whether this stems from changes of fibroblasts. Using population- and single-cell transcriptomics, as well as long-term lineage tracing, we studied whether murine dermal fibroblasts are altered during physiological aging under different dietary regimes that affect longevity. We show that the identity of old fibroblasts becomes undefined, with the fibroblast states present in young skin no longer clearly demarcated. In addition, old fibroblasts not only reduce the expression of genes involved in the formation of the extracellular matrix, but also gain adipogenic traits, paradoxically becoming more similar to neonatal pro-adipogenic fibroblasts...
November 3, 2018: Cell
Gleb Baida, Pankaj Bhalla, Alexander Yemelyanov, Lance A Stechschulte, Weinian Shou, Ben Readhead, Joel T Dudley, Edwin R Sánchez, Irina Budunova
FKBP51 (FK506-binding protein 51) is a known co-chaperone and regulator of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which usually attenuates its activity. FKBP51 is one of the major GR target genes in skin, but its role in clinical effects of glucocorticoids is not known. Here, we used FKBP51 knockout (KO) mice to determine FKBP51's role in the major adverse effect of topical glucocorticoids, skin atrophy. Unexpectedly, we found that all skin compartments (epidermis, dermis, dermal adipose and CD34+ stem cells) in FKBP51 KO animals were much more resistant to glucocorticoid-induced hypoplasia...
October 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Chiara Fiorillo, Maria Rosaria D'Apice, Federica Trucco, Michela Murdocca, Paola Spitalieri, Stefania Assereto, Serena Baratto, Guido Morcaldi, Carlo Minetti, Federica Sangiuolo, Giuseppe Novelli
Mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, and progeroid features, with concomitant lipodystrophy, define a multisystem disorder named MDPL syndrome. MDPL has been associated with heterozygous mutations in POLD1 gene resulting in loss of DNA polymerase δ activity. In this study, we report clinical, genetic, and cellular studies of a 13-year-old Pakistani girl, presenting growth retardation, sensorineural deafness, altered distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue, and insulin resistance. We performed Sanger sequencing of POLD1 gene in the proband and the healthy parents...
November 2, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
Pascal Morissette Martin, Aaron Grant, Douglas W Hamilton, Lauren E Flynn
There is a substantial need for new strategies to stimulate cutaneous tissue repair in the treatment of chronic wounds. To address this challenge, our team is developing modular biomaterials termed "bead foams", comprised of porous beads synthesized exclusively of extracellular matrix (ECM) and assembled into a cohesive three-dimensional (3-D) network. In the current study, bead foams were fabricated from human decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) or commercially-sourced bovine tendon collagen (COL) to explore the effects of ECM composition on human wound edge dermal fibroblasts (weDF) sourced from chronic wound tissues...
October 29, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Katarzyna Michalak-Micka, Agnes S Klar, Sophie Böttcher-Haberzeth, Ernst Reichmann, Martin Meuli, Thomas Biedermann
AIM OF THE STUDY: The use of autologous bio-engineered dermo-epidermal skin substitutes (DESS) yields a pivotal opportunity to cover large skin defects in human patients. These skin grafts consist of both epidermal and dermal compartments necessary for robust and permanent functional wound closure. In this study, we investigated the impact of mesenchymal cells derived from different body site origins on the expression pattern of diverse markers within DESS. METHODS: Human keratinocytes were obtained from interfollicular epidermis, and mesenchymal cells were isolated from foreskin, palmar skin, fat tissue, and tonsils...
October 31, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
Joris A van Dongen, Martin C Harmsen, Berend van der Lei, Hieronymus P Stevens
The skin is the largest organ of the human body and is the first line of defense against physical and biological damage. Thus, the skin is equipped to self-repair and regenerates after trauma. Skin regeneration after damage comprises a tightly spatial-temporally regulated process of wound healing that involves virtually all cell types in the skin. Wound healing features five partially overlapping stages: homeostasis, inflammation, proliferation, re-epithelization, and finally resolution or fibrosis. Dysreguled wound healing may resolve in dermal scarring...
October 26, 2018: Bioengineering
John P Sundberg, Tong Shen, Oliver Fiehn, Robert H Rice, Kathleen A Silva, Victoria E Kennedy, Nicholas E Gott, Louise A Dionne, Lesley S Bechtold, Stephen A Murray, Raoul Kuiper, C Herbert Pratt
In a large scale screen for skin, hair, and nail abnormalities in null mice generated by The Jackson Laboratory's KOMP center, homozygous mutant Far2tm2b(KOMP)Wtsi/2J (hereafter referrred to as Far2-/-) mice were found to develop focal areas of alopecia as they aged. As sebocytes matured in wildtype C57BL/NJ mice they became pale with fine, uniformly sized clear lipid containing vacuoles that were released when sebocytes disintegrated in the duct. By contrast, the Far2-/- null mice had sebocytes that were similar within the gland but become brightly eosinophilic when the cells entered the sebaceous gland duct...
2018: PloS One
F Li, Y F Chi, Q Hu, K N Yin, W Liu, Q Chen, Q X Zhang, X Chen, F C Cao, Z L Liang, Y J Sun
Objective: To observe the effects of minimally invasive tangential excision in treating deep partial-thickness burn wounds on trunk and limbs in pediatric patients in the early stage post burn. Methods: Clinical data of 40 children with deep partial-thickness burn wounds on trunk and limbs, admitted to our burn ward from January 2016 to June 2017, conforming to the study criteria, were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into conventional treatment group (CT, n =19) and minimally invasive tangential excision group (MITE, n =21) according to the different treatments...
October 20, 2018: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Tania Andrea Chaparro Tapias, Alberto Luis Díaz Díaz, Roberto Secondi, Helena Coy Villamil, Juan Carlos Sánchez España
INTRODUCTION: Central graft ulceration is a rare complication of an orbital dermal fat graft caused by diminished blood supply to the implant. This study reports on the efficacy and safety of the use of a single subconjunctival injection of autologous platelet-rich plasma to rescue an ulcerated orbital dermal fat graft. METHODS: Three patients, who had undergone autologous dermal fat graft to treat their anophthalmic socket, were given a 2-mL subconjunctival platelet-rich plasma injection in the exposed graft margins...
October 26, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Daisuke Fujisawa, Hirotaka Asato, Yasutoshi Suzuki, Koki Hasegawa
Background: This report describes the authors' novel preferred method of nipple reconstruction over 10 years. Methods: The procedure was used in 39 patients (unilateral 38, bilateral 1). The circle is designed as the new nipple cap. Then, 4 fan-shapes (one-quarter of the circle) are drawn so that the base portion is in contact with the circumference. These fanshapes are deepithelialized, and their linear portions are cut with full thickness of skin and elevated as dermal flaps...
September 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Mohamad Javad Mirzaei-Parsa, Hossein Ghanbari, Behnam Alipoor, Amirhossein Tavakoli, Mohammad Reza H Najafabadi, Reza Faridi-Majidi
Full-thickness skin defect is one of the main clinical problems, which cannot be repaired spontaneously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of combining nanofibers with ADM as a bilayer scaffold for treatment of full-thickness skin wounds in a single-step procedure. The nanofibrous polycaprolactone/fibrinogen scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning. Subsequently, mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from rat adipose tissues and characterized by flow cytometry. Cell adhesion, proliferation, and the epidermal differentiation potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on nanofibrous scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), alamarBlue, and real-time PCR, respectively...
October 18, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
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