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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348645/a-global-perspective-on-the-trophic-geography-of-sharks
#1
Christopher S Bird, Ana Veríssimo, Sarah Magozzi, Kátya G Abrantes, Alex Aguilar, Hassan Al-Reasi, Adam Barnett, Dana M Bethea, Gérard Biais, Asuncion Borrell, Marc Bouchoucha, Mariah Boyle, Edward J Brooks, Juerg Brunnschweiler, Paco Bustamante, Aaron Carlisle, Diana Catarino, Stéphane Caut, Yves Cherel, Tiphaine Chouvelon, Diana Churchill, Javier Ciancio, Julien Claes, Ana Colaço, Dean L Courtney, Pierre Cresson, Ryan Daly, Leigh de Necker, Tetsuya Endo, Ivone Figueiredo, Ashley J Frisch, Joan Holst Hansen, Michael Heithaus, Nigel E Hussey, Johannes Iitembu, Francis Juanes, Michael J Kinney, Jeremy J Kiszka, Sebastian A Klarian, Dorothée Kopp, Robert Leaf, Yunkai Li, Anne Lorrain, Daniel J Madigan, Aleksandra Maljković, Luis Malpica-Cruz, Philip Matich, Mark G Meekan, Frédéric Ménard, Gui M Menezes, Samantha E M Munroe, Michael C Newman, Yannis P Papastamatiou, Heidi Pethybridge, Jeffrey D Plumlee, Carlos Polo-Silva, Katie Quaeck-Davies, Vincent Raoult, Jonathan Reum, Yassir Eden Torres-Rojas, David S Shiffman, Oliver N Shipley, Conrad W Speed, Michelle D Staudinger, Amy K Teffer, Alexander Tilley, Maria Valls, Jeremy J Vaudo, Tak-Cheung Wai, R J David Wells, Alex S J Wyatt, Andrew Yool, Clive N Trueman
Sharks are a diverse group of mobile predators that forage across varied spatial scales and have the potential to influence food web dynamics. The ecological consequences of recent declines in shark biomass may extend across broader geographic ranges if shark taxa display common behavioural traits. By tracking the original site of photosynthetic fixation of carbon atoms that were ultimately assimilated into muscle tissues of 5,394 sharks from 114 species, we identify globally consistent biogeographic traits in trophic interactions between sharks found in different habitats...
January 18, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346184/synergistic-impact-of-training-followed-by-on-site-support-on-hiv-clinical-practice-a-mixed-design-study-in-uganda-with-pre-post-and-cluster-randomized-trial-components
#2
Sarah Burnett, Norbert Mubiru, Peace Imani, Martin K Mbonye, Leigh Fisher, Robert Colebunders, Yukari C Manabe, Marcia R Weaver
BACKGROUND: Task-shifting can expand antiretroviral therapy access, but little is known about effective approaches to improve clinical practice among mid-level practitioners' (MLP) such as clinical officers, nurses, and midwives. The Integrated Infectious Diseases Capacity-Building Evaluation compared training alone to training combined with on-site support (OSS). METHODS: Two MLP each from 36 health facilities attended the five-week Integrated Management of Infectious Disease training...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345970/the-prevalence-and-significance-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-patients-with-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#3
Mark L Metersky, Timothy R Aksamit, Alan Barker, Radmila Choate, Charles L Daley, Leigh A Daniels, Angela DiMango, Edward Eden, David Griffith, Margaret Johnson, Michael Knowles, Anne E O'Donnell, Kenneth Olivier, Matthias Salathe, Byron Thomashow, Gregory Tino, Gerard Turino, Kevin L Winthrop, David Mannino
RATIONALE: Staphylococcus aureus is commonly cultured from the sputum of patients with bronchiectasis, however little is known about the prevalence of the organism in these patients, the characteristics of patients who have grown the organism or its implications. OBJECTIVES: Determine the relationship between S. aureus and pulmonary function, frequency of exacerbations and frequency of hospitalization in patients with bronchiectasis Methods: The Bronchiectasis Research Registry is a database of adults with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis identified from 13 sites within the United States...
January 18, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338975/critical-effects-of-polar-fluorescent-probes-on-the-interaction-of-dha-with-popc-supported-lipid-bilayers
#4
Kiera R Flynn, Alessandra Sutti, Lisandra L Martin, M Leigh Ackland, Angel A J Torriero
The understanding of lipid bilayer structure and function has been advanced by the application of molecular fluorophores. However, the effects of these probe molecules on the physicochemical properties of membranes being studied are poorly understood. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring instrument was used in this work to investigate the impact of two commonly used fluorescent probes, 1-palmitoyl-2-{12-[(7-nitro-2-1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]dodecanoyl}-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (NBD-PC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-(lissamine rhodamine-B-sulfonyl) (Lis-Rhod PE), on the formation and physicochemical properties of a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine supported lipid bilayer (POPC-SLB)...
January 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331440/the-effect-of-bilateral-eye-movements-versus-no-eye-movements-on-sexual-fantasies
#5
Ross M Bartels, Leigh Harkins, Samantha C Harrison, Nikki Beard, Anthony R Beech
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bilateral eye-movements (EMs) and visual mental imagery both require working memory resources. When performed together, they compete for these resources, which can cause various forms of mental imagery to become impaired (e.g., less vivid). This study aimed to examine whether EMs impair sexual fantasies (a form of mental imagery) in the same manner. METHODS: Eighty undergraduates (40 males, 40 females) took part in four counterbalanced conditions: (1) EMs and an experience-based sexual fantasy; (2) EMs and an imagination-based sexual fantasy; (3) experience-based sexual fantasy only; and (4) imagination-based sexual fantasy only...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309060/functional-interrogation-and-mining-of-natively-paired-human-vh-vl-antibody-repertoires
#6
Bo Wang, Brandon J DeKosky, Morgan R Timm, Jiwon Lee, Erica Normandin, John Misasi, Rui Kong, Jonathan R McDaniel, George Delidakis, Kendra E Leigh, Thomas Niezold, Chang W Choi, Elise G Viox, Ahmed Fahad, Alberto Cagigi, Aurélie Ploquin, Kwanyee Leung, Eun Sung Yang, Wing-Pui Kong, William N Voss, Aaron G Schmidt, M Anthony Moody, David R Ambrozak, Amy R Henry, Farida Laboune, Julie E Ledgerwood, Barney S Graham, Mark Connors, Daniel C Douek, Nancy J Sullivan, Andrew D Ellington, John R Mascola, George Georgiou
We present a technology to screen millions of B cells for natively paired human antibody repertoires. Libraries of natively paired, variable region heavy and light (VH:VL) amplicons are expressed in a yeast display platform that is optimized for human Fab surface expression. Using our method we identify HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) from an HIV-1 slow progressor and high-affinity neutralizing antibodies against Ebola virus glycoprotein and influenza hemagglutinin.
January 8, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303992/relationships-between-breastfeeding-patterns-and-maternal-and-infant-body-composition-over-the-first-12-months-of-lactation
#7
Zoya Gridneva, Alethea Rea, Anna R Hepworth, Leigh C Ward, Ching T Lai, Peter E Hartmann, Donna T Geddes
Breastfeeding has been implicated in the establishment of infant appetite regulation, feeding patterns and body composition (BC). A holistic approach is required to elucidate relationships between infant and maternal BC and contributing factors, such as breastfeeding parameters. Associations between maternal and breastfed term infant BC (n = 20) and feeding parameters during first 12 months of lactation were investigated. BC was measured at 2, 5, 9 and/or 12 months postpartum with ultrasound skinfolds (US; infants only) and bioimpedance spectroscopy (infants and mothers)...
January 5, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278358/characterisation-of-l-type-amino-acid-transporter-1-lat1-expression-in-human-skeletal-muscle-by-immunofluorescent-microscopy
#8
Nathan Hodson, Thomas Brown, Sophie Joanisse, Nick Aguirre, Daniel W D West, Daniel R Moore, Keith Baar, Leigh Breen, Andrew Philp
The branch chain amino acid leucine is a potent stimulator of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Leucine rapidly enters the cell via the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT1); however, little is known regarding the localisation and distribution of this transporter in human skeletal muscle. Therefore, we applied immunofluorescence staining approaches to visualise LAT1 in wild type (WT) and LAT1 muscle-specific knockout (mKO) mice, in addition to basal human skeletal muscle samples. LAT1 positive staining was visually greater in WT muscles compared to mKO muscle...
December 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247967/early-stage-malignant-phyllodes-tumor-case-report
#9
Thao Wolbert, Emilia C N Leigh, Rahman Barry, Jack R Traylor, Mary Legenza
INTRODUCTION: Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast is an extremely rare entity usually presenting with similar clinical features with those of benign fibroadenoma. Due to its scarcity and clinical presentation, it is quite difficult for clinicians to suspect and diagnose the disease at its early stage. There is currently no consensus regarding adjunctive radiotherapy, hormonal therapy and systemic chemotherapy recommended for malignant phyllodes tumors. PRESENTATION OF CASE: This report presents a case of early-stage malignant phyllodes tumor treated by lumpectomy only without adjunctive chemoradiation therapy, but with an excellent outcome...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247577/ovarian-cancer-risk-aldh2-polymorphism-and-alcohol-drinking-asian-data-from-the-ovarian-cancer-association-consortium
#10
Tomotaka Ugai, Linda E Kelemen, Mika Mizuno, Jue-Sheng Ong, Penelope M Webb, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Kristine G Wicklund, Jennifer Anne Doherty, Mary Anne Rossing, Pamela J Thompson, Lynne R Wilkens, Michael E Carney, Marc T Goodman, Joellen M Schildkraut, Andrew Berchuck, Daniel W Cramer, Kathryn L Terry, Hui Cai, Xiao-Ou Shu, Yu-Tang Gao, Yong-Bing Xiang, David Van Den Berg, Malcom C Pike, Anna H Wu, Celeste Leigh Pearce, Keitaro Matsuo
The ALDH2 polymorphism rs671 (Glu504Lys) causes ALDH2 inactivation and adverse acetaldehyde exposure among Asians, but little is known of the association between alcohol consumption and rs671 and ovarian cancer (OvCa) in Asians. We conducted a pooled analysis of Asian ancestry participants in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We included seven case-control studies and one cohort study comprising 460 invasive OvCa cases, 37 borderline mucinous OvCa and 1,274 controls of Asian descent with information on recent alcohol consumption...
December 16, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240775/ornithine-decarboxylase-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-endometrial-cancer
#11
Hong Im Kim, Chad R Schultz, Andrea L Buras, Elizabeth Friedman, Alyssa Fedorko, Leigh Seamon, Gadisetti V R Chandramouli, G Larry Maxwell, André S Bachmann, John I Risinger
Ornithine Decarboxylase (ODC) a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis is often overexpressed in cancers and contributes to polyamine-induced cell proliferation. We noted ubiquitous expression of ODC1 in our published endometrial cancer gene array data and confirmed this in the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) with highest expression in non-endometrioid, high grade, and copy number high cancers, which have the worst clinical outcomes. ODC1 expression was associated with worse overall survival and increased recurrence in three endometrial cancer gene expression datasets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230968/attenuated-first-rank-symptoms-and-conversion-to-psychosis-in-a-clinical-high-risk-cohort
#12
Francesca M Crump, Leigh Arndt, Margaux Grivel, Guillermo Horga, Cheryl M Corcoran, Gary Brucato, Ragy R Girgis
AIM: We sought to examine attenuated first-rank symptoms (FRS) and subcomponents of the Unusual Thought Content (P.1.) section of the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS) to investigate the robust relationship between total P.1. and conversion. We hypothesized that attenuated FRS would drive the association and, additionally, be most predictive of a schizophrenia diagnosis. METHOD: We assessed 189 clinical high-risk participants. Two independent raters separately scored attenuated FRS and each subcomponent of P...
December 12, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227456/photopolymerized-microfeatures-guide-adult-spiral-ganglion-and-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurite-growth
#13
Linjing Xu, Alison E Seline, Braden Leigh, Mark Ramirez, C Allan Guymon, Marlan R Hansen
HYPOTHESIS: Microtopographical patterns generated by photopolymerization of methacrylate polymer systems will direct growth of neurites from adult neurons, including spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). BACKGROUND: Cochlear implants (CIs) provide hearing perception to patients with severe to profound hearing loss. However, their ability to encode complex auditory stimuli is limited due, in part, to poor spatial resolution caused by spread of the electrical currents in the inner ear...
January 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208746/controlled-activity-of-the-salmonella-invasion-associated-injectisome-reveals-its-intracellular-role-in-the-cytosolic-population
#14
Jessica A Klein, Jesse R Grenz, James M Slauch, Leigh A Knodler
The Salmonella invasion-associated type III secretion system (T3SS1) is an essential virulence factor required for entry into nonphagocytic cells and consequent uptake into a Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). While Salmonella is typically regarded as a vacuolar pathogen, a subset of bacteria escape from the SCV in epithelial cells and eventually hyperreplicate in the cytosol. T3SS1 is downregulated following bacterial entry into mammalian cells, but cytosolic Salmonella cells are T3SS1 induced, suggesting prolonged or resurgent activity of T3SS1 in this population...
December 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205472/progressive-deafness-dystonia-due-to-serac1-mutations-a-study-of-67-cases
#15
Saskia B Wortmann, Katarzyna Iwanicka-Pronicka, Sema Kalkan Ucar, Bader Alhaddad, Moeenaldeen AlSayed, Mohammed A Al-Owain, Hamad I Al-Zaidan, Shanti Balasubramaniam, Ivo Barić, Dalal Bubshait, Alberto Burlina, John Christodoulou, Wendy K Chung, Roberto Colombo, Niklas Darin, Peter Freisinger, Maria Teresa Garcia Silva, Stephanie Grunewald, Tobias B Haack, Peter M van Hasselt, Omar Hikmat, Friederike Hörster, Pirjo Isohanni, Khushnooda Ramzan, Reka Kovacs-Nagy, Zita Krumina, Elena Martin-Hernandez, Johannes A Mayr, Patricia McClean, Linda De Meirleir, Karin Naess, Lock H Ngu, Magdalena Pajdowska, Shamima Rahman, Gillian Riordan, Lisa Riley, Benjamin Roeben, Frank Rutsch, Rene Santer, Manuel Schiff, Martine Seders, Silvia Sequeira, Wolfgang Sperl, Christian Staufner, Matthis Synofzik, Robert W Taylor, Joanna Trubicka, Konstantinos Tsiakas, Ozlem Unal, Evangeline Wassmer, Yehani Wedatilake, Toni Wolff, Holger Prokisch, Eva Morava, Ewa Pronicka, Ron A Wevers, Arjan P de Brouwer, Roeltje R Maas
OBJECTIVE: 3-MEthylGlutaconic aciduria, Dystonia-Deafness, Hepatopathy, Encephalopathy, Leigh-like syndrome (MEGDHEL) syndrome is caused by biallelic variants in SERAC1. METHODS: Multi centre study concerning the course of disease for each organ system, together with metabolic, neuroradiological and genetic findings. RESULTS: 67 individuals (39 previously unreported) from 59 families were included (age range 5 days - 33.4 years, median age 9 years)...
December 2, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205327/social-behaviour-and-gut-microbiota-in-red-bellied-lemurs-eulemur-rubriventer-in-search-of-the-role-of-immunity-in-the-evolution-of-sociality
#16
Aura Raulo, Lasse Ruokolainen, Avery Lane, Katherine Amato, Rob Knight, Steven Leigh, Rebecca Stumpf, Bryan White, Karen E Nelson, Andrea L Baden, Stacey R Tecot
Vertebrate gut microbiota form a key component of immunity and a dynamic link between an individual and the ecosystem. Microbiota might play a role in social systems as well, because microbes are transmitted during social contact and can affect host behaviour. Combining methods from behavioural and molecular research, we describe the relationship between social dynamics and gut microbiota of a group-living cooperative species of primate, the red-bellied lemur (Eulemur rubriventer). Specifically, we ask whether patterns of social contact (group membership, group size, position in social network, individual sociality) are associated with patterns of gut microbial composition (diversity and similarity) between individuals and across time...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205130/impact-of-stress-on-the-gut-microbiome-of-free-ranging-western-lowland-gorillas
#17
Klára Vlčková, Kathryn Shutt-Phillips, Michael Heistermann, Barbora Pafčo, Klára J Petrželková, Angelique Todd, David Modrý, Karen E Nelson, Brenda A Wilson, Rebecca M Stumpf, Bryan A White, Steven R Leigh, Andres Gomez
Exposure to stressors can negatively impact the mammalian gastrointestinal microbiome (GIM). Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA bacterial gene amplicons to evaluate the impact of physiological stress, as evidenced by faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGCM; ng/g), on the GIM composition of free-ranging western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Although we found no relationship between GIM alpha diversity (H) and FGCM levels, we observed a significant relationship between the relative abundances of particular bacterial taxa and FGCM levels...
December 5, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202464/hedgehog-signaling-drives-medulloblastoma-growth-via-cdk6
#18
David R Raleigh, Pervinder K Choksi, Alexis Leigh Krup, Wasima Mayer, Nicole Santos, Jeremy F Reiter
Medulloblastoma, an aggressive cancer of the cerebellum, is among the most common pediatric brain tumors. Approximately one-third of medulloblastomas are associated with misactivation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway. GLI family zinc finger 2 (GLI2) coordinates the Hh transcriptional program; however, the GLI2 targets that promote cancer cell proliferation are unknown. Here, we incorporated a Gli2-EGFP allele into 2 different genetic mouse models of Hh-associated medulloblastoma. Hh signaling induced GLI2 binding to the Cdk6 promoter and activated Cdk6 expression, thereby promoting uncontrolled cell proliferation...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194972/a-composite-noninvasive-index-correlates-with-liver-fibrosis-scores-in-post-fontan-patients-preliminary-findings
#19
William N Evans, Ruben J Acherman, Michael L Ciccolo, Sergio A Carrillo, Alvaro Galindo, Abraham Rothman, Gary A Mayman, Elizabeth A Adams, Leigh C Reardon, Brody J Winn, Noel S Yumiaco, Lesley Shimuizu, Yoko Inanaga, Rowena J Deleon, Humberto Restrepo
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that clinic-based, hepatic-ultrasound, elastography measurements, either alone or in combination with other noninvasive variables, might correlate with liver-biopsy fibrosis scores in patients post-Fontan. METHODS: Between March 2012 and February 2017, we identified patients post-Fontan that underwent elective cardiac catheterization and simultaneous transvenous hepatic biopsy. From this group, we selected patients that met inclusion criteria for liver-ultrasound, shear-wave elastography...
December 1, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191260/physical-activity-as-a-vital-sign-a-systematic-review
#20
Yvonne M Golightly, Kelli D Allen, Kirsten R Ambrose, Jamie L Stiller, Kelly R Evenson, Christiane Voisin, Jennifer M Hootman, Leigh F Callahan
INTRODUCTION: Physical activity (PA) is strongly endorsed for managing chronic conditions, and a vital sign tool (indicator of general physical condition) could alert providers of inadequate PA to prompt counseling or referral. This systematic review examined the use, definitions, psychometric properties, and outcomes of brief PA instruments as vital sign measures, with attention primarily to studies focused on arthritis. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for English-language literature from 1985 through 2016 using the terms PA, exercise, vital sign, exercise referral scheme, and exercise counseling...
November 30, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
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