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Infectious Diseases Guidelines

Anne H Norris, Nabin K Shrestha, Genève M Allison, Sara C Keller, Kavita P Bhavan, John J Zurlo, Adam L Hersh, Lisa A Gorski, John A Bosso, Mobeen H Rathore, Antonio Arrieta, Russell M Petrak, Akshay Shah, Richard B Brown, Shandra L Knight, Craig A Umscheid
A panel of experts was convened by the Infectious Diseases Society of America to update the 2004 clinical practice guideline on outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) [1]. This guideline is intended to provide insight for healthcare professionals who prescribe and oversee the provision of OPAT. It considers various patient features, infusion catheter issues, monitoring questions, and antimicrobial stewardship concerns. It does not offer recommendations on the treatment of specific infections. The reader is referred to disease- or organism-specific guidelines for such support...
January 1, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Shahmir H Ali, Tim Foster, Nina Lansbury Hall
This research aimed to identify systemic housing-level contributions to infectious disease transmission for Indigenous Australians, in response to the Government program to 'close the gap' of health and other inequalities. A narrative literature review was performed in accordance to PRISMA guidelines. The findings revealed a lack of housing maintenance was associated with gastrointestinal infections, and skin-related diseases were associated with crowding. Diarrhoea was associated with the state of food preparation and storage areas, and viral conditions such as influenza were associated with crowding...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hua-Zhen Zhao, Rui-Ying Wang, Xuan Wang, Ying-Kui Jiang, Ling-Hong Zhou, Jia-Hui Cheng, Li-Ping Huang, Thomas Stephen Harrison, Li-Ping Zhu
BACKGROUND: The 2010 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines for management of cryptococcal diseases recommend high dose fluconazole (≥ 800 mg/day), either alone or with other antifungal drugs, as alternative anticryptococcal choices. But evidence for its use in the treatment of HIV-uninfected cryptococcal meningitis (CM) remains sparse. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of HIV-uninfected CM patients who received fluconazole 800 mg/day for salvage therapy from January 2011 to December 2016 at Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China was performed...
December 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jason S Villano, Susan E Vleck, Stephen A Felt, Daniel D Myers, Patrick A Lester
Research using laboratory animals has been revolutionized by the creation of humanized animal models, which are immunodeficient animals engrafted with human cells, tissues, or organs. These animal models provide the research community a unique and promising opportunity to mimic a wide variety of disease conditions in humans, from infectious disease to cancer. A vast majority of these models are humanized mice like those injected with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and patient-derived xenografts. With this technology comes the need for the animal research enterprise to understand the inherent and potential risks, such as exposure to bloodborne pathogens, associated with the model development and research applications...
December 12, 2018: ILAR Journal
Lauren K Freeman, Jasmine N Lindsay, Sarah Elizabeth B Davis, Brian F Norman, April W Thompkins, Vera P Luther, Christopher A Ohl, P Brandon Bookstaver
We describe the proportion of pharmacist representation among current and corresponding prior editions of Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Pharmacist representation was 13% and 21% in previous and current editions, respectively, increasing significantly since 2011. We advocate for continued collaborations between IDSA and pharmacy organizations to enhance multidisciplinary representation in CPGs.
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Alex M Cressman, Derek R MacFadden, Amol A Verma, Fahad Razak, Nick Daneman
Background: Physicians face competing demands of maximizing pathogen coverage, while minimizing unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics when managing sepsis. We sought to identify physicians' perceived likelihood of coverage achieved by their usual empiric antibiotic regimen, along with minimum thresholds of coverage they would be willing to accept when managing these patients. Methods: We conducted a scenario-based survey of internal medicine physicians from across Canada using a 2 x 2 factorial design, varied by infection source (undifferentiated vs...
December 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Morgen Muzondo, Amadeus Shamu, Gerald Shambira, Notion Tafara Gombe, Tsitsi Patience Juru, Mufuta Tshimanga
OBJECTIVES: Poliomyelitis is an infectious disease caused by the polio virus which affects mostly young children below the age of 15 years. For surveillance children with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) are tracked. In Zimbabwe every district should report two cases per 100,000 population of children under the age of 15 years old. In 2017, Mwenezi district failed to detect any AFP cases. We therefore evaluated the AFP surveillance system in Mwenezi district. We conducted a surveillance system evaluation using the updated Centers for Disease Control guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems...
December 10, 2018: BMC Research Notes
H X Shi, J Z Wu, G B Chen, B Z Zhu, W Y Yan, L Chen, Y J Xiao, L Y Zhang
Objective: To assess the effectiveness in optimizing resources and shortening critical children's waiting time in pediatric emergency department (PED) with five-level pediatric emergency triage system (PETS). Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University after PETS was applied. The data of patients who visited the pediatric emergency department from January 2015 to December 2017 were collected and analyzed, including age, sex, diseases, visiting time, triage rate and destination...
December 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Gillian A M Tarr, Linda Chui, Bonita E Lee, Xiao-Li Pang, Samina Ali, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Otto G Vanderkooi, Byron M Berenger, James Dickinson, Phillip I Tarr, Steven Drews, Judy MacDonald, Kelly Kim, Stephen B Freedman
Background: The ability to identify bacterial pathogens that necessitate specific clinical management or public health action in children with acute gastroenteritis is crucial to patient care and public health. However, existing stool testing guidelines offer inconsistent recommendations, and their performance characteristics are unknown. We evaluated six leading gastroenteritis guidelines (e.g. those of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Infectious Disease Society of America) that recommend when to test children's stool for bacterial enteropathogens...
December 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
J P Haran, E Wilsterman, T Zeoli, M Goulding, E McLendon, M A Clark
The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) publishes guidelines regularly for the management of skin and soft tissue infections; however, the extent to which practice patterns follow these guidelines and if this can affect treatment failure rates is unknown. We observed the treatment failure rates from a multicentre retrospective ambulatory cohort of adult emergency department patients treated for a non-purulent skin infection. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the role of IDSA classification and whether adherence to IDSA guidelines reduced treatment failure...
December 5, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Andrej Spec, Carlos Mejia-Chew, William G Powderly, Oliver A Cornely
Cryptococcocis is an opportunistic fungal infection with high morbidity and mortality. Guidelines to aid clinicians regarding diagnosis, management, and treatment can be extensive and challenging to comply with. There is no tool to measure guideline adherence. To create such a tool, we reviewed current guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the World Health Organization, the American Society of Transplantation, and recent significant publications to select the strongest recommendations as vital components of our scoring tool...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Bon-Nyeo Koo, Min A Kwon, Sang-Hyun Kim, Jong Yeop Kim, Young-Jin Moon, Sun Young Park, Eun-Ho Lee, Min Suk Chae, Sung Uk Choi, Jeong-Hyun Choi, Jin-Young Hwang
Considering the functional role of red blood cells (RBC) in maintaining a proper supply of oxygen to the tissues, RBC transfusion can be a life-saving intervention in situations of severe bleeding or anemia. RBC transfusion is often inevitable to address intraoperative massive bleeding; it is a key component of safe perioperative patient management. Unlike general medical resources, packed RBCs (pRBCs) have limited availability because their supply relies entirely on voluntary donations. Besides, excessive utilization of pRBCs may aggravate prognosis or increase the risk of developing infectious diseases...
December 5, 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
A Brinkmann, A C Röhr, O R Frey, W A Krüger, T Brenner, D C Richter, K-F Bodmann, M Kresken, B Grabein
In January 2018 the recent revision of the S2k guidelines on calculated parenteral initial treatment of bacterial diseases in adults-update 2018 (Editor: Paul Ehrlich Society for Chemotherapy, PEG) was realized. It is a helpful tool for the complex infectious disease setting in an intensive care unit. The present summary of the guidelines focuses on the topics of anti-infective agents, including new substances, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics as well as on microbiology, resistance development and recommendations for calculated drug therapy in septic patients...
December 3, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Teegwendé V Porgo, Susan L Norris, Georgia Salanti, Leigh F Johnson, Julie A Simpson, Nicola Low, Matthias Egger, Christian L Althaus
Mathematical modelling studies are increasingly recognised as an important tool for evidence synthesis and to inform clinical and public health decision-making, particularly when data from systematic reviews of primary studies do not adequately answer a research question. However, systematic reviewers and guideline developers may struggle with using the results of modelling studies, due at least in part to the lack of a common understanding of concepts and terminology between evidence synthesis experts and mathematical modellers...
December 3, 2018: Research Synthesis Methods
M E Levi, B T Montague, C Thurstone, D Kumar, S S Huprikar, C N Kotton
Transplant centers have varying policies for marijuana (MJ) use in donors, transplant candidates and recipients. Rationales for these differences range from concerns for fungal complications, impaired adherence and drug interactions. This paper reviews the current status of MJ policies and practices in transplant centers and results of a survey sent to the American Society of Transplantation (AST) membership by the Executive Committee of the AST Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. The purpose of the survey was to compare policies and concerns of MJ use to actual observed complications...
December 2, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Shintaro Sagami, Taku Kobayashi, Toshifumi Hibi
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with immunocompromise have a high risk of developing complications related to viral infections. Western countries were the first to formulate vaccine guideline. Asian countries developed their national and international vaccine guidelines a little later in order to reduce the risk of mortality from viral infections. However, no studies to date have examined the differences in vaccinations that prevail among Asian countries. Summary: This review summarizes the vaccination status and schedules in various Asian countries for immunocompromised IBD patients...
November 2018: Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases
Liliana Clara, Viviana M Rodríguez, Pablo Saúl, Cecilia Domínguez, Mercedes Esteban
Intra-abdominal infections represent a group of intra and retroperitoneal processes, ranging from localized infections to complicated ones, sepsis and septic shock, associated with a significant mortality rate. They are the third most commonly identified cause of sepsis and the second cause of death in the intensive care unit. Although antimicrobial therapy must be started as soon as possible, especially in critically ill patients, the source control procedure is highly relevant. On account of the importance of this subject, members of the Argentine Society of Infectious Diseases (SADI) and intensive care specialists joined to develop recommendations on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of intra-abdominal infections...
2018: Medicina
Yibeltal Mekonnen, Charlotte Hanlon, Solomon Emyu, Ruth Vania Cornick, Lara Fairall, Daniel Gebremichael, Telahun Teka, Solomon Shiferaw, Wubaye Walelgne, Yoseph Mamo, Temesgen Ayehu, Meseret Wale, Tracy Eastman, Ajibola Awotiwon, Camilla Wattrus, Sandy Claire Picken, Christy-Joy Ras, Lauren Anderson, Tanya Doherty, Martin James Prince, Desalegn Tegabu
The Federal Ministry of Health, Ethiopia, recognised the potential of the Practical Approach to Care Kit (PACK) programme to promote integrated, comprehensive and evidence-informed primary care as a means to achieving universal health coverage. Localisation of the PACK guide to become the 'Ethiopian Primary Health Care Clinical Guidelines' (PHCG) was spearheaded by a core team of Ethiopian policy and technical experts, mentored by the Knowledge Translation Unit, University of Cape Town. A research collaboration, ASSET (he A lth S ystems S tr E ng T hening in sub-Saharan Africa), has brought together policy-makers from the Ministry of Health and health systems researchers from Ethiopia (Addis Ababa University) and overseas partners for the PACK localisation process, and will develop, implement and evaluate health systems strengthening interventions needed for a successful scale-up of the Ethiopian PHCG...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Tsegahun Manyazewal, Alemayehu Mekonnen, Tesfa Demelew, Semegnew Mengestu, Yusuf Abdu, Dereje Mammo, Workeabeba Abebe, Belay Haffa, Daniel Zenebe, Bogale Worku, Amir Aman, Setegn Tigabu
BACKGROUND: Strong scientific evidence is needed to support low-income countries in building effective and sustainable immunization programs and proactively engaging in global vaccine development and implementation initiatives. This study aimed to implement and evaluate the effectiveness of system-wide continuous quality improvement (CQI) interventions to improve national immunization programme performance in Ethiopia. METHODS: The study used a prospective, quasi-experimental design with an interrupted time-series analysis to collect data from 781 government health sectors (556 healthcare facilities, 196 district health offices, and 29 zonal health departments) selected from developing and emerging regions in Ethiopia...
November 30, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Todd Karsies, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Mark Hall
Background: Risk-based guidelines aid empiric antibiotic selection for critically ill adults with suspected infection with Gram-negative bacilli with high potential for antibiotic resistance (termed high-risk GNRs). Neither evidence-based guidelines for empiric antibiotic selection nor validated risk factors predicting high-risk GNR growth exist for critically ill children. We developed and validated a model for predicting high-risk GNR growth in critically ill children with suspected infection...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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