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Cerebral AND Edema

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101407/invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-complicated-by-carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-during-pembrolizumab-immunotherapy-for-metastatic-lung-adenocarcinoma-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Chiara Oltolini, Marco Ripa, Andrea Andolina, Elena Brioschi, Marta Cilla, Giovanna Petrella, Vanesa Gregorc, Barbara Castiglioni, Chiara Tassan Din, Paolo Scarpellini
The widespread use of T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death (PD)-1 and PD ligand-1 (PDL1)-targeted agents in cancer patients as immunotherapy has raised some issues on their safety profile. Regarding infectious complications, it has emerged that these compounds do not intrinsically increase susceptibility to opportunistic infections, which mainly correlate with the co-administration of systemic immunosuppressive therapy (high-dose corticosteroids and anti-tumor necrosis factors inhibitors) to cure immune-related adverse events (colitis, hepatitis, pneumonitis and pancreatitis), well-known complications of these targeted drugs...
August 13, 2018: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100179/progressive-cerebello-cerebral-atrophy-and-progressive-encephalopathy-with-edema-hypsarrhythmia-and-optic-atrophy-may-be-allelic-syndromes
#2
Ronen Hady-Cohen, Hila Ben-Pazi, Vardit Adir, Keren Yosovich, Luba Blumkin, Tally Lerman-Sagie, Dorit Lev
In 2003, a new syndrome was described in the Sephardi Jewish population, named progressive cerebello-cerebral atrophy (PCCA) based on the typical neuroradiological findings. Following the identification of the causal genes in 2010 and 2014, two types were defined: PCCA type 1 due to SEPSECS mutations and PCCA type 2 due to VPS53 mutations. Progressive encephalopathy with edema, hypsarrhythmia and optic atrophy (PEHO) was described in 1991 in Finland. The clinical and radiological phenotype resembles PCCA. The genetic background has been elusive for many years...
July 26, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099188/effect-of-bone-flap-surface-area-on-outcomes-in-decompressive-hemicraniectomy-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Reid P, Say I, Shah S, Tolia S, Musku S, Prestigiacomo Cj, C D Gandhi
INTRODUCTION: Decompressive hemicraniectomy to control medically refractory intracranial hypertension, cerebral edema, and evacuate mass lesions in traumatic brain injury is a widely accepted treatment paradigm. However, critical specifications of bone flap size to control intracranial pressure and provide improved patient outcomes is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of craniectomy size on outcomes in surgical decompression for traumatic brain injury. METHODS: From 2003 to 2011, 58 decompressive hemicraniectomies were performed for evacuation of hematoma and treatment of refractory increased intracranial pressure in adult traumatic brain injury...
August 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097147/multimodal-imaging-findings-during-severe-attacks-of-familial-hemiplegic-migraine-type-2
#4
Christian Roth, Andreas Ferbert, Monika Huegens-Penzel, Ralf Siekmann, Tobias Freilinger
BACKGROUND: Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a rare monogenic form of migraine with aura with three distinct genetic subtypes (FHM1-3). Imaging studies during acute FHM attacks are scarce in the literature. This is particularly true for the FHM2 subtype. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this monocentric study, we retrospectively evaluated imaging data of four different patients with genetically confirmed FHM2. Analysis comprised a total of eight cMRI and two CT perfusion studies, which were obtained during a total of six different attacks...
September 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096502/effects-of-increased-intracranial-pressure-gradient-on-cerebral-venous-infarction-in-rabbits
#5
Wei Wang, Caihou Lin, Jingfang Hong, Shousen Wang, Jianjun Gu
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral venous infarction (CVI) is a rare vascular disease, most commonly caused by cerebral venous thrombosis, which leads to brain tissue ischemia and anoxia, followed by necrosis, hemorrhage, and infarct formation. CVI has diverse clinical manifestations; thus, diagnosis is very difficult, and the prognosis is poor. The goal of this study is to provide a theoretical basis for treating patients suffering from CVI combined with high intracranial pressure. To this end, a rabbit model of CVI was established by placing a recoverable epidural sacculus...
August 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095637/the-effects-of-respiratory-inhaled-drugs-on-the-prevention-of-acute-mountain-sickness
#6
Xiaomei Wang, Hong Chen, Rong Li, Weiling Fu, Chunyan Yao
BACKGROUND: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is common in high-altitude travelers, and may lead to life-threatening high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) or high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). The inhaled drugs have a much lower peak serum concentrations and a shorter half-life period than oral drugs, which give them a special character, greater local effects in the lung. Meanwhile, short-term administration of inhaled drugs results in almost no adverse reactions. METHODS: We chose inhaled ipratropium bromide/salbutamol sulfate (combivent, COM), budesonide (pulmicortrespules, BUD), and salbutamol sulfate (ventolin, VEN) in our study to investigate their prophylactic efficacy against AMS...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094785/successful-treatment-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-and-hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar-status-in-an-infant-with-kcnj11-related-neonatal-diabetes-mellitus-via-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#7
Ting Chen, Dandan Zhang, Zhenjiang Bai, Shuiyan Wu, Haiying Wu, Rongrong Xie, Ying Li, Fengyun Wang, Xiuli Chen, Hui Sun, Xiaoyan Wang, Linqi Chen
Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare monogenic disorder presenting as uncontrolled hyperglycemia during the first 6 months of life. Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) is quite rare in NDM patients, and reported experience with this condition is limited. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is frequently used as a mode of dialytic treatment in critically ill patients with acute renal failure, but has seldom been used in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and HHS. We report the case of a 2-month-old infant admitted to our hospital presenting with dyspnea and lethargy...
August 9, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094370/dti-based-upper-limit-of-voxel-free-water-fraction
#8
Paul M Macey, M Albert Thomas, Luke A Henderson
Background: Free water (FW) in neuroimaging is non-flowing extracellular water in the cranium and brain tissue, and includes both cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and fluid in intercellular space or edema. For a region such as a voxel (spatial unit of measurement in neuroimaging), the FW fraction is defined as the volume fraction of FW within that volume. Quantifying the FW fraction allows estimating contamination by fluid of neuroimaging or magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements within a voxel...
July 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093209/fullerenol-nanoparticles-decrease-blood-brain-barrier-interruption-and-brain-edema-during-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-probably-by-reduction-of-interleukin-6-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-transcription
#9
Mahsa Sarami Foroshani, Zeinab Sadat Sobhani, Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi, Masiha Aryafar
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to examine the protective role of fullerenol nanoparticles against blood-brain barrier (BBB) interruption and brain edema during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury probably by reduction of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) transcription. METHODS: The male Wistar rats (weighting 280-320 g) were randomly assigned into four groups as follows: sham, control ischemic, pretreated ischemic, and posttreated ischemic groups...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093197/atorvastatin-pretreatment-attenuates-ischemic-brain-edema-by-suppressing-aquaporin-4
#10
Zhi-Juan Cheng, Ting-Min Dai, Yao-Yao Shen, Jian-Le He, Juan Li, Jiang-Long Tu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral edema, a serious complication of acute cerebral infarction, has a crucial impact on morbidity and mortality in the early stage of cerebral infarction. And aquaporin 4 (AQP4), a bidirectional water transporting protein, plays a pivotal role in edema formation. At experimental model, it has proven that atorvastatin could exert pleiotropic neuroprotection on acute cerebral infarction independent of its cholesterol-lowering action. It was a common protective manifestation that atorvastatin can reduce the infarct volume and cerebral edema...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092249/hippo-yap-signaling-pathway-mitigates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Pian Gong, Zhan Zhang, Changlin Zou, Qi Tian, Xuemei Chen, Michael Hong, Xi Liu, Qianxue Chen, Zhou Xu, Mingchang Li, Jian Wang
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries commonly lead to breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB).Restoration of the BBB can relieve neurologic damage caused by I/R injuries. The Hippo/YAP signaling pathway mediates cell proliferation, regulated cell death, and differentiation in various organisms and has been shown to participate in the restoration of the heart after I/R. In this study, we investigated whether the Hippo/YAP pathway plays a role in I/R injury in brain, especially in regard to I/R-induced BBB breakdown...
August 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090656/glibenclamide-enhances-the-therapeutic-benefits-of-early-hypothermia-after-severe-stroke-in-rats
#12
Shuzhen Zhu, Xiaoya Gao, Kaibin Huang, Yong Gu, Yafang Hu, Yongming Wu, Zhong Ji, Qing Wang, Suyue Pan
Glibenclamide (GBC) is an antidiabetic drug that is in a class of medications known as sulfonylureas, which play critical roles in attenuating brain edema and reducing mortality in ischemic stroke patients. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is another robust neuroprotectant that prevents brain swelling and improves the neurological outcomes of stroke patients. However, whether the combination of GBC and TH can be used as a reliable neuroprotectant in ischemic stroke remains largely unknown. We used the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model as well as oxygen and glucose deprivation-reoxygenation (OGD/R) endothelial cells as ischemic stroke models to investigate the efficacy and mechanisms of treating ischemic stroke with the combination of GBC and TH...
August 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090126/cranial-sonography-in-preterm-infants-with-short-review-of-literature
#13
Rajendra K Diwakar, Omesh Khurana
Background: Premature newborn infants are exposed to a wide spectrum of brain lesions which are clinically silent supporting a possible role of cerebral ultrasound screening. Aim of the study is to describe the pattern of cranial ultrasound abnormalities in preterm infants defining the short term and long term neurologic outcomes. Material and Methods: A hospital-based bedside cranial ultrasound was carried out at day 1, 3, 7 and follow-up scan at 3-6 months in the Department of Radio-diagnosis...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087244/association-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-ap-1-with-mmp-9-overexpression-in-2-chloroethanol-exposed-rat-astrocytes
#14
Tong Wang, Xiaoxia Jin, Yingjun Liao, Qi Sun, Chaohong Luo, Gaoyang Wang, Fenghong Zhao, Yaping Jin
Subacute poisoning of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) has become a serious occupational problem in China, and brain edema is its main pathological consequence, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. As the metabolite of 1,2-DCE, 2-chloroethanol (2-CE) is more reactive, and might play an important role in the toxic effects of 1,2-DCE. In our previous studies, we found that matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) expression was enhanced in mouse brains upon treatment with 1,2-DCE, and in rat astrocytes exposed to 2-CE...
August 7, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086289/pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-cerebral-edema-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
REVIEW
Ruchira M Jha, Patrick M Kochanek, J Marc Simard
Cerebral edema (CE) and resultant intracranial hypertension are associated with unfavorable prognosis in traumatic brain injury (TBI). CE is a leading cause of in-hospital mortality, occurring in >60% of patients with mass lesions, and ∼15% of those with normal initial computed tomography scans. After treatment of mass lesions in severe TBI, an important focus of acute neurocritical care is evaluating and managing the secondary injury process of CE and resultant intracranial hypertension. This review focuses on a contemporary understanding of various pathophysiologic pathways contributing to CE, with a subsequent description of potential targeted therapies...
August 4, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084745/cerebral-edema-and-neurological-recovery-after-traumatic-brain-injury-is-worsened-if-accompanied-by-a-concomitant-long-bone-fracture
#16
Yujin Suto, Katsuhiro Nagata, Syed Ahmed, Christina Jacovides, Kevin D Browne, John Cognetti, Victoria E Johnson, Ryan Leone, Lewis J Kaplan, Douglas H Smith, Jose L Pascual
Progression of severe TBI is associated with worsening cerebral inflammation but it is unknown how a concomitant bone fracture (FX) affects this progression. Enoxaparin (ENX), a low molecular weight heparin often used for venous thromboembolic prophylaxis, decreases penumbral leukocyte (LEU) mobilization in isolated TBI and improves neurological recovery. We investigated if TBI accompanied by a FX worsens leukocyte mediated cerebral inflammation and if ENX alters this process. CD1 male mice underwent controlled cortical impact (CCI) or sham craniotomy with or without an open tibial fracture, and received either ENX (1mg/kg, 3 times/day) or saline for 2 days following injury...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083976/evaluation-of-neuroprotective-effects-of-insulin-on-immuno-inflammatory-and-systemic-disorders-induced-by-kaliotoxin-a-kv1-3-channel-blocker
#17
Zahida Taibi-Djennah, Marie-France Martin-Eauclaire, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
OBJECTIVE: Kaliotoxin2 (KTX2) is a highly selective blocker of voltage-dependent potassium channels Kv1.3 containing 37 amino acid residues. It is purified from Androctonus australis scorpion venom. The binding of KTX2 to its targets is able to alter the neuronal excitability leading to neurological disorders, accompanied by an inflammatory response. In brain, activation of insulin receptor signaling pathway by insulin induces current suppression and concomitant tyrosine phosphorylation of Kv1...
August 6, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079884/sulfonylurea-receptor-1-expression-is-variable-in-adult-and-pediatric-brain-tumors
#18
Eric M Thompson, Kyle Halvorson, Roger McLendon
INTRODUCTION: Edema is a significant cause of neuromorbidity in children and adults with brain tumors. Agents used to control this effect, such as corticosteroids, have their own associated morbidities. Sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) is a transmembrane protein that regulates the activity of ion channels in neurons, glia, and endothelial cells. SUR1 expression is upregulated in neuroinflammatory conditions. Inhibition of SUR1 with glyburide decreases edema and neuroinflammation by countering cytotoxic edema and apoptosis in rodent models of subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke, trauma, and cerebral metastases...
August 6, 2018: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077000/emergent-uric-acid-treatment-is-synergistic-with-mechanical-recanalization-in-improving-stroke-outcomes-in-male-and-female-rats
#19
Alicia Aliena-Valero, Mikahela A López-Morales, María C Burguete, María Castelló-Ruiz, Teresa Jover-Mengual, David Hervás, Germán Torregrosa, Enrique C Leira, Ángel Chamorro, Juan B Salom
Preclinical and clinical studies support a promising, albeit not definitive, neuroprotective effect of emergent uric acid (UA) administration in ischemic stroke. We assessed the effects of UA in an ischemic stroke model relevant to the current treatment paradigm of mechanical thrombectomy within the STAIR/RIGOR recommendations. A cohort of male and female Wistar rats was subjected to ischemic stroke with mechanical recanalization under physiological monitoring. The effects of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) with adjunctive UA (IV, 16 mg/kg) or vehicle treatment were assessed at 24 h and 7 days...
August 1, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075428/the-neuroprotective-effects-and-probable-mechanisms-of-ligustilide-and-its-degradative-products-on-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-mice
#20
Li Han, Dong-Ling Liu, Qi-Ke Zeng, Meng-Qi Shi, Li-Xue Zhao, Qian He, Xi Kuang, Jun-Rong Du
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common neurological emergency with higher mortality and disability rate than cerebral ischemia. Although diverse therapeutic interventions have been explored for potential neuroprotection from ICH, no effective drugs until now are available for improvement of survival rate or the life quality of survivors after ICH. Just like cerebral ischemia, inflammatory mechanism is highly thought to play a vital role in hemorrhagic brain injury. Ligustilide (LIG) has potent anti-inflammatory effects, which were shown to be closely related to its neuroprotective effects against ischemic brain injury...
July 31, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
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