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(Epigen* OR (Methyla* OR Methylo*)) AND ((TBI OR Traumatic Brain Injur* OR Concuss*) OR (MDD OR Depress* OR Mood))

Xian Wang, Xiaofeng Shen, Yingli Xu, Shiqin Xu, Fan Xia, Bei Zhu, Yusheng Liu, Wei Wang, Haibo Wu, Fuzhou Wang
Neuropathic pain is a common chronic pain condition with mechanisms far clearly been elucidated. Mounting preclinical and clinical studies have shown neuropathic pain is highly associated with histone acetylation modification, which follows expression regulation of various pain-related molecules such as mGluR1/5, glutamate aspartate transporter, glutamate transporter-1, GAD65, Nav1.8, Kv4.3, μ-opioid receptor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and certain chemokines. As two types of pivotal enzymes involved in histone acetylation, histone deacetylases (HDACs) induce histone deacetylation to silence gene expression; in contrast, histone acetyl transferases (HATs) facilitate histone acetylation to potentiate gene transcription...
August 14, 2018: Molecular Pain
Takashi Murakami, Naoto Sakamoto, Akihito Nagahara
Sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) are early precursor lesions in the serrated neoplasia pathway, which results in colorectal carcinomas with BRAF mutations, methylation for DNA repair genes, a CpG island methylator phenotype, and high levels of microsatellite instability. Some of these lesions can rapidly become dysplastic or invasive carcinomas that exhibit high lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis potentials. Detecting serrated lesions, including SSA/Ps with and without dysplasia/carcinoma, is critical, but SSA/Ps can be difficult to detect, are inconsistently identified by endoscopists and pathologists, and are often incompletely resected...
August 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Joan Kaufman, Nicholas F Wymbs, Janitza L Montalvo-Ortiz, Catherine Orr, Matthew D Albaugh, Robert Althoff, Kerry O'Loughlin, Hannah Holbrook, Hugh Garavan, Catherine Kearney, Bao-Zhu Yang, Hongyu Zhao, Catherine Peña, Eric J Nestler, Richard S Lee, Stewart Mostofsky, Joel Gelernter, James Hudziak
Through unbiased transcriptomics and multiple molecular tools, transient downregulation of the Orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2) gene was recently causatively associated with the development of depressive-like behaviors in a mouse model of early life stress. The analyses presented in this manuscript test the translational applicability of these findings by examining peripheral markers of methylation of OTX2 and OTX2-regulated genes in relation to measures of depression and resting-state functional connectivity data collected as part of a larger study examining risk and resilience in maltreated children...
July 21, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Elmira Ismaylova, Melissa L Lévesque, Florence B Pomares, Moshe Szyf, Zsofia Nemoda, Cherine Fahim, Frank Vitaro, Mara Brendgen, Ginette Dionne, Michel Boivin, Richard E Tremblay, Linda Booij
Several studies have examined associations between peripheral DNA methylation patterns of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) promoter and symptoms of depression and anxiety. The SLC6A4 promoter methylation has also been associated with frontal-limbic brain responses to negative stimuli. However, it is unclear how much of this association is confounded by DNA sequence variations. We utilized a monozygotic-twin within-pair discordance design, to test whether DNA methylation at specific CpG sites in the SLC6A4 promoter of peripheral cells is associated with greater frontal-limbic brain responses to negative stimuli (sadness and fear), independently of DNA sequence effects...
August 8, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Maria Shadrina, Elena A Bondarenko, Petr A Slominsky
Depressive disorders (DDs) are one of the most widespread forms of psychiatric pathology. According to the World Health Organization, about 350 million people in the world are affected by this condition. Family and twin studies have demonstrated that the contribution of genetic factors to the risk of the onset of DDs is quite large. Various methodological approaches (analysis of candidate genes, genome-wide association analysis, genome-wide sequencing) have been used, and a large number of the associations between genes and different clinical DD variants and DD subphenotypes have been published...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Qian-Qian Han, Tian-Tian Shen, Fang Wang, Peng-Fei Wu, Jian-Guo Chen
In this review, we summarize the involvement of vitamin C in mental disorders by presenting available evidence on its pharmacological effects in animal models as well as in clinical studies. Vitamin C, especially its reduced form, has gained interest for its multiple functions in various tissues and organs, including central nervous system (CNS). Vitamin C protects the neuron against oxidative stress, alleviates inflammation, regulates the neurotransmission, affects neuronal development and controls epigenetic function...
February 2018: Current medical science
Laura M Fiori, Rixing Lin, Chelsey Ju, Raoul Belzeaux, Gustavo Turecki
Major depressive disorder is a chronic and debilitating illness. It is most commonly treated with antidepressant drugs, however, as the majority of patients do not respond on their first trial or following several adequate trials, there is great interest in identifying biological factors that may help select the most appropriate treatment for each patient and in understanding biological processes that mediate treatment response. Epigenetic factors, such as non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), hold potential as biomarkers of antidepressant response...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Grace S Kim, Alicia K Smith, Caroline M Nievergelt, Monica Uddin
While diagnosis of PTSD is based on behavioral symptom clusters that are most directly associated with brain function, epigenetic studies of PTSD in humans to date have been limited to peripheral tissues. Animal models of PTSD have been key for understanding the epigenetic alterations in the brain most directly relevant to endophenotypes of PTSD, in particular those pertaining to fear memory and stress response. This chapter provides an overview of neuroepigenetic studies based on animal models of PTSD, with an emphasis on the effect of stress on fear memory...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Ramona A J Zwamborn, Clara Snijders, Ning An, Alix Thomson, Bart P F Rutten, Laurence de Nijs
The Wnt signaling pathway has been recognized as an important pathway, extending its function throughout the lifespan. Evidence suggests that dysfunctional Wnt signaling in the adult brain leads to aberrant neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, modulation of mature synapses and neurotransmitter release in the hippocampus. Due to the involvement of Wnt proteins in hippocampal functioning, altered Wnt signaling has been suggested to be an important factor in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Interestingly, the effects of mood-stabilizing drugs are believed to work through interactions with Wnt molecules, and epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to interact with components of the Wnt pathway and impact mechanisms such as synaptic plasticity...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Alec Dick, Nadine Provencal
Dynamic adaptation to stressful life events requires the co-ordinated action of the central stress response, which is mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, to restore and maintain homeostasis. Excessive exposure to stress or traumatic life events, such as childhood maltreatment, has been linked to HPA axis dysfunction increasing the risk of developing stress-related psychopathologies such as major depressive disorder and post-traumatic-stress-disorder. Mounting evidence supports the notion that stressors throughout pre- and postnatal development as well as adulthood can induce neuroepigenetic regulation of gene expression within key nodes of the brain, which may in part mediate such HPA axis dysfunction...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Samuel J Pellock, Benjamin C Creekmore, William G Walton, Naimee Mehta, Kristen A Biernat, Andrew P Cesmat, Yamuna Ariyarathna, Zachary D Dunn, Bo Li, Jian Jin, Lindsey I James, Matthew R Redinbo
Microbial β-glucuronidases (GUSs) cause severe gut toxicities that limit the efficacy of cancer drugs and other therapeutics. Selective inhibitors of bacterial GUS have been shown to alleviate these side effects. Using structural and chemical biology, mass spectrometry, and cell-based assays, we establish that piperazine-containing GUS inhibitors intercept the glycosyl-enzyme catalytic intermediate of these retaining glycosyl hydrolases. We demonstrate that piperazine-based compounds are substrate-dependent GUS inhibitors that bind to the GUS-GlcA catalytic intermediate as a piperazine-linked glucuronide (GlcA, glucuronic acid)...
July 25, 2018: ACS Central Science
Oleg A Levada, Alexandra S Troyan
Poststroke depression (PSD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder after stroke, which is independently correlated with negative clinical outcome. The identification of specific biomarkers could help to increase the sensitivity of PSD diagnosis and elucidate its pathophysiological mechanisms. The aim of current study was to review and summarize literature exploring potential biomarkers for PSD diagnosis. The PubMed database was searched for papers published in English from October 1977 to December 2017, 90 of which met inclusion criteria for clinical studies related to PSD biomarkers...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Carla Nasca, Benedetta Bigio, Francis S Lee, Sarah P Young, Marin M Kautz, Ashly Albright, James Beasley, David S Millington, Aleksander A Mathé, James H Kocsis, James W Murrough, Bruce S McEwen, Natalie Rasgon
The lack of biomarkers to identify target populations greatly limits the promise of precision medicine for major depressive disorder (MDD), a primary cause of ill health and disability. The endogenously produced molecule acetyl-l-carnitine (LAC) is critical for hippocampal function and several behavioral domains. In rodents with depressive-like traits, LAC levels are markedly decreased and signal abnormal hippocampal glutamatergic function and dendritic plasticity. LAC supplementation induces rapid and lasting antidepressant-like effects via epigenetic mechanisms of histone acetylation...
July 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chenguang Wang, Chaonan Wang, Wenjie Xu, Jingze Zou, Yanhong Qiu, Jun Kong, Yunshu Yang, Boyang Zhang, Shuifang Zhu
Plants have evolved multiple mechanisms to respond to viral infection. These responses have been studied in detail at the level of host immune response and antiviral RNA silencing (RNAi). However, the possibility of epigenetic reprogramming has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we identified the role of DNA methylation during viral infection and performed reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) on tissues of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected Nicotiana tabacum at various developmental stages...
July 29, 2018: Viruses
Frank Bellivier, Cynthia Marie-Claire
Lithium (Li) is the key mood stabilizer in the prevention of mood recurrences and suicide in bipolar disorders. However, only one-third of patients become asymptomatic with Li treatment, and to date, no clinical markers can predict this response variability. Li is a multitargeting drug, complicating an understanding of its mechanisms of action. The present article reviews Li's various biological effects, including those obtained in transcriptomic and epigenetic studies, in both humans and animal models. A molecular signature of the therapeutic response to Li is urgently required, including possibly from the circulation...
July 30, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Fernando Gomez-Pinilla, Xia Yang
The surge in meals high in calories has prompted an epidemic of metabolic disorders around the world such that the elevated incidence of obese and diabetic individuals is alarming. New research indicates that metabolic disorders pose a risk for neurological and psychiatric conditions including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and depression, all of which have a metabolic component. These relationships are rooted to a dysfunctional interaction between molecular processes that regulate energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity...
July 27, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Daniel Frías-Lasserre, Cristian A Villagra, Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna
Despite current advances on the relevance of environmental cues and epigenetic mechanisms in biological processes, including behavior, little attention has been paid to the potential link between epigenetic influences and educational sciences. For instance, could the learning environment and stress determine epigenetic marking, affecting students' behavior development? Could this have consequences on educational outcomes? So far, it has been shown that environmental stress influences neurological processes and behavior both in humans and rats...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Mareen Engel, Carola Eggert, Paul M Kaplick, Matthias Eder, Simone Röh, Lisa Tietze, Christian Namendorf, Janine Arloth, Peter Weber, Monika Rex-Haffner, Shay Geula, Mira Jakovcevski, Jacob H Hanna, Dena Leshkowitz, Manfred Uhr, Carsten T Wotjak, Mathias V Schmidt, Jan M Deussing, Elisabeth B Binder, Alon Chen
N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) and N6 ,2'-O-dimethyladenosine (m6 Am) are abundant mRNA modifications that regulate transcript processing and translation. The role of both, here termed m6 A/m, in the stress response in the adult brain in vivo is currently unknown. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of the stress epitranscriptome using m6 A/m-seq, global and gene-specific m6 A/m measurements. We show that stress exposure and glucocorticoids region and time specifically alter m6 A/m and its regulatory network...
July 25, 2018: Neuron
Elizabeth A Symington, Jeannine Baumgartner, Linda Malan, Lizelle Zandberg, Cristian Ricci, Cornelius M Smuts
BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition during pregnancy is important to ensure optimal birth outcomes, maternal health and offspring development. However, little is known about the dietary intake and nutritional status of pregnant women residing in urban South Africa. Therefore, the Nutrition during Pregnancy and Early Development (NuPED) cohort study was initiated to assess early nutrition-related exposures predictive of early childhood development in urban South Africa. METHODS: The aims of this prospective cohort study are: 1) to assess dietary intake and nutritional status of urban pregnant women in Johannesburg, South Africa, and 2) to determine associations with birth outcomes, measures of maternal health, as well as measures of offspring health and development...
July 24, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Kahlilia C Morris-Blanco, TaeHee Kim, Mario J Bertogliat, Suresh L Mehta, Anil K Chokkalla, Raghu Vemuganti
Cerebral ischemia is known to activate the repressor element-1 (RE1)-silencing transcription factor (REST) which silences neural genes via epigenetic remodeling and promotes neurodegeneration. We presently determined if REST inhibition derepresses target genes involved in synaptic plasticity and promotes functional outcome after experimental stroke. Following transient focal ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in adult rats, REST expression was upregulated significantly from 12 h to 1 day of reperfusion compared to sham control...
July 23, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
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