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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207158/integration-of-chlorophyll-a-fluorescence-and-photorespirometry-techniques-to-understand-production-dynamics-in-macroaglal-communities
#1
Leigh W Tait, Ian Hawes, David R Schiel
Global declines of macroalgal beds in coastal waters have prompted a plethora of studies attempting to understand the drivers of change within dynamic nearshore ecosystems. Photosynthetic measurements are good tools for assessing the consequences of numerous stressors of macroalgae, but there is somewhat of a disconnection between studies that focus on organism-specific ecophysiological responses and those that address causes and consequences of shifts in macroalgal productivity. Our goal is to highlight the applications of two complementary tools for measuring photosynthesis - variable chlorophyll-a fluorescence and photorespirometry - and provide guidance for the integration of physiology and ecology to understand the drivers of change in macroalgal communities...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178762/pet-trumps-surgical-staging-in-locally-advanced-cervical-cancer
#2
Leigh A Cantrell, Linda R Duska
Locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) is a significant problem. The status of the para-aortic lymph nodes (PALN) in women with LACC is critical, as positive PALN dictate extended radiation fields and portend a dismal prognosis. Since 10-25% of women with LACC will have PALN metastases (S Gout, et al. Lancet Oncol 13(5) 2012), the ideal method to identify and treat them is paramount. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 8, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177925/signal-independent-noise-in-intracortical-brain-computer-interfaces-causes-movement-time-properties-inconsistent-with-fitts-law
#3
Francis R Willett, Brian A Murphy, William D Memberg, Christine H Blabe, Chethan Pandarinath, Benjamin L Walter, Jennifer A Sweet, Jonathan P Miller, Jaimie M Henderson, Krishna V Shenoy, Leigh R Hochberg, Robert F Kirsch, A Bolu Ajiboye
OBJECTIVE: Do movements made with an intracortical BCI (iBCI) have the same movement time properties as able-bodied movements? Able-bodied movement times typically obey Fitts' law: [Formula: see text] (where MT is movement time, D is target distance, R is target radius, and [Formula: see text] are parameters). Fitts' law expresses two properties of natural movement that would be ideal for iBCIs to restore: (1) that movement times are insensitive to the absolute scale of the task (since movement time depends only on the ratio [Formula: see text]) and (2) that movements have a large dynamic range of accuracy (since movement time is logarithmically proportional to [Formula: see text])...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158489/validation-of-non-invasive-central-blood-pressure-devices-artery-society-task-force-consensus-statement-on-protocol-standardization
#4
James E Sharman, Alberto P Avolio, Johannes Baulmann, Athanase Benetos, Jacques Blacher, C Leigh Blizzard, Pierre Boutouyrie, Chen-Huan Chen, Phil Chowienczyk, John R Cockcroft, J Kennedy Cruickshank, Isabel Ferreira, Lorenzo Ghiadoni, Alun Hughes, Piotr Jankowski, Stephane Laurent, Barry J McDonnell, Carmel McEniery, Sandrine C Millasseau, Theodoros G Papaioannou, Gianfranco Parati, Jeong Bae Park, Athanase D Protogerou, Mary J Roman, Giuseppe Schillaci, Patrick Segers, George S Stergiou, Hirofumi Tomiyama, Raymond R Townsend, Luc M Van Bortel, Jiguang Wang, Siegfried Wassertheurer, Thomas Weber, Ian B Wilkinson, Charalambos Vlachopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158183/beyond-the-mhc-a-canine-model-of-dermatomyositis-shows-a-complex-pattern-of-genetic-risk-involving-novel-loci
#5
Jacquelyn M Evans, Rooksana E Noorai, Kate L Tsai, Alison N Starr-Moss, Cody M Hill, Kendall J Anderson, Thomas R Famula, Leigh Anne Clark
Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a chronic inflammatory myopathy and vasculopathy driven by genetic and environmental influences. Here, we investigated the genetic underpinnings of an analogous, spontaneous disease of dogs also termed dermatomyositis (DMS). As in JDM, we observed a significant association with a haplotype of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (DLA-DRB1*002:01/-DQA1*009:01/-DQB1*001:01), particularly in homozygosity (P-val = 0.0001). However, the high incidence of the haplotype among healthy dogs indicated that additional genetic risk factors are likely involved in disease progression...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153514/association-of-acute-toxic-encephalopathy-with-litchi-consumption-in-an-outbreak-in-muzaffarpur-india-2014-a-case-control-study
#6
Aakash Shrivastava, Anil Kumar, Jerry D Thomas, Kayla F Laserson, Gyan Bhushan, Melissa D Carter, Mala Chhabra, Veena Mittal, Shashi Khare, James J Sejvar, Mayank Dwivedi, Samantha L Isenberg, Rudolph Johnson, James L Pirkle, Jon D Sharer, Patricia L Hall, Rajesh Yadav, Anoop Velayudhan, Mohan Papanna, Pankaj Singh, D Somashekar, Arghya Pradhan, Kapil Goel, Rajesh Pandey, Mohan Kumar, Satish Kumar, Amit Chakrabarti, P Sivaperumal, A Ramesh Kumar, Joshua G Schier, Arthur Chang, Leigh Ann Graham, Thomas P Mathews, Darryl Johnson, Liza Valentin, Kathleen L Caldwell, Jeffery M Jarrett, Leslie A Harden, Gary R Takeoka, Suxiang Tong, Krista Queen, Clinton Paden, Anne Whitney, Dana L Haberling, Ram Singh, Ravi Shankar Singh, Kenneth C Earhart, A C Dhariwal, L S Chauhan, S Venkatesh, Padmini Srikantiah
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of unexplained illness frequently remain under-investigated. In India, outbreaks of an acute neurological illness with high mortality among children occur annually in Muzaffarpur, the country's largest litchi cultivation region. In 2014, we aimed to investigate the cause and risk factors for this illness. METHODS: In this hospital-based surveillance and nested age-matched case-control study, we did laboratory investigations to assess potential infectious and non-infectious causes of this acute neurological illness...
January 30, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139681/attenuating-nicotine-reinforcement-and-relapse-by-enhancing-endogenous-brain-levels-of-kynurenic-acid-in-rats-and-squirrel-monkeys
#7
Maria E Secci, Alessia Auber, Leigh V Panlilio, Godfrey H Redhi, Eric B Thorndike, Charles W Schindler, Robert Schwarcz, Steven R Goldberg, Zuzana Justinova
Currently-available antismoking medications have limited efficacy and often fail to prevent relapse. Thus, there is a pressing need for newer, more effective treatment strategies. Recently, we demonstrated that enhancing endogenous levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA, a neuroinhibitory product of tryptophan metabolism) counteracts the rewarding effects of cannabinoids by acting as a negative allosteric modulator of α7 nicotinic receptors (α7nAChRs). Since the effects of KYNA on cannabinoid reward involve nicotinic receptors, in the present study we used rat and squirrel monkey models of reward and relapse to examine the possibility that enhancing KYNA can counteract the effects of nicotine...
January 31, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138218/evaluation-of-a-2-aminoimidazole-variant-as-adjuvant-treatment-for-dermal-bacterial-infections
#8
G Logan Draughn, C Leigh Allen, Patricia A Routh, Maria R Stone, Kelly R Kirker, Laura Boegli, Ryan M Schuchman, Keith E Linder, Ronald E Baynes, Garth James, Christian Melander, Angela Pollard, John Cavanagh
2-Aminoimidazole (2-AI)-based compounds have been shown to efficiently disrupt biofilm formation, disperse existing biofilms, and resensitize numerous multidrug-resistant bacteria to antibiotics. Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, we provide initial pharmacological studies regarding the application of a 2-AI as a topical adjuvant for persistent dermal infections. In vitro assays indicated that the 2-AI H10 is nonbactericidal, resensitizes bacteria to antibiotics, does not harm the integument, and promotes wound healing...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126579/sleep-disturbances-in-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#9
Sarah-Lucy Poe, Gary Brucato, Nicolina Bruno, Leigh Y Arndt, Shelly Ben-David, Kelly E Gill, Tiziano Colibazzi, Joshua T Kantrowitz, Cheryl M Corcoran, Ragy R Girgis
There has been recent interest in understanding the role that sleep disturbance plays in patients at Clinical High Risk for psychosis (CHR). We assessed sleep disturbance in 194 CHR patients and 66 healthy control subjects and their relationship to symptoms (positive, negative and general functioning). Patients experienced significantly more sleep disturbance than healthy control subjects and their sleep disturbance was related to greater positive and negative symptoms and worse overall functioning. Targeting sleep disturbance in CHR individuals may provide alternative means of treating the CHR syndrome...
December 23, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124727/patterns-in-gut-microbiota-similarity-associated-with-degree-of-sociality-among-sex-classes-of-a-neotropical-primate
#10
Katherine R Amato, Sarie Van Belle, Anthony Di Fiore, Alejandro Estrada, Rebecca Stumpf, Bryan White, Karen E Nelson, Rob Knight, Steven R Leigh
Studies of human and domestic animal models indicate that related individuals and those that spend the most time in physical contact typically have more similar gut microbial communities. However, few studies have examined these factors in wild mammals where complex social dynamics and a variety of interacting environmental factors may impact the patterns observed in controlled systems. Here, we explore the effect of host kinship and time spent in social contact on the gut microbiota of wild, black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra)...
January 26, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120104/adjuncts-to-local-anaesthetics-in-tonsillectomy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
R Vlok, T M Melhuish, C Chong, T Ryan, Leigh D White
The infiltration of local anaesthetic agents has been shown to reduce post-tonsillectomy pain. A number of recent studies have shown that the addition of agents such as clonidine and dexamethasone improve the efficacy of nerve blocks and spinal anaesthesia. The aim of this review was to determine whether additives to local anaesthetic agents improve post-tonsillectomy outcomes. Four major databases were systematically searched for all relevant studies published up to August 2016. All study designs with a control group receiving local anaesthetic infiltration and an intervention receiving the same infiltration with an added agent were included in this review...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112832/the-formation-of-defect-pairs-for-highly-efficient-visible-light-catalysts
#12
Qingbo Sun, David Cortie, Shaoyang Zhang, Terry J Frankcombe, Guangwei She, Jie Gao, Leigh R Sheppard, Wanbiao Hu, Hua Chen, Shangjun Zhuo, Dehong Chen, Ray L Withers, Garry McIntyre, Dehong Yu, Wensheng Shi, Yun Liu
Highly efficient visible-light catalysts are achieved through forming defect-pairs in TiO2 nanocrystals. This study therefore proposes that fine-tuning the chemical scheme consisting of charge-compensated defect-pairs in balanced concentrations is a key missing step for realizing outstanding photocatalytic performance. This research benefits photocatalytic applications and also provides new insight into the significance of defect chemistry for functionalizing materials.
January 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110238/pre-pregnancy-weight-change-and-incidence-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-a-finding-from-a-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Akilew Awoke Adane, Leigh R Tooth, Gita D Mishra
AIMS: In a population-based cohort study we examined the associations between early adult pre-pregnancy weight change and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: The study included 3111 women from the 1973-78 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. These women have been surveyed regularly since 1996. Women without diabetes and GDM were followed-up between 2003 and 2012. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the effect of baseline (1996, mean age 20years) and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the pre-pregnancy weight changes on the incidence of GDM...
January 11, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100118/assessing-sexual-interest-in-children-using-the-go-no-go-association-test
#14
Ross M Bartels, Anthony R Beech, Leigh Harkins, David Thornton
The present study investigated whether a latency-based Go/No-Go Association Task (GNAT) could be used as an indirect measure of sexual interest in children. A sample of 29 individuals with a history of exclusive extrafamilial offenses against a child and 15 individuals with either a history of exclusive intrafamilial or mixed offenses (i.e., against both adults and children) were recruited from a treatment center in the United States. Also, a sample of 26 nonoffenders was recruited from a university in the United Kingdom...
January 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099853/a-tissue-mapped-axolotl-de-novo-transcriptome-enables-identification-of-limb-regeneration-factors
#15
Donald M Bryant, Kimberly Johnson, Tia DiTommaso, Timothy Tickle, Matthew Brian Couger, Duygu Payzin-Dogru, Tae J Lee, Nicholas D Leigh, Tzu-Hsing Kuo, Francis G Davis, Joel Bateman, Sevara Bryant, Anna R Guzikowski, Stephanie L Tsai, Steven Coyne, William W Ye, Robert M Freeman, Leonid Peshkin, Clifford J Tabin, Aviv Regev, Brian J Haas, Jessica L Whited
Mammals have extremely limited regenerative capabilities; however, axolotls are profoundly regenerative and can replace entire limbs. The mechanisms underlying limb regeneration remain poorly understood, partly because the enormous and incompletely sequenced genomes of axolotls have hindered the study of genes facilitating regeneration. We assembled and annotated a de novo transcriptome using RNA-sequencing profiles for a broad spectrum of tissues that is estimated to have near-complete sequence information for 88% of axolotl genes...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077764/antimicrobial-peptide-coatings-for-hydroxyapatite-electrostatic-and-covalent-attachment-of-antimicrobial-peptides-to-surfaces
#16
Leigh Townsend, Richard L Williams, Olachi Anuforom, Matthew R Berwick, Fenella Halstead, Erik Hughes, Artemis Stamboulis, Beryl Oppenheim, Julie Gough, Liam Grover, Robert A H Scott, Mark Webber, Anna F A Peacock, Antonio Belli, Ann Logan, Felicity de Cogan
The interface between implanted devices and their host tissue is complex and is often optimized for maximal integration and cell adhesion. However, this also gives a surface suitable for bacterial colonization. We have developed a novel method of modifying the surface at the material-tissue interface with an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) coating to allow cell attachment while inhibiting bacterial colonization. The technology reported here is a dual AMP coating. The dual coating consists of AMPs covalently bonded to the hydroxyapatite surface, followed by deposition of electrostatically bound AMPs...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059768/sox2-promotes-lineage-plasticity-and-antiandrogen-resistance-in-tp53-and-rb1-deficient-prostate-cancer
#17
Ping Mu, Zeda Zhang, Matteo Benelli, Wouter R Karthaus, Elizabeth Hoover, Chi-Chao Chen, John Wongvipat, Sheng-Yu Ku, Dong Gao, Zhen Cao, Neel Shah, Elizabeth J Adams, Wassim Abida, Philip A Watson, Davide Prandi, Chun-Hao Huang, Elisa de Stanchina, Scott W Lowe, Leigh Ellis, Himisha Beltran, Mark A Rubin, David W Goodrich, Francesca Demichelis, Charles L Sawyers
Some cancers evade targeted therapies through a mechanism known as lineage plasticity, whereby tumor cells acquire phenotypic characteristics of a cell lineage whose survival no longer depends on the drug target. We use in vitro and in vivo human prostate cancer models to show that these tumors can develop resistance to the antiandrogen drug enzalutamide by a phenotypic shift from androgen receptor (AR)-dependent luminal epithelial cells to AR-independent basal-like cells. This lineage plasticity is enabled by the loss of TP53 and RB1 function, is mediated by increased expression of the reprogramming transcription factor SOX2, and can be reversed by restoring TP53 and RB1 function or by inhibiting SOX2 expression...
January 6, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054828/comparison-of-the-king-s-and-mitos-staging-systems-for-als
#18
Ton Fang, Ahmad Al Khleifat, Daniel R Stahl, Claudia Lazo La Torre, Caroline Murphy, Carolyn Young, Pamela J Shaw, P Nigel Leigh, Ammar Al-Chalabi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare two ALS staging systems, King's clinical staging and Milano-Torino (MiToS) functional staging, using data from the LiCALS phase III clinical trial (EudraCT 2008-006891-31). METHODS: Disease stage was derived retrospectively for each system from the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised subscores using standard methods. The two staging methods were then compared for timing of stages using box plots, correspondence using chi-square tests, agreement using a linearly weighted kappa coefficient and concordance using Spearman's rank correlation...
January 5, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054174/genome-wide-meta-analyses-of-nonsyndromic-orofacial-clefts-identify-novel-associations-between-foxe1-and-all-orofacial-clefts-and-tp63-and-cleft-lip-with-or-without-cleft-palate
#19
Elizabeth J Leslie, Jenna C Carlson, John R Shaffer, Azeez Butali, Carmen J Buxó, Eduardo E Castilla, Kaare Christensen, Fred W B Deleyiannis, L Leigh Field, Jacqueline T Hecht, Lina Moreno, Ieda M Orioli, Carmencita Padilla, Alexandre R Vieira, George L Wehby, Eleanor Feingold, Seth M Weinberg, Jeffrey C Murray, Terri H Beaty, Mary L Marazita
Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (OFCs) are a heterogeneous group of common craniofacial birth defects with complex etiologies that include genetic and environmental risk factors. OFCs are commonly categorized as cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate alone (CP), which have historically been analyzed as distinct entities. Genes for both CL/P and CP have been identified via multiple genome-wide linkage and association studies (GWAS); however, altogether, known variants account for a minority of the estimated heritability in risk to these craniofacial birth defects...
March 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052956/the-international-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-cohort-ipcd-cohort-methods-and-first-results
#20
Myrofora Goutaki, Elisabeth Maurer, Florian S Halbeisen, Israel Amirav, Angelo Barbato, Laura Behan, Mieke Boon, Carmen Casaulta, Annick Clement, Suzanne Crowley, Eric Haarman, Claire Hogg, Bulent Karadag, Cordula Koerner-Rettberg, Margaret W Leigh, Michael R Loebinger, Henryk Mazurek, Lucy Morgan, Kim G Nielsen, Heymut Omran, Nicolaus Schwerk, Sergio Scigliano, Claudius Werner, Panayiotis Yiallouros, Zorica Zivkovic, Jane S Lucas, Claudia E Kuehni
Data on primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) epidemiology is scarce and published studies are characterised by low numbers. In the framework of the European Union project BESTCILIA we aimed to combine all available datasets in a retrospective international PCD cohort (iPCD Cohort).We identified eligible datasets by performing a systematic review of published studies containing clinical information on PCD, and by contacting members of past and current European Respiratory Society Task Forces on PCD. We compared the contents of the datasets, clarified definitions and pooled them in a standardised format...
January 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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