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R leigh

Weijun Ke, Constantinos C Stoumpos, Jenna Leigh Logsdon, Michael R Wasielewski, Yanfa Yan, Guojia Fang, Mercouri G Kanatzidis
Achieving high open circuit voltage (Voc) for tin-based perovskite solar cells is challenging. Here, we demonstrate that ZnS interfacial layer can improve the Voc and photovoltaic performance of formamidinium tin iodide (FASnI3) perovskite solar cells. The TiO2-ZnS electron transporting layer (ETL) with cascade conduction band structure can effectively reduce the interfacial charge recombination and facilitate electron transfer. Our best-performing FASnI3 perovskite solar cell using the cascaded TiO2-ZnS ETL has achieved a PCE of 5...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Guanglin Bian, Nicholas D Leigh, Wei Du, Lei Zhang, Li Li, Xuefang Cao
Immune cell-derived cytotoxic pathways have been implicated in antitumor immune responses. The goal of this study is to characterize how these cytotoxic pathways influence ovarian cancer development. We have utilized the TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic mouse model which expresses the transforming SV40 TAg in the ovary, leading to spontaneous development of ovarian tumors that closely mimic human epithelial ovarian cancer. To test how perforin (Prf1), granzyme B (GzmB) and interferon-gamma (IFNg) impact tumor occurrence and progression, we bred the TgMISIIR-TAg transgene into Prf1(-/-), GzmB(-/-), and IFNgR1(-/-) mice...
2016: J Immunol Res Ther
Roger R Fan, Leigh M Howard, Marie R Griffin, Kathryn M Edwards, Yuwei Zhu, John V Williams, Jorge E Vidal, Keith P Klugman, Ana I Gil, Claudio F Lanata, Carlos G Grijalva
We examined nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization density patterns surrounding acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) in young children in Peru. Pneumococcal densities were dynamic, gradually increasing leading up to an ARI, peaking during the ARI, and decreasing after the ARI. Rhinovirus co-infection was associated with higher pneumococcal densities.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
David R Tribble, Ping Li, Tyler E Warkentien, Bradley A Lloyd, Elizabeth R Schnaubelt, Anuradha Ganesan, William Bradley, Deepak Aggarwal, M Leigh Carson, Amy C Weintrob, Clinton K Murray
The Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study began in June 2009 as combat operations were decreasing in Iraq and increasing in Afghanistan. Our analysis examines the rate of infections of wounded U.S. military personnel from operational theaters in Iraq and Afghanistan admitted to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center between June 2009 and December 2013 and transferred to a participating U.S. hospital. Infection risk factors were examined in a multivariate logistic regression analysis (expressed as odds ratios [OR]; 95% confidence intervals [CI])...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Dilip V Jeste, Dan G Blazer, Kathleen C Buckwalter, Keri-Leigh K Cassidy, Len Fishman, Lisa P Gwyther, Saul M Levin, Christopher Phillipson, Ramesh R Rao, Ellen Schmeding, William A Vega, Julie A Avanzino, Danielle K Glorioso, John Feather
Older adults consistently prefer aging in place, which requires a high level of community support and services that are currently lacking. With a rapidly aging population, the present infrastructure for healthcare will prove even more inadequate to meet seniors' physical and mental health needs. A paradigm shift away from the sole focus on delivery of interventions at an individual level to more prevention-focused, community-based approaches will become essential. Recent initiatives have been proposed to promote healthy lifestyles and preventive care to enable older adults to age in place...
July 28, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
J R Ovenden, G M Leigh, D C Blower, A T Jones, A Moore, C Bustamante, R C Buckworth, M B Bennett, C L Dudgeon
Sustainable exploitation of fisheries populations is challenging to achieve when the size of the population prior to exploitation and the actual numbers removed over time and across fishing zones are not clearly known. Quantitative fisheries' modeling is able to address this problem, but accurate and reliable model outcomes depend on high quality input data. Much of this information is obtained through the operation of the fishery under consideration, but while this seems appropriate, biases may occur. For example, poorly quantified changes in fishing methods that increase catch rates can erroneously suggest that the overall population size is increasing...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Kiera R Flynn, Lisandra L Martin, M Leigh Ackland, Angel A J Torriero
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid found in mammalian neuronal cell membranes. While DHA is known to be important for neuronal cell survival, little is know about how DHA interacts with phospholipid bilayers. This study presents a detailed quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) analysis of free DHA interactions with individual and mixed phospholipid supported lipid bilayers (SLB). DHA incorporation and subsequent changes to the SLBs viscoelastic properties were observed to be concentration-dependent, influenced by the phospholipid species, the head-group charge and the presence or absence of calcium ions...
October 11, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Lindsay E Roy, Leigh R Martin
Using Density Functional Theory calculations in combination with explicit solvent and a continuum solvent model, this work sets out to understand the coordination environment and relevant thermodynamics of La(iii)-lactate complexes. Calculations focus on the coordination modes for the complexes and changes in Gibbs free energy for complexation in solution. These results confirm that the α-hydroxyl group should be protonated, or at least hydrogen bonded to a water molecule, upon successive addition of the lactate ligand to the La(iii) center using Bader's Atoms-in Molecules (AIM) approach...
October 4, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Christopher D Morrison, Zheng Hao, Michael B Mumphrey, R Leigh Townsend, Heike Münzberg, Jianping Ye, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms by which bariatric surgeries so effectively and lastingly reduce body weight and normalize metabolic dysfunction are not well understood. Fibroblast growth fator-21 (FGF21) is a key regulator of metabolism and is currently considered for treatment of obesity. Although elevated by acute food deprivation, it is downregulated after weight loss induced by chronic calorie restriction but not after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to assess the role of FGF21-signaling in the beneficial effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB)...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Jhansi R Kalluri, Roberto Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Phil S Hartman, Armando Loni, Leigh T Canham, Jeffery L Coffer
Multiple new approaches to tackle multidrug resistant infections are urgently needed and under evaluation. One nanotechnology-based approach to delivering new relevant therapeutics involves silicon accumulator plants serving as a viable silicon source in green routes for the fabrication of the nanoscale drug delivery carrier porous silicon (pSi). If the selected plant leaf components contain medicinally-active species as well, then a single substance can provide not only the nanoscale high surface area drug delivery carrier, but the drug itself...
2016: PloS One
Lara E Sucheston-Campbell, Rikki Cannioto, Alyssa I Clay, John Lewis Etter, Kevin H Eng, Song Liu, Sebastiano Battaglia, Qiang Hu, J Brian Szender, Albina Minlikeeva, Janine Joseph, Paul Mayor, Scott I Abrams, Brahm Segal, Paul K Wallace, Kah Teong Soh, Emese Z Zsiros, Hoda Anton-Culver, Elisa V Bandera, Matthias W Beckmann, Andrew Berchuck, Line Bjørge, Amanda Bruegl, Ian G Campbell, Shawn Patrice Campbell, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Daniel Cramer, Agnieszka Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Fanny Dao, Brenda Diergaarde, Thilo Doerk, Jennifer A Doherty, Andreas du Bois, Diana Eccles, Svend Aage Engelholm, Peter A Fasching, Simon A Gayther, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Rosalind M Glasspool, Marc T Goodman, Jacek Gronwald, Philipp Harter, Alexander Hein, Florian Heitz, Peter Hillemmanns, Claus Hogdall, Estrid V S Høgdall, Tomasz Huzarski, Allan Jensen, Sharon E Johnatty, Audrey Jung, Beth Karlan, Rüdiger Klapdor, Tomasz Kluz, Bozena Konopka, Susanne Krüger Kjær, Jolanta Kupryjanczyk, Diether Lambrechts, Jenny Lester, Jan Lubiński, Douglas A Levine, Lene Lundvall, Valerie McGuire, Iain A McNeish, Usha Menon, Francesmary Modugno, Roberta B Ness, Sandra Orsulic, James Paul, Celeste Leigh Pearce, Tanja Pejovic, Paul Pharoah, Susan J Ramus, Joseph Rothstein, Mary Anne Rossing, Matthias Rübner, Joellen M Schildkraut, Barbara Schmalfeldt, Ira Schwaab, Nadeem Siddiqui, Weiva Sieh, Piotr Sobiczewski, Honglin Song, Kathryn L Terry, Els Van Nieuwenhuysen, Adriaan Vanderstichele, Ignace Vergote, Christine S Walsh, Penelope M Webb, Nicolas Wentzensen, Alice S Whittemore, Anna H Wu, Argyrios Ziogas, Kunle Odunsi, Jenny Chang-Claude, Ellen L Goode, Kirsten B Moysich
BACKGROUND: The precise mechanism by which the immune system is adversely affected in cancer patients remains poorly understood, but the accumulation of immune suppressive/pro-tumorigenic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is thought to be one prominent mechanism contributing to immunologic tolerance of malignant cells in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). To this end, we hypothesized genetic variation in MDSC pathway genes would be associated with survival after EOC diagnoses. METHODS: We measured the hazard of death due to EOC within 10 years of diagnosis, overall and by invasive subtype, attributable to SNPs in 24 genes relevant in the MDSC pathway in 10,751 women diagnosed with invasive EOC...
September 27, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Hong Seok Kim, Sina Tavakoli, Leigh Ann Piefer, Huynh Nga Nguyen, Reto Asmis
Diabetes promotes the S-glutathionylation, inactivation and subsequent degradation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) in blood monocytes, and hematopoietic MKP-1-deficiency in atherosclerosis-prone mice accelerates atherosclerotic lesion formation, but the underlying mechanisms were not known. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms through which MKP-1 deficiency in monocytes and macrophages promotes atherogenesis. Transplantation of MKP-1-deficient bone marrow into LDL-R(-/-) (MKP-1LeuKO) mice accelerated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerotic lesion formation...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
C Leigh Broadhurst, Walter F Schmidt, Moon S Kim, Julie K Nguyen, Jianwei Qin, Kuanglin Chao, Gary L Bauchan, Daniel R Shelton
We analyzed the unsaturated fatty acids oleic (OA, 18:1n-9) and linoleic (LA, 18:2n-3), and a 3:1 LA:OA mixture from -100 to 50 °C with continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS). The 20 Mb three-dimensional data arrays with 0.2 °C increments and first/second derivatives allowed rapid, complete assignment of solid, liquid, and transition state vibrational modes. For OA, large spectral and line width changes occurred in the solid state γ to α transition near -4 °C, and the melt (13 °C) over a range of only 1 °C...
September 23, 2016: Lipids
Franklin L Zhong, Ons Mamaï, Lorenzo Sborgi, Lobna Boussofara, Richard Hopkins, Kim Robinson, Ildikó Szeverényi, Takuya Takeichi, Reshmaa Balaji, Aristotle Lau, Hazel Tye, Keya Roy, Carine Bonnard, Patricia J Ahl, Leigh Ann Jones, Paul Baker, Lukas Lacina, Atsushi Otsuka, Pierre R Fournie, François Malecaze, E Birgitte Lane, Masashi Akiyama, Kenji Kabashima, John E Connolly, Seth L Masters, Vincent J Soler, Salma Samir Omar, John A McGrath, Roxana Nedelcu, Moez Gribaa, Mohamed Denguezli, Ali Saad, Sebastian Hiller, Bruno Reversade
Inflammasome complexes function as key innate immune effectors that trigger inflammation in response to pathogen- and danger-associated signals. Here, we report that germline mutations in the inflammasome sensor NLRP1 cause two overlapping skin disorders: multiple self-healing palmoplantar carcinoma (MSPC) and familial keratosis lichenoides chronica (FKLC). We find that NLRP1 is the most prominent inflammasome sensor in human skin, and all pathogenic NLRP1 mutations are gain-of-function alleles that predispose to inflammasome activation...
September 22, 2016: Cell
Sean M Bagshaw, Dawn Opgenorth, Melissa Potestio, Stephanie E Hastings, Shelanne L Hepp, Elaine Gilfoyle, David McKinlay, Paul Boucher, Michael Meier, Jeanna Parsons-Leigh, R T Noel Gibney, David A Zygun, Henry T Stelfox
OBJECTIVES: Discrepancy in the supply-demand relationship for critical care services precipitates a strain on ICU capacity. Strain can lead to suboptimal quality of care and burnout among providers and contribute to inefficient health resource utilization. We engaged interprofessional healthcare providers to explore their perceptions of the sources, impact, and strategies to manage capacity strain. DESIGN: Qualitative study using a conventional thematic analysis...
September 15, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Adam E Barry, Leigh E Szucs, Jovanni V Reyes, Qian Ji, Kelly L Wilson, Bruce Thompson
Given the American Psychological Association's strong recommendation to always report effect sizes in research, scholars have a responsibility to provide complete information regarding their findings. The purposes of this study were to (a) determine the frequencies with which different effect sizes were reported in published, peer-reviewed articles in health education, promotion, and behavior journals and (b) discuss implications for reporting effect size in social science research. Across a 4-year time period (2010-2013), 1,950 peer-reviewed published articles were examined from the following six health education and behavior journals: American Journal of Health Behavior, American Journal of Health Promotion, Health Education & Behavior, Health Education Research, Journal of American College Health, and Journal of School Health Quantitative features from eligible manuscripts were documented using Qualtrics online survey software...
October 2016: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
I-Y Jung, H-R Kim, S M Chun, J-H Leigh, H-I Shin
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of severe lower extremity spasticity on anthropometric dimensions, body composition and metabolic profiles in persons with chronic motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Outpatient clinic. METHODS: Fifty-five of the 61 participants were divided into two groups (no or mild spasticity group, 28; severe spasticity group, 27) based on the assessment of the extensor muscle spasticity according to the modified Ashworth scale...
September 13, 2016: Spinal Cord
Mark R Dixon, Jordan Belisle, Caleb R Stanley, Jacob H Daar, Leigh Anne Williams
The present study evaluated the efficacy of equivalence-based instruction (EBI) as described in the PEAK-E curriculum (Dixon, 2015) for promoting the emergence of derived geometry skills in two children with high-functioning autism. The results suggested that direct training of shape name (A) to shape property (B) (i.e., A-B relations) was effective for both participants. Following A-B training, both participants demonstrated emergent relations that are consistent with symmetry (B-A), as well as emergent shape name (A) to shape picture (C) relations that are consistent with transitivity (A-C)...
June 2016: Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Benjamin Gaastra, Aleksey Shatunov, Sara Pulit, Ashley R Jones, William Sproviero, Alexandra Gillett, Zhongbo Chen, Janine Kirby, Isabella Fogh, John F Powell, P Nigel Leigh, Karen E Morrison, Pamela J Shaw, Christopher E Shaw, Leonard H van den Berg, Jan H Veldink, Cathryn M Lewis, Ammar Al-Chalabi
Our objective was to identify whether rare genetic variation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) candidate survival genes modifies ALS survival. Candidate genes were selected based on evidence for modifying ALS survival. Each tail of the extreme 1.5% of survival was selected from the UK MND DNA Bank and all samples available underwent whole genome sequencing. A replication set from the Netherlands was used for validation. Sequences of candidate survival genes were extracted and variants passing quality control with a minor allele frequency ≤0...
September 1, 2016: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Brian C Russo, Luisa M Stamm, Matthijs Raaben, Caleb M Kim, Emily Kahoud, Lindsey R Robinson, Sayantan Bose, Ana L Queiroz, Bobby Brooke Herrera, Leigh A Baxt, Nirit Mor-Vaknin, Yang Fu, Gabriel Molina, David M Markovitz, Sean P Whelan, Marcia B Goldberg
Type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs) of bacterial pathogens translocate bacterial effector proteins that mediate disease into the eukaryotic cytosol. Effectors traverse the plasma membrane through a translocon pore formed by T3SS proteins. In a genome-wide selection, we identified the intermediate filament vimentin as required for infection by the T3SS-dependent pathogen S. flexneri. We found that vimentin is required for efficient T3SS translocation of effectors by S. flexneri and other pathogens that use T3SS, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis...
2016: Nature Microbiology
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