Read by QxMD icon Read

Antibiotics Pharmacology

Laura Carro
Antibiotics are potent pharmacological weapons against bacterial infections; however, the growing antibiotic resistance of microorganisms is compromising the efficacy of the currently available pharmacotherapies. Even though antimicrobial resistance is not a new problem, antibiotic development has failed to match the growth of resistant pathogens and hence, it is highly critical to discover new anti-infective drugs with novel mechanisms of action which will help reducing the burden of multidrug-resistant microorganisms...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Hong Li, Andrew Hung, Angela Wei Hong Yang
Chronic prostatitis (CP) is a chronic inflammation in the prostate with unsatisfactory management. Danggui Beimu Kushen Wan (DBKW) is a classic formula developed 1800 years ago for patients with difficult urination and it has been widely utilized for CP in modern days. However, scientific understanding of DBKW on CP has not been systematically reviewed. First, we searched the Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine for the etiologies and pathogeneses of CP-like symptoms and DBKW and compared their similarities and differences from traditional Chinese medicine and conventional medicine perspectives...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Ahmed M Amer
The discovery of novel and more efficient antimicrobial agents from natural sources like plants is one of the most important ways through which the growing threat of antibiotic-resistant pathogens can be overcome. Herein, we report the potential antimicrobial activity of Cichorium endivia L. subsp. pumilum . Different concentrations of various solvent extracts prepared from several parts of chicory were tested for their antimicrobial effect against a panel of microorganisms. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using the well diffusion method, where zones of inhibition were used as indicators of antimicrobial activity...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Hamdi A Jama, David M Kaye, Francine Z Marques
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize evidence supporting that microorganisms colonizing our gastrointestinal tract, collectively known as the gut microbiota, are implicated in the development and maintenance of hypertension in experimental models. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of gnotobiotic (germ-free) mice has been essential for advancement in this area: they develop higher blood pressure (BP) if they receive faecal transplants from hypertensive patients compared to normotensive donors, and germ-free mice have a blunted response to angiotensin II...
December 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Lukas T Martin, Shelbi Vincent, Sarah Gillian, Katherine Moore, Deanna Ratermann, Christopher A Droege
Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that is the leading cause of nosocomial infections in hospitals in the United States. Critically ill patients are at high risk for C. difficile infection (CDI) and face potentially detrimental effects, including prolonged hospitalization, risk of recurrent disease, complicated surgery, and death. CDI requires a multidisciplinary approach to decrease hospital transmission and improve treatment outcomes. This article briefly reviews the current literature and guideline recommendations for treatment and prevention of CDI, with a focus on antibiotic treatment considerations including dosing, routes of administration, efficacy data, adverse effects, and monitoring parameters...
January 2019: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
Jieun Kang, Ye-Jee Kim, Tae Sun Shim, Kyung-Wook Jo
Background: Macrolide antibiotics are the most important pharmacological agents for the treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. We investigated the incidence of acute cardiovascular events in patients taking macrolides for nontuberculous mycobacterial disease and determined the difference in risk between clarithromycin and azithromycin. Methods: A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted in South Korea using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database...
October 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Ioanna Dagla, Evangelia Karkoula, Eirini Baira, Anthony Tsarbopoulos, Evagelos Gikas
Colistin is a multicomponent polypeptide antibiotic consisting mainly of colistin A and colistin B, produced by selected strains of Bacillus polymyxa var. Colistinus. Only recently, the prodrug of colistin, colistimethate sodium, is widely used as last resort antibiotic for infections caused by resistant gram-negative bacteria. Colistin having been discovered several years ago, has not subjected to the drug development and regulatory approval processes that are applied today. However, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic information are necessary for its optimal use thus, during the last decades several studies are carried out in order to shed light on this issue...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Aarushi Singh, Neeraj Kumar, Damini Sood, Snigdha Singh, Amardeep Awasthi, Vartika Tomar, Ramesh Chandra
Antibiotic resistance is not only a global public health threat but also a huge economic burden to our society that urgently needs to be addressed by improved antibiotics and continuing development of novel molecules to treat resistant bacterial infections. Nowadays combination therapies offer a competent approach to counteract antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Better knowledge of mechanisms of antibiotic resistance has lead to the finding of new alternatives to antibiotic therapy. Hence, in this article, we report a novel series of indoline derivatives and their computational study as potent antimicrobials...
November 29, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Ye-Ram Kim, Chul-Su Yang
Ginseng ( Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-known traditional herbal medicine that plays a protective role against microbial attack. Several studies have revealed its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory effects. Ginseng contains several components that vary according to the year of cultivation and the processing method used, such as heating, drying, and steaming, which induce different degrees of pharmacological activities. This review discusses the antibacterial effects of ginseng against pathogenic bacterial infections...
September 19, 2018: Microbial Cell
Nancy Medley, Joshua P Vogel, Angharad Care, Zarko Alfirevic
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB) is a major factor contributing to global rates of neonatal death and to longer-term health problems for surviving infants. Both the World Health Organization and the United Nations consider prevention of PTB as central to improving health care for pregnant women and newborn babies. Current preventative clinical strategies show varied efficacy in different populations of pregnant women, frustrating women and health providers alike, while researchers call for better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that lead to PTB...
November 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gregory M Solis, Rozina Kardakaris, Elizabeth R Valentine, Liron Bar-Peled, Alice L Chen, Megan M Blewett, Mark A McCormick, James R Williamson, Brian Kennedy, Benjamin F Cravatt, Michael Petrascheck
Aging impairs the activation of stress signaling pathways (SSPs), preventing the induction of longevity mechanisms late in life. Here, we show that the antibiotic minocycline increases lifespan and reduces protein aggregation even in old, SSP-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans by targeting cytoplasmic ribosomes, preferentially attenuating translation of highly translated mRNAs. In contrast to most other longevity paradigms, minocycline inhibits rather than activates all major SSPs and extends lifespan in mutants deficient in the activation of SSPs, lysosomal or autophagic pathways...
November 27, 2018: ELife
Fiona V Cresswell, Lindsey Te Brake, Rachel Atherton, Rovina Ruslami, Kelly E Dooley, Rob Aarnoutse, Reinout van Crevel
Meningitis is the most severe manifestation of tuberculosis, resulting in death or disability in over 30% of those affected, with even higher morbidity and mortality among patients with HIV or drug resistance. Antimicrobial treatment of Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is similar to treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, although some drugs show poor central nervous system penetration. Therefore, intensification of antibiotic treatment may improve TBM treatment outcome. Areas covered: In this review we address three main areas: available data for old and new anti-tuberculous agents; intensified treatment in specific patient groups like HIV co-infection, drug-resistance and children; and optimal research strategies...
November 24, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Alejandro M Brunser, Rodrigo Ibañez-Arenas, Martin Larico, Eloy Mansilla, Juan Almeida, Verónica V Olavarría, Paula Muñoz, Alexis Rojo, Gabriel Cavada, Pablo M Lavados
BACKGROUND: Echocardiography (ECO) is frequently used as a screening test in patients with acute ischemic brain disease. We aimed to evaluate the additional information and therapeutic impact resulting from ECO in these patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study performing ECO on consecutive patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attacks, admitted to our centre between February 2013 and May 2017. RESULTS: A total of 696 patients were included (female, 57...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Domenico Servello, Christian Saleh, Edvin Zekaj
Skin erosion and infection are common but serious problems in deep brain stimulation (DBS). They can lead to the removal of the entire DBS device and consequently stop the entire treatment. Of critical importance, therefore, is to find surgical solutions that allow to leave the complex DBS device in place when medical treatment fails in repeated skin complications, to allow continuing treatment in otherwise pharmacological refractory patients. We present a patient with repeated retro-auricular skin erosions, who failed to respond to surgical revisions and antibiotic treatment...
October 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Stacey K Dull, Brooke D Havlat, Michael J Sanley, Mark A Malesker
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this report is to describe the case of a 43-year-old male with asthma who was hospitalized for an exacerbation of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB), a chronic lung disease that is characterized by dilation of the airways, persistent cough, chronic sputum production, and recurrent respiratory infections. He was treated with oral and inhaled antibiotics, inhaled bronchodilators, and aggressive airway-clearance techniques including nebulized 7% sodium chloride, flutter valve, and high-frequency chest wall oscillation...
November 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Priscila L Santos, João Pedro S C F Matos, Laurent Picot, Jackson R G S Almeida, Jullyana S S Quintans, Lucindo J Quintans-Júnior
Many diseases, such as inflammatory and central nervous system disorders, currently have a limited number of effective side-effect free treatments. Citronellol (CT) is a monoterpene alcohol present in the essential oil of several plants used in cooking and traditional medicine, such as those of the genus Cymbopogon and Citrus, with pharmacological activities already described in the literature. The aim of this review was to summarize the pharmacological activities already attributed to CT that could be used in treatments for humans...
November 16, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jennifer K Bender, Vincent Cattoir, Kristin Hegstad, Ewa Sadowy, Teresa M Coque, Henrik Westh, Anette M Hammerum, Kirsten Schaffer, Karen Burns, Stephen Murchan, Carla Novais, Ana R Freitas, Luísa Peixe, Maria Del Grosso, Annalisa Pantosti, Guido Werner
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are important nosocomial pathogens. Invasive VRE infections are difficult to treat since common therapeutic options including ampicillin and glycopeptides often fail. In vitro, most VRE remain susceptible to last-resort antibiotics such as linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin. However, neither tigecycline nor linezolid act in a bactericidal manner, and daptomycin has proven activity only at high dosages licensed for treating enterococcal endocarditis. Despite these pharmacological and therapeutic limitations, reports on resistance to these last-resort drugs in VRE, and enterococci in general, have increased in recent years...
November 2, 2018: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
M Pojarová, B Sehnal, A Jarolímková, H Neumannová, M Zikán
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare two cohorts of subjects who underwent termination of pregnancy up to 49 days of amenorrhoea by medical (pharmacological) termination (faUUT) and surgical instrumental termination of pregnancy (inUUT). DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTING: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Charles University in Prague, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Hospital Na Bulovce. METHODS: From August 2014 to July 2017, a total of 838 terminations of pregnancy up to 49 days of amenorrhoea were performed at our department...
2018: Ceská Gynekologie
Sandra Prasch, Alexandra G Duran, Nuria Chinchilla, José M G Molinillo, Francisco A Macías, Franz Bucar
Capsaicinoids are reported to have a bunch of promising pharmacological activities, among them antibacterial effects against various strains of bacteria. In this study the effect on efflux pumps of mycobacteria was investigated. The importance of efflux pumps, and the inhibition of these, is rising due to their involvement in antibiotic resistance development. In order to draw structure and activity relationships we tested natural and synthetical capsaicinoids as well as synthetical capsinoids. In an accumulation assay these compounds were evaluated for their ability to accumulate ethidium bromide into mycobacterial cells, a well-known substrate for efflux pumps...
October 30, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Pavan K Vaddady, Ashit Trivedi, Chetan Rathi, Dora B Madhura, Jiuyu Liu, Richard E Lee, Bernd Meibohm
Spectinamides are a novel class of antibiotics under development for the treatment of MDR- and XDR-tuberculosis, with 1599 and 1445 as early lead candidates within this group. In order to evaluate and differentiate the pharmacological properties of these compounds and assist in candidate selection and design of optimal dosing regimens in animal models of Mtb infection, time kill curve assessments were performed in a previously established in vitro PK/PD model system. The performed studies and subsequent pharmacometric analysis indicate that the anti-mycobacterial activity of 1599 exhibits concentration-dependent killing whereas 1445 shows time-dependent killing...
November 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"