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Cerebral AND Edema

Krzysztof Jeziorny, Anna Niwald, Agnieszka Moll, Katarzyna Piasecka, Aleksandra Pyziak-Skupien, Arleta Waszczykowska, Dobromiła Baranska, Beata Malachowska, Agnieszka Szadkowska, Wojciech Mlynarski, Agnieszka Zmyslowska
AIMS: Some patients with diabetic ketoacidosis develop cerebral edema (CE) in the course of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), which may result in central nervous system disorders and high mortality. The imperfection of existing neuroimaging techniques for early recognition of CE forces us to search for the new and non-invasive methods. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of new methods (pachymetry, transorbital ultrasonography-USG, optical coherence tomography-OCT study) in the assessment of the risk of CE occurrence in children with newly diagnosed T1D...
October 16, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Christopher Melinosky, Shiming Yang, Peter Hu, HsiaoChi Li, Catriona H T Miller, Imad Khan, Colin Mackenzie, Wan-Tsu Chang, Gunjan Parikh, Deborah Stein, Neeraj Badjatia
Background: In the acute resuscitation period after traumatic brain injury (TBI), one of the goals is to identify those at risk for secondary neurological decline (ND), represented by a constellation of clinical signs that can be identified as objective events related to secondary brain injury and independently impact outcome. We investigated whether continuous vital sign variability and waveform analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG) or photoplethysmogram (PPG) within the first hour of resuscitation may enhance the ability to predict ND in the initial 48 hours after traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Dileep P Chandrasekhar, Mohan L Noone, S P Harish Babu, V T Chandra Bose
We report a case of high-voltage electrical injury to scalp, focusing on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in brain. A 51-year-old male suffered burns to the right side of scalp and loss of consciousness following electric shock. Brain abnormalities were detected on MRI taken 4 days after the insult. Right parietal lobe neuroparenchyma beneath the scalp burn defect demonstrated homogeneous hypointensity on T1-weighted MR images, while T2-weighted images depicted hyperintensity mainly in white matter forming finger-like projections...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
Chong-Jin Zhong, Miao-Miao Chen, Ming Lu, Jian-Hua Ding, Ren-Hong Du, Gang Hu
ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels, coupling cell metabolism to cell membrane potential, are involved in brain diseases including stroke. Emerging evidence shows that astrocytes play important roles in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. Kir6.1, a pore-forming subunit of K-ATP channel, is prominently expressed in astrocytes and participates in regulating its function. However, the exact role of astrocytic Kir6.1-containg K-ATP channel (Kir6.1/K-ATP) in ischemic stroke remains unclear. Here, we found that astrocytic Kir6...
October 10, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Zhen Xing, Hongjie Huang, Zebin Xiao, Xiefeng Yang, Yu Lin, Dairong Cao
OBJECTIVE: With the hypothesis that the combination of CT, conventional, and functional MRI can indicate a possible diagnosis of skull lymphoma, this study aimed to systematically explore CT, conventional, and functional MRI features of this rare entity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included eight patients with pathologically confirmed skull lymphomas. CT and conventional MRI findings, including the location, size, attenuation/signal intensity, cystic/necrosis, hemorrhage, calcification, enhancement, skull change, brain parenchyma edema and adjacent structure invasion, were reviewed...
October 11, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
K E Joyce, S J E Lucas, C H E Imray, G M Balanos, A D Wright
The physiological responses on exposure to high altitude are relatively well known, but new discoveries are still being made, and novel prevention and treatment strategies may arise. Basic information has changed little since our previous review in this journal 10 years ago, but considerable more detail on standard therapies, and promising new approaches are now available. Areas covered: Herein, the authors review the role of pharmacological agents in preventing and treating high-altitude illnesses. The authors have drawn on their own experience and that of international experts in this field...
October 11, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Farah Gul Khan, Syed Muhammad Zubair
BACKGROUND: Transformer oil is used in oil-filled transformers for its insulating as well as coolant properties. Transformer oil ingestion for attempted suicide is seldom heard of. Our patient's case presented us with a major diagnostic as well as treatment challenge because we encountered such a case for the first time and were totally unaware of the fact that methanol might make up the main component of an aged transformer oil. CASE PRESENTATION: A 19-year-old Pakistani/Asian man was brought to our hospital with altered sensorium...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Obeid Shafi, Virendra Kumar
INTRODUCTION: The optimal fluid therapy in children with DKA is a matter of debate, especially if we take into account its association with cerebral edema, the most important complication. Hypertonic Saline Solution is used in the treatment of cerebral edema, and also has been used for volume resuscitation in children with shock. AIM OF STUDY: To compare the effects of 3% saline and 0.9% saline solutions on changes in vital parameters, sodium and chloride levels, lactate and pH; time needed for the correction of hyperglycemia; time needed for the control of ketoacidosis and incidence of cerebral edema...
2018: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
C Ong, M Hutch, M Barra, A Kim, S Zafar, S Smirnakis
BACKGROUND: Osmotic therapy is a critical component of medical management for cerebral edema. While up to 90% of neurointensivists report using these treatments, few quantitative clinical measurements guide optimal timing, dose, or administration frequency. Its use is frequently triggered by a qualitative assessment of neurologic deterioration and/or pupil size, and anecdotally appears to improve pupil asymmetry suggestive of uncal herniation. However, subjective pupil assessment has poor reliability, making it difficult to detect or track subtle changes...
October 8, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Li Tao, Li Zhang, Rong Gao, Feng Jiang, Jianbo Cao, Huixiang Liu
Neuroinflammation plays an important role in secondary injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata , has been demonstrated to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in neurodegenerative disorders. This study therefore aimed to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of Andro after TBI and explore the underlying mechanisms. In our study, we used a weight-dropped model to induce TBI in Sprague-Dawley rats, the neurological deficits were assessed using modified neurological severity scores, Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) staining were employed to examine neuronal degeneration and apoptosis after TBI, immunofluorescence was designed to investigate microglial activation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Pranawa Koirala, Seth E Wolpin, Janet T Peterson
INTRODUCTION: Porters working at high altitude face a number of preventable health risks ranging from frostbite to potentially fatal high-altitude pulmonary and cerebral edema. Porters are often recruited from impoverished low-altitude areas, poorly equipped in terms of protective clothing, and tasked with carrying loads that equal or exceed their body mass to high elevations. Despite a large population of porters working throughout mountainous parts of the world, there is little documentation regarding knowledge levels, attitudes, and practices related to the prevention of altitude illness in this population...
October 3, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Changchun Cao, Li Dai, Junyu Mu, Xiaofei Wang, Yali Hong, Chao Zhu, Lai Jin, Shengnan Li
Both sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-2 (S1PR2) and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 ) are implicated in the disruption of cerebrovascular integrity in experimental stroke. However, the role of S1PR2 in induction of cPLA2 phosphorylation during cerebral ischemia-induced endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. This study investigated the effect of S1PR2 blockade on oxidative stress-induced cerebrovascular endothelial barrier impairment and explored the possible mechanisms. In bEnd3 cells, cPLA2 inhibitor CAY10502 as well as S1PR2 antagonist JTE013 profoundly suppressed hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced changes of paracellular permeability and ZO-1 localization...
October 2, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Sara Degl'Innocenti, Nicola Della Camera, Cristian Falzone, Carlo Cantile
Intravascular lymphoma (IVL) is a rare angiotropic large-cell lymphoma in which neoplastic lymphocytes proliferate within the lumina of small blood vessels in the absence of a primary extravascular mass or leukemia. This study included 10 cases of canine IVL restricted to the CNS. Dogs had an average age of 8 years and neurological signs mainly referred to brain involvement such as depression, seizures, and ambulatory deficits. Gross examination at necropsy showed focal extensive or multiple hemorrhagic areas mainly distributed in the telencephalon and diencephalon...
October 5, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Pengfei Wang, Yueyu Hu, Danhua Yao, Yousheng Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is multifactorial, involving neurotransmitter alterations, inflammatory cytokines, oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and other factors. Mitochondria are major producers of reactive oxygen species, resulting in cellular injury. Omi/HtrA2 is a proapoptotic mitochondrial serine protease involved in caspase-dependent cell death; it is translocated from mitochondria to the cytosol after an apoptotic insult...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Shumpei Onishi, Shigeyuki Sakamoto, Takahito Okazaki, Kaoru Kurisu
Iodinated contrast encephalopathy is known as one of the rare complications of cerebral angiography and neurovascular intervention. The mechanism and causes of contrast encephalopathy are not understood well. In this case, we experienced transient neurological deficit following coil embolization of unruptured aneurysms. A 67-year-old woman with two unruptured aneurysms of internal carotid artery underwent endovascular coil embolization. During the procedure, she presented transient hemiparesis and aphasia. After the treatment, she presented the symptom again, and computed tomography scan showed cortical edema and subarachnoid leakage of contrast agent...
July 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Vernon L Velho, Anuj Arun Bhide, Sameer A H Ansari
Background: Mannitol has been used intravenously for decreasing cerebral edema since decades. The study was performed to evaluate the effect of its irrigation on edema in live rats. Edema was induced by artificial brain injury. We hereby present our results on the same using live rats and confirm its beneficial effect on reducing edema when used as irrigation. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of mannitol irrigation in reducing cerebral edema in rat brain after induction of artificial trauma and to compare the results with standard normal saline irrigation using randomized controlled study...
July 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Koichi Yabunaka, Gojiro Nakagami, Tomomitsu Miyagaki, Sanae Sasaki, Chieko Hayashi, Hiromi Sanada
Ultrasound (US) is frequently used for evaluating inflammation of subcutaneous tissue caused by pressure ulcers (PUs), but color Doppler mode (CDM) helps to better identify inflammatory edema in subcutaneous fat and necrotic tissue in PUs. We report two cases where inflammatory edema in subcutaneous fat and necrotic tissue in PUs are identified using small US equipment with CDM. Case 1 - An 82-year-old male presented with cerebral infarction and a Category III PU in the sacral region. B-mode gray-scale US imaging (B-mode imaging) revealed a thickened layer of subcutaneous fat with fat lobules and homogeneous cobblestone appearance with fluid accumulation within the echo-free space...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Ultrasound
Eve Grillo Carvalho, Henrique Guarino Colli Peluso, Lorena Luana Batista, Cissa Santos Moreira, Juliana Suzano Moraes Protti, Maria Cristina Bento Soares, Aline de Freitas Suassuna Autran, Amanda Rocha Soares Almeida, Denise Cristina Rodrigues, Lívia Verônica Grillo Romano Bernardes, Luciana Pimenta de Paula
INTRODUCTION: The posterior reversible encephalopathy (PRES) syndrome encompasses a set of clinical-radiological findings associated with severe systemic arterial hypertension. This case report proposes to discuss the identification, diagnosis, and management of PRES in the pediatric population. CASE PRESENTATION: Female patient, 10 years old, admitted to the emergency room with complaint of oliguria and generalized edema. At the initial physical exam, the only alteration present was anasarca...
September 21, 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Wallace Grimmett, Julie Lee, James Doherty, Benjamin Cheung, Meher Chinthamuneedi
Preeclampsia presenting as severe hyponatremia is an enigma of modern obstetric practice. The hyponatremia can cause severe maternal neurological morbidity, including cerebral edema and seizures. Neonates, with serum sodium reflecting maternal levels, are also at risk. Despite this, the literature remains ambiguous about its incidence, the pathophysiology is poorly understood, and guidelines on preeclampsia (including those of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists) do not discuss the issue...
September 28, 2018: A&A practice
Marcos Melian, David Lorente, Fernando Aparici, Oscar Juan
Immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer; however, its role in the treatment response of lung brain metastasis is unknown. Understanding immunotherapy activity in the central nervous system is important in order to avoid additional toxicity, such as that associated with the use of cerebral radiotherapy. We present two cases with clinical and radiological progression with increases in size and perilesional edema of brain lesions after treatment with a combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab...
October 1, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
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