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(Epigen* OR (Methyla* OR Methylo*)) AND ((TBI OR Traumatic Brain Injur* OR Concuss*) OR (MDD OR Depress* OR Mood))

Robert P Ostrowski, John H Zhang
The objectives of this present work were to review recent developments on the role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in the survival of cells under normoxic versus hypoxic and inflammatory brain conditions. The dual nature of HIF effects appears well established, based on the accumulated evidence of HIF playing both the role of adaptive factor and mediator of cell demise. Cellular HIF responses depend on pathophysiological conditions, developmental phase, comorbidities, and administered medications. In addition, HIF-1α and HIF-2α actions may vary in the same tissues...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Si-Jing Fan, An-Bang Sun, Lian Liu
The hippocampus is located in the limbic system and is vital in learning ability, memory formation and emotion regulation, and is associated with depression, epilepsy and mental retardation in an abnormal developmental situation. Several factors have been found to modulate the development of the hippocampus, and epigenetic modification have a crucial effect in this progress. The present review summarizes the epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and non-coding RNAs, regulating all stages of hippocampal development, focusing on the growth of Ammons horn and the dentate gyrus in humans and rodents...
December 2018: Biomedical Reports
Paulina Jaworska-Andryszewska, Janusz K Rybakowski
A contemporary model for the pathogenesis of mood disorders (bipolar and depressive disorders) involves gene-environmental interaction, with genetic predisposition, epigenetic regulation, and environmental effects. Among multiple environmental factors, the experience of childhood trauma can be connected with the pathogenesis, course and the treatment of mood disorders. Patients with mood disorders have the greater frequency of childhood trauma compared with the general population, and adverse childhood experiences can exert a negative impact on their clinical course...
October 11, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Elaine L Bearer, Brianna S Mulligan
Background: Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), which include traumatic injury, are associated with poor health outcomes in later life, yet the biological mechanisms mediating this association are unknown. Neurocircuitry, immune system and hormone regulation differ from normal in adults reporting ACEs. These systems could be affected by epigenetic changes, including methylation of cytosine (5mC) in genomic DNA, activated by ACEs. Since 5mC levels influence gene expression and can be long-lasting, altered 5mC status at specific sites or throughout the genome is hypothesized to influence mental and physical outcomes after ACE(s)...
December 2018: Current Genomics
Ludwig Stenz, Daniel S Schechter, Sandra Rusconi Serpa, Ariane Paoloni-Giacobino
Early life stress in humans (i.e. maltreatment, violence exposure, loss of a loved one) and in rodents (i.e. disrupted attachment or nesting, electric shock, restraint, predator odor) occurs during critical steps of neural circuit formation. ELS in humans is associated with increased risk for developmental psychopathology, including anxious and depressive phenotypes. The biological mechanisms underlying these potentially persistent maladaptive changes involve long-term epigenetic modifications, which have been suggested to be potentially transmissible to subsequent generations...
December 2018: Current Genomics
Hong-Yun He, Lu Ren, Tao Guo, Yi-Hao Deng
Ischemic stroke often induces excessive neuronal autophagy, resulting in brain damage; meanwhile, inflammatory responses stimulated by ischemia exacerbate neural injury. However, interactions between neuronal autophagy and microglial inflammation following ischemic stroke are poorly understood. CX3CL1/fractalkine, a membrane-bound chemokine expressed on neurons, can suppress microglial inflammation by binding to its receptor CX3CR1 on microglia. In the present study, to investigate whether autophagy could alter CX3CL1 expression on neurons and consequently change microglial inflammatory activity, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established in Sprague-Dawley rats to model ischemic stroke, and tissues from the ischemic penumbra were obtained to evaluate autophagy level and microglial inflammatory activity...
February 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Syabira I Yusoff, Marius Roman, Florence Y Lai, Bryony Eagle, Gavin J Murphy, Tracy Kumar, Marcin Wozniak
The clinical efficacy of organ protection interventions are limited by the redundancy of cellular activation mechanisms. Interventions that target epigenetic mechanisms overcome this by eliciting genome wide changes in transcription and signaling. We aimed to review preclinical studies evaluating the organ protection effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) with a view to informing the design of early phase clinical trials. A systematic literature search was performed. Methodological quality was assessed against prespecified criteria...
November 22, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Roee Birnbaum, Naama Yosha-Orpaz, Miri Yanoov-Sharav, Dvora Kidron, Hila Gur, Keren Yosovich, Tally Lerman-Sagie, Gustavo Malinger, Dorit Lev
Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) is a member of a family of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-l-methionine to nitrogen atoms on arginine residues. Arginine methylation is involved in multiple biological processes, such as signal transduction, mRNA splicing, transcriptional control, DNA repair, and protein translocation. Currently, 10 patients have been described with mutations in PRMT7. The shared findings include: hypotonia, intellectual disability, short stature, brachydactyly, and mild dysmorphic features...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Dorothee Maria Gescher, Kai G Kahl, Thomas Hillemacher, Helge Frieling, Jens Kuhn, Thomas Frodl
Objective: Epigenetic mechanisms have been described in several mental disorders, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia. However, less is known about the influence of epigenetic mechanisms with regard to personality disorders (PD). Therefore, we conducted a literature review on existing original data with regards to epigenetic peculiarities in connection with personality disorders. Methods: Systematic literature review using PRISMA guidelines. Search was performed via NCBI PubMed by keywords and their combinations...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Christelle En Lin Chua, Bor Luen Tang
Epigenetic influence of brain and neuronal function plays key regulatory roles in health and diseases. The microRNA miR-34a is a tumor suppressor transcript, and its loss has been prominently linked to various human cancers, including malignancies of the brain. Interestingly, miR-34a is abundantly expressed in the adult mammalian brain, and emerging evidence has implicated its involvement in a range of neurodevelopmental and neuropathological processes. Developmentally, miR-34a regulates neural stem/progenitor cell differentiation and aspects of neurogenesis...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Simona D'Agnelli, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Maria Carla Gerra, Lorenzo Boggiani, Marco Baciarello, Elena Bignami
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disease characterized by chronic widespread pain with additional symptoms, such as joint stiffness, fatigue, sleep disturbance, cognitive dysfunction, and depression. Currently FM diagnosis is based exclusively on a comprehensive clinical assessment, according to 2016 ACR criteria, but validated biological biomarkers associated with FM have not yet been identified. Genome-wide association studies investigated genes potentially involved in FM pathogenesis highlighting that genetic factors are possibly responsible for up to 50% of the disease susceptibility...
November 29, 2018: Molecular Pain
Eric Strachan, Jinying Zhao, Peter P Roy-Byrne, Emily Fowler, Tamara Bacus
Major depression is a complex disorder with no single, direct causal mechanism. Morbidity has been linked to genetic processes, developmental history, and unique environmental exposures. Epigenetic mechanisms, especially DNA methylation, are also likely important factors in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). A community-based twin sample has many advantages for epigenetic studies, given the shared genetic and developmental histories of same-sex twin pairs. This article describes the rationale and study design for the Mood and Methylation Study in which 133 twin pairs (101 monozygotic and 32 dizygotic), both discordant and concordant for lifetime history of MDD, were evaluated on a large number of variables related to MDD...
November 28, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Jürgen Deckert, Angelika Erhardt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review complements previous reviews on prediction research in anxiety disorders with a focus on clinical, imaging and genetic as well as epigenetic factors and aims to provide recommendations for the design of future integrative studies in adults as well as children. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical factors predicting worse outcome such as a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder, comorbid depression and certain cognitive, behavioral and personality traits as well as low socioeconomic status were confirmed in large clinical studies...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Gan Luo, Zhu Wang, Yan Li, Jun Li, Ai-Min Li
Start-up of membrane bioreactor under different NaCl stress was investigated in this study. Results showed that nearly 90% chemical oxygen demands and ammonia nitrogen ([Formula: see text]-N) was oxidized in none and 0.5% NaCl condition during the start-up stage. While 1% NaCl dramatically depressed the utilization of [Formula: see text]-N and about 4 weeks were required for adaption of sludge biomass to saline condition. In addition, the accumulation of nitrite high to 11.84 mg/L was observed in 1% NaCl stress, indicating the more inhibition on the activity of nitrite oxidizing bacteria...
November 26, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Shampa Ghosh, Jitendra Kumar Sinha, Nitin Khandelwal, Sumana Chakravarty, Arvind Kumar, Manchala Raghunath
A sub-optimal nutritional environment from early life can be envisaged as a stressor that translates into mental health problems in adulthood. Considering the widespread prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency especially amongst women in developing countries and the importance of vitamin B12 in normal brain function, in this study we have elucidated the behavioural correlates of chronic severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiency in C57BL/6 mouse model established by us earlier. Female weanling mice were assigned to three dietary groups: (a) control AIN-76A diet with cellulose as dietary fibre (b) vitamin B12 restricted AIN-76A diet with pectin as dietary fibre (severe deficiency group) and (c) vitamin B12 restricted AIN-76A diet with cellulose as dietary fibre (moderate deficiency group)...
November 25, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Nandan K Mondal, Jyotirmaya Behera, Kimberly E Kelly, Akash K George, Pranav K Tyagi, Neetu Tyagi
The objectives of this study are to identify the mechanism of mitochondrial dysfunction during cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury and the therapeutic potential of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) to mitigate mitochondrial dysfunction in experimental stroke model. In our study, 8-10 weeks old male C57BL/6 wild-type mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 40 min, followed by reperfusion for 72 h. THC (25mg/kg-BW/day) was injected intraperitoneally once daily for 3 days after 4 h of ischemia...
November 22, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Sascha Hein, Tina Thomas, Oxana Yu Naumova, Suniya S Luthar, Elena L Grigorenko
This study aimed to examine whether the relationship between mothers' DNA methylation profiles and offspring's depression is modulated by negative parenting. The participants were 35 African-American mother-offspring dyads. Young adult offspring (19 females; age = 17-29.5 years) were assessed on depressive symptoms, and mothers (36-51 years) were assessed on negative parenting. Methyl-binding domain (MBD) sequencing was used to assay genome-wide DNA methylation in peripheral T lymphocytes. Controlling for the effect of offspring's DNA methylation, mothers' DNA methylation was positively associated with offspring's depression...
November 23, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Marina Izvolskaia, Viktoria Sharova, Liudmila Zakharova
Various stress factors during critical periods of fetal development modulate the epigenetic mechanisms controlling specific genes, which can affect the structure and function of physiological systems. Maternal immune stress by bacterial infection simulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in an experiment is considered to be a powerful programming factor of fetal development. Studies of the molecular mechanisms controlling the formation and functioning of physiological systems are in the pilot stage. LPSs are the most potent natural inflammation factors...
November 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
S A Bengesser, S Mörkl, A Painold, N Dalkner, A Birner, F T Fellendorf, M Platzer, R Queissner, C Hamm, A Maget, R Pilz, A Rieger, J Wagner-Skacel, B Reininghaus, H P Kapfhammer, E Petek, K Kashofer, B Halwachs, P Holzer, A Waha, E Z Reininghaus
Objectives The gut microbiome harbors substantially more genetic material than our body cells and has an impact on a huge variety of physiological mechanisms including the production of neurotransmitters and the interaction with brain functions through the gut-brain-axis. Products of microbiota can affect methylation according to preclinical studies. The current investigation aimed at analyzing the correlation between gut microbiome diversity and the methylation of the clock gene ARNTL in individuals with Bipolar Disorder (BD)...
November 10, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Klaus Lieb, Nadine Dreimüller, Stefanie Wagner, Konrad Schlicht, Tanja Falter, Alexandra Neyazi, Linda Müller-Engling, Stefan Bleich, André Tadić, Helge Frieling
Major problems of current antidepressant pharmacotherapy are insufficient response rates and difficulties in response prediction. We recently provided preliminary evidence in a small study that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with a hypomethylation of the CpG-87 site of the promoter IV region of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene are less likely to benefit from antidepressants. Here, we aimed at replicating this finding in a secondary analysis of 561 MDD patients (mean age 40.0 ± 11...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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