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(Epigen* OR (Methyla* OR Methylo*)) AND ((TBI OR Traumatic Brain Injur* OR Concuss*) OR (MDD OR Depress* OR Mood))

Xueyuan Zhou, Pengfei Xu, Ruili Dang, Yujin Guo, Gongying Li, Yi Qiao, Ruining Xie, Yuanyuan Liu, Pei Jiang
Doxorubicin (Dox) is an effective anti-cancer agent, whose clinical use is limited by the cytotoxicity in non-target tissues, especially the heart and brain. The drug-induced neuronal damage is primarily mediated by oxidative stress, in which autophagy plays a central role. Although numerous studies indicate the involvement of autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases and brain injury, the evidence concerning autophagic process in Dox-induced neuronal death is limited. We found that repeated Dox administration induced the protein expression of LC3II and P62 and impaired autophagic flux with enhanced autophagasome accumulation in rat hippocampus, whereas two weeks after the cessation of Dox treatment, the autophagic process was restored, even stimulated, with normalized protein levels of LC3II and P62 and enhanced expression of Becline-1, indicating a compensatory response in the recovery state...
October 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Deirdre M McCarthy, Thomas J Morgan, Sarah E Lowe, Matthew J Williamson, Thomas J Spencer, Joseph Biederman, Pradeep G Bhide
Use of tobacco products is injurious to health in men and women. However, tobacco use by pregnant women receives greater scrutiny because it can also compromise the health of future generations. More men smoke cigarettes than women. Yet the impact of nicotine use by men upon their descendants has not been as widely scrutinized. We exposed male C57BL/6 mice to nicotine (200 μg/mL in drinking water) for 12 wk and bred the mice with drug-naïve females to produce the F1 generation. Male and female F1 mice were bred with drug-naïve partners to produce the F2 generation...
October 2018: PLoS Biology
Jacopo Agrimi, Carlotta Baroni, Ekene Anakor, Vincenzo Lionetti
The number of obese patients undergoing cardiac and non cardiac surgery is rapidly increasing because they are more prone to concomitant diseases, such as diabetes, thrombosis, sleep-disordered breathing, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Even if guidelines are already available to manage anesthesia and surgery of obese patients, the assessment of the perioperative morbidity and mortality from heart and brain disorders in morbidly obese surgical patients will be challenging in the next years. The present review will recapitulate the new mechanisms underlying the heart-brain axis vulnerability during the perioperative period in morbidly obese patients...
October 15, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Barbara Tóthová, Mária Kovalská, Dagmar Kalenská, Anna Tomašcová, Ján Lehotský
Epigenetic regulations play an important role in both normal and pathological conditions of an organism, and are influenced by various exogenous and endogenous factors. Hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy), as a risk factor for several pathological conditions affecting the central nervous system, is supposed to alter the epigenetic signature of the given tissue, which therefore worsens the subsequent damage. To investigate the effect of hHcy in combination with ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and histone acetylation, we used the hHcy animal model of global forebrain ischemia in rats...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
G Singh, V Singh, J S Schneider
Sex differences in the risk for and expression of various brain disorders have been known for some time. Yet, the molecular underpinnings of these sex differences as well as how sex modifies normal brain development are still poorly understood. It has recently become known that epigenetic mechanisms play an essential role in establishing and maintaining sex differences in neurodevelopment and disease susceptibility. Epigenetic mechanisms such as post-translational modifications of histones (histone PTMs) integrate various hormonal and external environmental influences to affect genomic output, and this appears to occur in a sex-dependent manner...
October 10, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Jun Dan Jiang, Xiao Chun Zheng, Feng Yi Huang, Fei Gao, Mei Zhen You, Ting Zheng
Ketamine, though widely used in pediatric anesthesia, may induce cortical neurotoxicity in young patients. This study focused on an in vitro model of rat brain embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived neurons to investigate the effects of microRNA-107 (miR-107) on ketamine-induced neural injury. Rat brain ESCs were proliferated in vitro and differentiated toward neuronal fate. Ketamine induced neural injury in ESC-derived neurons was inspected by TUNEL and neurite growth assays. Ketamine-induce aberrant miR-107 expression was examined by qRT-PCR...
October 11, 2018: IUBMB Life
Christiane Ziegler, Miriam A Schiele, Katharina Domschke
Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications are biochemical alterations of the DNA or its spatial structure. They regulate gene function, can be modified by environmental influences and are temporally dynamic. In this review, the current state of knowledge regarding the role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of mental disorders is summarized exemplarily for schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. Additionally, findings on epigenetic alterations in the course of pharmacotherapeutic and psychotherapeutic interventions are presented...
October 9, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Jo Wrigglesworth, Marie-Laure Ancelin, Karen Ritchie, Joanne Ryan
A recent study reported for the first time, that DNA methylation of the KITLG gene mediates the association between childhood trauma and cortisol stress reactivity. Our study aimed to provide the first independent replication of these findings. ESPRIT is a prospective study of community-dwelling participants (age ≥ 65), randomly selected from the electoral rolls of the Montpellier district, in France. Clinical depression was assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, French version 5...
October 9, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Georgios Valsamakis, George Chrousos, George Mastorakos
Stress is one of the commonest and underappreciated causes of reproductive frailty in women. The stress system leads to adaptive responses via mobilization of hormonal systems. Adaptability and resistance to stress are fundamental to life. The response to stressors depends on the type of stressor, the timing and duration of stress, the genetic predisposition, personality characteristics, and the way of coping with stress. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has a direct inhibitory action on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis at multiple levels...
September 22, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Charanraj Goud Alladi, Bruno Etain, Frank Bellivier, Cynthia Marie-Claire
So far, genetic studies of treatment response in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression have returned results with limited clinical utility. A gene × environment interplay has been proposed as a factor influencing not only pathophysiology but also the treatment response. Therefore, epigenetics has emerged as a major field of research to study the treatment of these three disorders. Among the epigenetic marks that can modify gene expression, DNA methylation is the best studied. We performed a systematic search (PubMed) following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines for preclinical and clinical studies focused on genome-wide and gene-specific DNA methylation in the context of schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and major depressive disorder...
October 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Corina Aguilar-Raab, Marc N Jarczok, Marco Warth, Martin Stoffel, Friederike Winter, Maria Tieck, Judith Berg, Lobsang Tenzin Negi, Tim Harrison, Thaddeus W W Pace, Beate Ditzen
INTRODUCTION: Positive social interactions (PSIs) and stable relationships can exert substantial benefits on health. However, patients suffering from depression benefit less from these health-promoting effects. Moreover, relationship quality and even partners' health has been found to be negatively affected by depressive symptomatology, which may result in overall impairments in social functioning of a romantic couple. Psychobiological research indicates that these impairments may be accompanied by a maladaptive regulation of the patient's neuroendocrine response to external stressors...
October 4, 2018: BMJ Open
Kristi M Sawyer, Patricia A Zunszain, Paola Dazzan, Carmine M Pariante
Maternal mental illness can have a devastating effect during the perinatal period, and has a profound impact on the care that the baby receives and on the relationships that the baby forms. This review summarises clinical evidence showing the effects of perinatal depression on offspring physical and behavioural development, and on the transmission of psychopathology between generations. We then evaluate a number of factors which influence this relationship, such as genetic factors, the use of psychotropic medications during pregnancy, the timing within the perinatal period, the sex of the foetus, and exposure to maltreatment in childhood...
October 3, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Jeffrey R Bishop, Adam M Lee, Lauren J Mills, Paul D Thuras, Seenae Eum, Doris Clancy, Christopher R Erbes, Melissa A Polusny, Gregory J Lamberty, Kelvin O Lim
Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for veterans with PTSD. Extensive work has identified epigenetic factors related to PTSD disease risk and pathophysiology, but how these factors influence treatment response is unclear. Serotonin signaling and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning may be perturbed in PTSD and are molecular pathways targeted by PTSD treatments. To identify potential biomarkers for treatment response, we utilized genomic DNA isolated from peripheral blood samples from veterans with PTSD who were responders ( n = 11) or non-responders ( n = 11) to MBSR as part of a clinical trial...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Li Ma, Xiuli Zheng, Yu Yang, Jian Wang, Youli Xu, Baojia Wang
INTRODUCTION: Chronic hepatitis B is a serious disease causing serious harm to the human health. Chinese medicine has its unique advantages in the clinical prevention and treatment, while the syndrome of Chinese medicine lacks the understanding at the micro level. There are some theoretical commonalities between the epigenetics and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes. The biological basis of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) syndrome differentiation from the perspective of epigenetics is of great significance to diagnose and prevent the diseases...
September 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Philip L De Jager, Hyun-Sik Yang, David A Bennett
The field of neurodegenerative disease research has seen tremendous advances over the last two decades as new technologies and analytic methods have enabled well-powered human genomic studies. Driven first by genetic studies and more recently by transcriptomic and epigenomic studies of proper size, we have uncovered a large repertoire of loci, genes, and molecular features that are implicated in discrete, syndromically defined neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease...
October 2018: Nature Neuroscience
John S House, Michelle Mendez, Rachel L Maguire, Sarah Gonzalez-Nahm, Zhiqing Huang, Julie Daniels, Susan K Murphy, Bernard F Fuemmeler, Fred A Wright, Cathrine Hoyo
Background: Maternal diet during pregnancy has been shown to influence the child neuro-developmental outcomes. Studies examining effects of dietary patterns on offspring behavior are sparse. Objective: Determine if maternal adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with child behavioral outcomes assessed early in life, and to evaluate the role of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) regulating genomically imprinted genes in these associations. Methods: Among 325 mother/infant pairs, we used regression models to evaluate the association between tertiles of maternal periconceptional Mediterranean diet adherence (MDA) scores derived from a Food Frequency Questionnaire, and social and emotional scores derived from the Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) questionnaire in the second year of life...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Christiane Ziegler, Katharina Domschke
Epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation are considered key mechanisms at the crossroads between genetics and environment in the etiology of mental disorders. The monoamine oxidases A and B (MAOA/MAOB) are prime candidates for the investigation into the role of DNA methylation in mental disorders, given their pivotal role in the metabolism of monoamines and as pharmacological targets of potent antidepressant drugs such as tranylcypromine, phenelzine or moclobemide. The present mini-review aims at summarizing and critically discussing the growing body of the literature supporting a role of DNA methylation of the MAOA gene promoter/exon I/intron I region and its interaction with environmental factors in several mental disorders, i...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Karolina A Aberg, Brian Dean, Andrey A Shabalin, Robin F Chan, Laura K M Han, Min Zhao, Gerard van Grootheest, Lin Y Xie, Yuri Milaneschi, Shaunna L Clark, Gustavo Turecki, Brenda W J H Penninx, Edwin J C G van den Oord
We present the first large-scale methylome-wide association studies (MWAS) for major depressive disorder (MDD) to identify sites of potential importance for MDD etiology. Using a sequencing-based approach that provides near-complete coverage of all 28 million common CpGs in the human genome, we assay methylation in MDD cases and controls from both blood (N = 1132) and postmortem brain tissues (N = 61 samples from Brodmann Area 10, BA10). The MWAS for blood identified several loci with P ranging from 1...
September 21, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
A S Silva, L V Toffoli, V B Estrada, L F Veríssimo, J Francis-Oliveira, E G Moreira, M V Gomes, G G Pelosi
Fluoxetine (FLX) is an antidepressant from the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class that has largely been used for the treatment of depression in pregnancy. However, increasing evidences have indicated the potential of early maternal exposure to FLX to induce molecular and neuro functional effects on the offspring. In the present study we evaluated possible long lasting impacts of the maternal exposure to FLX during gestation and lactation. Female Wistar rats were gavaged with 5 mg/kg of FLX during the period that comprehends the first day of pregnancy (PD0) and the last day of lactation (LD21) (Group FLX)...
September 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Hanane Hadj-Moussa, Stuart R Green, Kenneth B Storey
Mitochondria are not just the powerhouses of the cell; these 'end of function' organelles are crucial components of cellular physiology and influence many central metabolic and signaling pathways that support complex multicellular life. Not surprisingly, these organelles play vital roles in adaptations for extreme survival strategies including hibernation and freeze tolerance, both of which are united by requirements for a strong reduction and reprioritization of metabolic processes. To facilitate metabolic rate depression, adaptations of all aspects of mitochondrial function are required, including; energetics, physiology, abundance, gene regulation, and enzymatic controls...
September 19, 2018: IUBMB Life
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