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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742405/true-dopers-or-negligent-athletes-an-analysis-of-anti-doping-rule-violations-reported-to-the-world-anti-doping-agency-2010-2012
#1
Olivier de Hon, Maarten van Bottenburg
BACKGROUND: The sanction that an athlete receives when an anti-doping rule violation has been committed depends on the specific circumstances of the case. Anti-doping tribunals decide on the final sanction, following the rules of the World Anti-Doping Code. OBJECTIVES: To assess the athletes' degree of fault based on the length of sanctions imposed on them to feed policy-related discussions. METHODS: Analysing data from the results management database of the World Anti-Doping Agency for anonymous information of anti-doping rule violations in eight selected sports covering the years 2010-2012...
July 25, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742326/tellurium-impregnated-porous-cobalt-doped-carbon-polyhedra-as-superior-cathode-for-lithium-tellurium-batteries
#2
Jiarui He, Weiqiang Lv, Yuanfu Chen, Kechun Wen, Chen Xu, Wanli Zhang, Yanrong Li, Wu Qin, Weidong He
Lithium-tellurium (Li-Te) batteries are attractive for energy storage owing to a high theoretical volumetric capacity of 2621 mAh cm-3. In this work, highly nanoporous cobalt and nitrogen co-doped carbon polyhedra (C-Co-N) derived from metal-organic framework (MOF) is synthesized and employed as tellurium host for Li-Te batteries. The Te@C-Co-N cathode with a high Te loading of 77.2 wt% exhibits record-breaking electrochemical performances including an ultrahigh initial capacity of 2615.2 mAh cm-3 approaching the theoretical capacity of Te (2621 mAh cm-3), a superior cycling stability with a high capacity retention of 93...
July 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741972/the-effect-of-zirconium-doping-of-cerium-dioxide-nanoparticles-on-pulmonary-and-cardiovascular-toxicity-and-biodistribution-in-mice-after-inhalation
#3
Susan Dekkers, Mark R Miller, Roel P F Schins, Isabella Römer, Mike Russ, Rob J Vandebriel, Iseult Lynch, Marie-France Belinga-Desaunay, Eugenia Valsami-Jones, Shea P Connell, Ian P Smith, Rodger Duffin, John A F Boere, Harm J Heusinkveld, Catrin Albrecht, Wim H de Jong, Flemming R Cassee
Development and manufacture of nanomaterials is growing at an exponential rate, despite an incomplete understanding of how their physicochemical characteristics affect their potential toxicity. Redox activity has been suggested to be an important physicochemical property of nanomaterials to predict their biological activity. This study assessed the influence of redox activity by modification of cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) via zirconium (Zr) doping on the biodistribution, pulmonary and cardiovascular effects in mice following inhalation...
July 25, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741895/a-doubly-boron-doped-perylene-by-n-heterocylic-carbene-borenium-hydroboration-c-h-borylation-dehydrogenation
#4
Jeffrey M Farrell, David Schmidt, Vincenzo Grande, Frank Würthner
Reaction of an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-borenium ion with 9,10-distyrylanthracene forms four B-C bonds through two selective, tandem hydroboration-electrophilic C-H borylations to yield an isolable, crystallographically characterizable polycyclic diborenium ion as its [NTf2]- salt (1). Dehydrogenation of 1 with TEMPO radical followed by acidic workup yields a 3,9-diboraperylene as its corresponding borinic acid (2). This sequence can be performed in one pot to allow the facile, metal-free conversion of an alkene to a small molecule containing a boron-doped graphene substructure...
July 25, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741706/a-strategy-to-produce-high-efficiency-high-stability-perovskite-solar-cells-using-functionalized-ionic-liquid-dopants
#5
Yi Zhang, Zhaofu Fei, Peng Gao, Yonghui Lee, Farzaneh Fadaei Tirani, Rosario Scopelliti, Yaqing Feng, Paul J Dyson, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin
Functionalized imidazolium iodide salts (ionic liquids) modified with CH2 CHCH2 , CH2 CCH, or CH2 CN groups are applied as dopants in the synthesis of CH3 NH3 PbI3 -type perovskites together with a fumigation step. Notably, a solar cell device prepared from the perovskite film doped with the salt containing the CH2 CHCH2 side-chain has a power conversion efficiency of 19.21%, which is the highest efficiency reported for perovskite solar cells involving a fumigation step. However, doping with the imidazolium salts with the CH2 CCH and CH2 CN groups result in perovskite layers that lead to solar cell devices with similar or lower power conversion efficiencies than the dopant-free cell...
July 25, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741312/prediction-of-epr-spectra-of-lyotropic-liquid-crystals-using-a-combination-of-molecular-dynamics-simulations-and-the-model-free-approach
#6
Vasily S Oganesyan, Christopher Prior
We report the first application of fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to the prediction of the motional EPR spectra of lyotropic liquid crystals in different aggregation states. The purpose of this study is twofold. First, given that EPR spectra are highly sensitive to the motions and order of the spin probes doped within lyotropic aggregates, simulation of EPR line shapes from the results of MD modelling provides an ultimate test bed for the force fields currently employed to model such systems...
July 24, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741110/biosensor-of-alkaline-phosphatase-based-on-non-fluorescent-fret-of-eu-3-doped-oxide-nanoparticles-and-phosphorylated-peptide-labeled-with-cyanine-dye
#7
Fan Shi Li, Ya Ling Zhang, Xia Bing Li, Bao Lin Li, Yi Feng Liu
Dephosphorylation of biomolecules under the catalysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a critical physiological process. Abnormal levels of ALP activity have been associated with a number of diseases; thus, a simple and sensitive assay of ALP activity is highly demanded. Herein, to simulate biological conditions, we labeled a hydrosoluble phosphorylated heptapeptide Gly-Pro-Gly-Asn-p-Tyr-Gly-Ala (pGA) with aminated heptamethine cyanine dye (Cy) to give a low fluorescent labeled peptide Cy-pGA. The synthesized Cy-pGA and Eu(3+)-doped oxide Y0...
July 24, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740994/au-cluster-adsorption-on-perfect-and-defective-mos2-monolayers-structural-and-electronic-properties
#8
Weiwei Ju, Tongwei Li, Xiangying Su, Haisheng Li, Xiaohong Li, Dongwei Ma
The adsorption of Aun (n = 1-4) clusters on perfect and defective MoS2 monolayers is studied using density functional theory. For the pristine MoS2 monolayer, our results show that the electrons are transferred from the support to the adsorbed Au clusters, thus a p-doping effect is achieved in the pristine MoS2 monolayer by the Au cluster adsorption, which is in good agreement with the experimental findings. The adsorption of Au clusters can introduce mid-gap states, which modify the electronic and magnetic properties of the systems...
July 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740865/superconductivity-across-lifshitz-transition-and-anomalous-insulating-state-in-surface-k-dosed-li0-8fe0-2oh-fese
#9
Mingqiang Ren, Yajun Yan, Xiaohai Niu, Ran Tao, Die Hu, Rui Peng, Binping Xie, Jun Zhao, Tong Zhang, Dong-Lai Feng
In iron-based superconductors, understanding the relation between superconductivity and electronic structure upon doping is crucial for exploring the pairing mechanism. Recently, it was found that, in iron selenide (FeSe), enhanced superconductivity (Tc of more than 40 K) can be achieved via electron doping, with the Fermi surface only comprising M-centered electron pockets. By using surface K dosing, scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we studied the electronic structure and superconductivity of (Li0...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740558/thermoelectric-la-doped-srtio3-epitaxial-layers-with-single-crystal-quality-from-nano-to-micrometers
#10
Mihai Apreutesei, Régis Debord, Mohamed Bouras, Philippe Regreny, Claude Botella, Aziz Benamrouche, Adrian Carretero-Genevrier, Jaume Gazquez, Geneviève Grenet, Stéphane Pailhès, Guillaume Saint-Girons, Romain Bachelet
High-quality thermoelectric La0.2Sr0.8TiO3 (LSTO) films, with thicknesses ranging from 20 nm to 0.7 μm, have been epitaxially grown on SrTiO3(001) substrates by enhanced solid-source oxide molecular-beam epitaxy. All films are atomically flat (with rms roughness < 0.2 nm), with low mosaicity (<0.1°), and present very low electrical resistivity (<5 × 10(-4) Ω cm at room temperature), one order of magnitude lower than standard commercial Nb-doped SrTiO3 single-crystalline substrate. The conservation of transport properties within this thickness range has been confirmed by thermoelectric measurements where Seebeck coefficients of approximately -60 μV/K have been recorded for all films...
2017: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738679/probability-of-2-step-photoexcitation-of-electron-from-valence-band-to-conduction-band-via-doping-level-in-tio2
#11
Masami Nishikawa, Wataru Shiroishi, Hou Honghao, Hiroshi Suizu, Hideyuki Nagai, Nobuo Saito
For an Ir-doped TiO2 (Ir:TiO2) photocatalyst, we examined the most dominant electron transfer path for the visible-light driven photocatalytic performance. The Ir:TiO2 showed a much higher photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation than the non-doped TiO2 after grafting of the co-catalyst of Fe3+. For the Ir:TiO2, the 2-step photoexcitation of an electron from the valence band to the conduction band via the Ir doping level by visible-light irradiation occurred, which was observed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738670/antidoping-program-an-important-factor-in-the-promotion-and-protection-of-the-integrity-of-sport-and-athlete-s-health
#12
Filomena Mazzeo, Vincenzo Monda, Stefania Santamaria, Ersilia Nigro, Anna Valenzano, Ines Villano, Giuseppe Cibelli, Antonietta Messina, Giovanni Messina
Use of performance-enhancing drugs concern not only elite Olympic and Paralympic Games' athletes but also amateur athletes, who are making increasing use of substances and/or methods. Furthermore, a new frontier reached by the doping is the use of genes. World Anti- Doping Agency (WADA), expressly prohibited the participation in competitive sports by the athlete in case of taking banned substances to treat disease in the event that the above assumption implies an excessive improvement of performance. This study aims to analyze and show the doping control as an essential part of the anti-doping program to promote and protect the integrity of sport and athlete's health...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738659/sample-treatment-in-m%C3%A3-ssbauer-spectroscopy-for-protein-related-analyses-nondestructive-possibilities-to-look-inside-metal-containing-biosystems
#13
Alexander A Kamnev, Anna V Tugarova
In this review, the unique possibilities are considered of the (57)Fe transmission (TMS) and (57)Co emission (EMS) variants of Mössbauer (nuclear γ-resonance) spectroscopy as nondestructive techniques with minimal sample preparation/treatment and a significant analytical potential, with a focus on the analysis of cation-binding sites in metalloproteins. The techniques are shown to provide unique structural and quantitative information on the coordination microenvironment, the chemical state and transformations of the Mössbauer nuclides in sophisticated metal-containing proteins, including those within complicated supramolecular structures, and in microbial cells or tissues...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738579/compositional-engineering-of-vopcpho-tio2-nano-composite-to-reduce-the-absolute-threshold-value-of-humidity-sensors
#14
Mohamad Izzat Azmer, Fakhra Aziz, Zubair Ahmad, Ehsan Raza, Mansoor Ani Najeeb, Noshin Fatima, Tahani M Bawazeer, Mohammad S Alsoufi, R A Shakoor, Khaulah Sulaiman
This research work demonstrates compositional engineering of an organic-inorganic hybrid nano-composites for modifying absolute threshold of humidity sensors. Vanadyl-2,9,16,23-tetraphenoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (VOPcPhO), an organic semiconductor, doped with Titanium-dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) has been employed to fabricate humidity sensors. The morphology of the VOPcPhO:TiO2 nano-composite films has been analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738575/analytical-methodology-for-the-electro-catalytic-determination-of-estradiol-and-progesterone-based-on-graphene-quantum-dots-and-poly-sulfosalicylic-acid-co-modified-electrode
#15
Majid Arvand, Shiva Hemmati
The goal of this study was to develop an electroanalytical method for the simultaneous determination of steroid hormones for the first time. The key factor in the electrochemical methods is the choice of suitable electrode materials. For this purpose, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) doped poly(sulfosalicylic acid) (PSSA) was immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Apart from exhibition strong and stable electrocatalytic response towards estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), the proposed sensor was able to distinguish two hormone's oxidation peaks clearly...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738529/nitrogen-functionalization-biochars-derived-from-wheat-straws-via-molten-salt-synthesis-an-efficient-adsorbent-for-atrazine-removal
#16
Fan Yang, Lili Sun, Weiling Xie, Qun Jiang, Yan Gao, Wei Zhang, Ying Zhang
N-doped porous carbon sheets (NPCS) resulted from wheat straws are fabricated through using molten salts via the carbonization-functionalization progress, which show unique hierarchical structure, large pore volume and high surface area with affluent micropores. Results indicate that there exist many hierarchical pores consisting of the single carbon sheet with ultrathin nature, owing to the template role of molten salt mixtures at high temperature. Such superior structure can bring about desired performance of adsorption capacity of 82...
July 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738156/coherent-random-lasing-from-the-dye-aggregates-in-pdms-thin-film
#17
Lihua Ye, Yangyang Feng, Zhixiang Cheng, Chunlei Wang, Changgui Lu, Yan-Qing Lu, YiPing Cui
The coherent random laser (CRL) from dye doped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been investigated in both nanoparticles (NPs) doped thin film and pure dye thin film. Compared with the other works, the pump threshold is only 1.5 mJ/cm2 in the pure dye thin film with a low dye concentration. The micro-nano crystals of Pyrromethene 597 (PM597) dye spontaneously formed support both gain and random feedback in the bulk of the PDMS during the sample preparation. When the SiO2 NPs was doped, the pump threshold was reduced to 0...
July 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737970/the-photocatalytic-degradation-of-methylene-blue-by-green-semiconductor-films-that-is-induced-by-irradiation-by-a-light-emitting-diode-and-visible-light
#18
Chih-Chi Yang, Ruey-An Doong, Ku-Fan Chen, Giin-Shan Chen, Yung-Pin Tsai
This study develops a low-energy rotating photocatalytic contactor (LE-RPC) that has Cu-doped TiO2 films coated on stainless steel rotating disks, to experimentally evaluate the efficiency of the degradation and decolourization of methylene blue (MB) under irradiation from different light sources (visible 430 nm, LED 460 nm and LED 525 nm). The production of hydroxyl radicals is also examined. The experimental results show that the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 that is doped with Cu(2+)is induced by illumination with visible light and a LED...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737797/cation-distribution-dependent-magnetic-properties-in-cocr2-xfexo4-x-0-1-to-0-5-exafs-m%C3%A3-ssbauer-and-magnetic-measurements
#19
D Kumar, A Banerjee, A Mahmoud, Chandana Rath
In this report, we have examined the evolution of the structure and rich magnetic transitions such as a paramagnetic to ferrimagnetic phase transition at the Curie temperature (TC), spiral ordering temperature (TS) and lock-in temperature (TL) observed in the CoCr2O4 spinel multiferroic after substituting Fe. The crystal structure, microstructure and cation distribution among the tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites in the spinel lattice are characterised by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and Mössbauer spectroscopy...
July 24, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737783/fluorination-enriched-electronic-and-magnetic-properties-in-graphene-nanoribbons
#20
Duy Khanh Nguyen, Yu-Tsung Lin, Shih-Yang Lin, Yu-Huang Chiu, Ngoc Thanh Thuy Tran, Ming Fa-Lin
The feature-rich electronic and magnetic properties of fluorine-doped graphene nanoribbons are investigated by the first-principles calculations. They arise from the cooperative or competitive relations among the significant chemical bonds, finite-size quantum confinement and edge structure. There exist C-C, C-F, and F-F bonds with multi-orbital hybridizations. Fluorine adatoms can create p-type metals or concentration- and distribution-dependent semiconductors, depending on whether the π bonding is seriously suppressed by the top-site chemical bonding...
July 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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