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Fabiani Palagi Machado, Alessandra Rosa Vicari, Fábio Spuldaro, João Batista Saldanha de Castro Filho, Roberto Ceratti Manfro
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between total lymphocyte and CD3+ T cell counts in peripheral blood in renal transplant patients treated with anti-thymocyte globulin, and discuss related outcomes. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective study involving 226 patients submitted to kidney transplant between 2008 and 2013, and treated with anti-thymocyte globulin for induction or treatment of cellular rejection. Doses were adjusted according to CD3+ T cell or total lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood...
November 29, 2018: Einstein
Shirdi E Schmiel, Lokesh A Kalekar, Na Zhang, Thomas W Blankespoor, Londyn J Robinson, Daniel L Mueller
OBJECTIVE: CD4 germinal center (GC)-T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are important in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis. Previous studies have shown that adenosine 2a receptor (A2aR, Adora2a) signaling can divert CD4 T cells away from the GC-Tfh cell lineage during the primary response to foreign antigens. Therefore, we examined the effects of A2aR signaling on CD4 T cells during the recognition of a self-antigen using a mouse model of autoimmune arthritis. METHODS: Wild type and Adora2a-deficient KRN TCR-transgenic CD4 T cells specific for glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI)/I-Ag7 were transferred into immunodeficient Tcra-/- I-Ag7 -expressing mice to induce arthritis...
December 5, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Vidya Ramakrishnan, Donald E Mager
The heterogeneous polyclonal nature of multiple myeloma complicates the identification of protein biomarkers predictive of drug response. In this study, a pharmacodynamic systems modeling approach was used to link in vitro bortezomib exposure and myeloma cell death. The exposure-response was integrated through a network of important protein biomarker dynamics activated by bortezomib in four myeloma cell lines. The pharmacodynamic models reasonably characterized the protein and myeloma cell dynamics simultaneously following bortezomib (20 nM) treatment...
December 4, 2018: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Isabel P Alves, Nuno M Reis
This study presents novel experimental insights into the direct quantitation and immunocapture of bacteria cells in a fluoropolymer microcapillary array, using Escherichia coli as work model, a pathogen responsible for around 80% of urinary tract infections (UTIs). In spite of the current clinical demand for sensitive tests for rapid identification and quantitation of pathogens in human samples, portable diagnostic tests developed to date lack the specificity, limit of detection and speed for effective implementation in bacteria detection at point-of-care...
November 24, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Edson Gonçalves Ferreira Junior, Philippos Apolinario Costa, Larissa Melo Freire Golveia Silveira, Rafael Valois Vieira, Hugo Alessi Lima Martins Soares, Bruna Menon Loureiro, Nayane Carolina Pertile Salvioni, Jose Roberto Coelho Ferreira Rocha
INTRODUCTION: Castleman disease (CD) is a rare polyclonal lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, which usually develops in the mediastinum. It can also occur in the cervical, retroperitoneal and axillary regions. Localized pancreatic CD is quite rare [1]. PRESENTATION OF CASE: The authors herein present a case of a 34 years old female that was diagnosed during a symptomatic cholelithiasis evaluation. During the evaluation, an abdominal ultrasonography revealed a tumor at the head of the pancreas, which went on to generate a dilatation of the extrahepatic bile ducts...
November 20, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Guanghua Li, Lin Xu, Du Wang, Jun Jiang, Xiaomei Chen, Wen Zhang, Saranya Poapolathep, Amnart Poapolathep, Zhaowei Zhang, Qi Zhang, Peiwu Li
Multiclass chemical contamination of food has aroused ever-increasing attention due to the increasingly common findings of the co-occurrence of multiclass contamination, such as mycotoxin (aflatoxin M1, AFM1) and illegal additives (melamine, MEL). In the present study, a rapid, ultra-sensitive detection paper was developed based on a unique bridge-antibody label to realize on-site simultaneous detection of AFM1 and MEL in milk. This detection paper used the bridge-antibody label on fluorescent particles (i...
December 4, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Wei Ren, Qi Sun, Pu-Yuan Wu, Bin Huang, Ju Yang, Jing Yan, Bao-Rui Liu
RATIONALE: Follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma is a rare tumor with FDC differentiation that typically arises within lymph nodes but can also occur extranodally. To date, the primary esophageal FDC sarcoma has not been reported in the English literature. PATIENT CONCERNS: We described a 67-year-old female who foremostly presented with dysphagia, and the patient was readmitted due to a dry cough and pain of his right shoulder 2 years after initial treatment. DIAGNOSES: Primary esophageal FDC sarcoma with the right superior mediastinal lymph node metastasis...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kelly M Cox, Scott P Commins, Brian J Capaldo, Lisa J Workman, Thomas A E Platts-Mills, El-Ad D Amir, Josephine A Lannigan, Alexander J Schuyler, Loren D Erickson
BACKGROUND: B cells play a critical role in the development and maintenance of food allergy by producing allergen-specific IgE. Despite the importance of B cells in IgE-mediated food allergy, the identity of sIgE-producing human B cells and how IgE is regulated are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To identify the immunophenotypes of circulating B cells associated with the production of galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose specific IgE production in patients with red meat allergy...
December 2, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Sachio Okuda, Shintaro Kamei, Takumi Sasaki
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of a variety of autoimmune diseases. To clarify the role of T regulatory cells (Tregs) in the immunoregulatory effect of IVIg, we focused on human inducible T regulatory cells (iTregs) and investigated the mechanism of action of IVIg. When immunoglobulin G (IgG) was added to a culture system that differentiates iTregs from anti-CD3 antibody activated CD4+CD25- T cells in the presence of syngeneic immature dendritic cells, interleukin (IL)-2 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), the expression of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3), which is the master transcription factor for Tregs in CD4+CD25+ T cells, increased in an IgG concentration-dependent manner...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
T Brément, C Cossec, C Roux, A C Knol, B Dréno, A Khammari, P Bourdeau, V Bruet
Adipokines are biologically active cytokines that are mainly produced in adipose tissue. There is evidence, in man and mice, that some adipokines may be secreted in other tissues including the vascular endothelium, epithelia and sebaceous glands. Moreover, modified serum levels of adipokines have been detected in people with acne vulgaris or psoriasis; it is suspected that adipokines could contribute to local and systemic inflammatory conditions. We aimed to evaluate the expression of three adipokines (i.e...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Kuo-Yang Huang, Ruei-Min Chen, Hsin-Chung Lin, Wei-Hung Cheng, Hsin-An Lin, Wei-Ning Lin, Po-Jung Huang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Petrus Tang
BACKGROUND: Autophagy has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of several protists, offering prospects for the developments of new drugs targeting autophagy. However, there is no evidence illustrating functional autophagy in the deep-branching trichomonads. The human parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis has been predicted to possess reduced autophagic machinery, with only autophagy-related protein 8 (Atg8) conjugation system required for autophagosome formation. METHODS: The recombinant protein of TvAtg8 (rTvAtg8) and the polyclonal antibody against rTvAtg8 were generated...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Diandian Deng, Hong Yang, Chang Liu, Kang Zhao, Jianguo Li, Anping Deng
An immunochromatographic assay (ICA) based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for ultrasensitive determination of Sudan I in food samples was reported. Gold-silver core-shell bimetallic nanorods (referred to as Au@Ag NRs) were synthesized, characterized and used as the substrate for preparation of the ICA. Polyclonal antibody against Sudan I was immobilized on the surface of the Au@Ag NRs carrying the Raman reporter 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid). The Raman scattering intensity on the test line was used for quantitation of Sudan I...
March 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Salam Bashir, Shani Leviatan Ben Arye, Eliran Moshe Reuven, Hai Yu, Cristina Costa, Manuel Galiñanes, Tomaso Bottio, Xi Chen, Vered Padler-Karavani
Recognition of carbohydrates by antibodies can be affected by antigen composition and density. This had been investigated in a variety of controllable multivalent systems using synthetic carbohydrate antigens, yet such effects on anti-carbohydrate antibodies in circulating human serum have not been fully addressed thus far. All humans develop a polyclonal and diverse response against carbohydrates containing a non-human sialic acid form, N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). This red meat-derived monosaccharide is incorporated into a diverse collection of human glycans resulting in circulating anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in human sera...
November 30, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Jiabo Di, Hong Yang, Zaozao Wang, Jie Yang, Pin Gao, Beihai Jiang, Xiangqian Su
Patients with metachronous colorectal cancer (CRC) have been diagnosed with primary CRC more than once. Given that the genetic and microenvironment is the same in these cases, metachronous CRC is an important model for studying colorectal tumorigenesis. We performed whole exome sequencing of seven freshly frozen tumors from three patients with metachronous CRC and compared their genetic profiles. In patients with metachronous tumors of distinct genetic origins, 3.74% and 0.20% of genes were ubiquitously mutated and candidate cancer genes mutated at different sites...
November 30, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
U S Ismaylova, A A Mekhtiev
PURPOSE: To study the molecular reparatory mechanisms of the retina and hypothalamus in the context of experimental dystrophy of receptor apparatus in rabbit retina. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retinal dystrophy was induced in rabbit eyes by injecting monoiodacetic acid (MIA) intravenously. Indirect ELISA test was used to evaluate the levels of rhodopsin, heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70) in the retina, and serotonin-modulating anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) - that directly correlates with serotonin level - in the hypothalamus...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Francesca Rinaldi, Loredana Lupu, Hendrik Rusche, Zdeněk Kukačka, Sara Tengattini, Roberta Bernardini, Luciano Piubelli, Teodora Bavaro, Stefan Maeser, Loredano Pollegioni, Enrica Calleri, Michael Przybylski, Caterina Temporini
Tuberculosis (TB) is the first cause of death from infectious diseases worldwide. Only a single anti-TB vaccine is currently available for clinical use, but its efficacy is not achieved with certainty. The aim of this work is to provide a basis for the rational design of a neo-glycoconjugate vaccine against TB. Structural characterization of recombinant antigenic proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Ag85B (rAg85B, variants, and semi-synthetic glycoconjugates) was initially carried out. Identification of antibody epitope analyses by proteolytic affinity-mass spectrometry and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor analyses were performed in order to qualitatively identify and quantitatively characterize interaction structures of the antigens with antibodies from different sources...
November 29, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Gloria V Echeverria, Emily Powell, Sahil Seth, Zhongqi Ge, Alessandro Carugo, Christopher Bristow, Michael Peoples, Frederick Robinson, Huan Qiu, Jiansu Shao, Sabrina L Jeter-Jones, Xiaomei Zhang, Vandhana Ramamoorthy, Shirong Cai, Wenhui Wu, Giulio Draetta, Stacy L Moulder, William F Symmans, Jeffrey T Chang, Timothy P Heffernan, Helen Piwnica-Worms
Most triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are aggressively metastatic with a high degree of intra-tumoral heterogeneity (ITH), but how ITH contributes to metastasis is unclear. Here, clonal dynamics during metastasis were studied in vivo using two patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models established from the treatment-naive primary breast tumors of TNBC patients diagnosed with synchronous metastasis. Genomic sequencing and high-complexity barcode-mediated clonal tracking reveal robust alterations in clonal architecture between primary tumors and corresponding metastases...
November 29, 2018: Nature Communications
Yasamin Kalali, Setareh Haghighat, Mehdi Mahdavi
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading infectious cause of life-threatening diseases in human beings, with no effective vaccine available to date against this bacterium. Treatment of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections has become increasingly difficult because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates. Immunotherapy represents a potential approach to prevent S. aureus-related infections. Autolysin is one of the virulence factors, which controls the growth, cell lysis, daughter-cell separation, and biofilm formation...
November 26, 2018: Immunology Letters
Guillaume Spielmann, Nadia H Agha, Hawley E Kunz, Richard J Simpson, Brian E Crucian, Satish K Mehta, Mitzi Laughlin, John Campbell
Long duration spaceflights reportedly induce immune dysregulation, which is considered a risk to astronaut safety and mission success. Recent studies have examined the impact of spaceflight on markers of adaptive and innate immunity, but no study to date has comprehensively evaluated humoral immunity and serological markers of B-cell function. The aim of this study was to characterize changes in B-cell numbers and phenotypes, along with plasma immunoglobulins and polyclonal free light chains (FLC) - near 'real-time' biomarkers of immunoglobulin synthesis - in response to a ~6-month mission to the International Space Station (ISS)...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Mrinmoy Sanyal, Tyson H Holmes, Holden Maecker, Randy A Albrecht, Cornelia L Dekker, Xiao-Song He, Harry B Greenberg
Annual vaccination with influenza vaccines is recommended for protection against influenza in the United States. Past clinical studies and meta-analysis, however, have reported conflicting results on the benefits of annual vaccination. B-cell responses elicited following repeat influenza vaccinations over multiple seasons have not been examined in detail. We analyzed the B-cell and antibody responses in volunteers vaccinated yearly with seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (TIV) from 2010 or 2011 to 2014...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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