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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640062/an-atmospheric-pressure-ionization-ms-ms-assay-using-online-extraction-for-the-analysis-of-11-cannabinoids-and-metabolites-in-human-plasma-and-urine
#1
Jelena Klawitter, Cristina Sempio, Sophie Mörlein, Erik De Bloois, Jacek Klepacki, Thomas Henthorn, Maureen A Leehey, Edward J Hoffenberg, Kelly Knupp, George S Wang, Christian Hopfer, Greg Kinney, Russell Bowler, Nicholas Foreman, Jeffrey Galinkin, Uwe Christians, Jost Klawitter
BACKGROUND: Although, especially in the United States, there has been a recent surge of legalized cannabis for either recreational or medicinal purposes, surprisingly little is known about clinical dose-response relationships, pharmaco- and toxicodynamic effects of cannabinoids such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Even less is known about other active cannabinoids. METHODS: To address this knowledge gap, an online extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantification of 11 cannabinoids and metabolites including THC, 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11OH-THC), 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid glucuronide (THC-C-gluc), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabidivarin (CBDV), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV-COOH) was developed and validated in human urine and plasma...
June 19, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343385/development-of-a-rapid-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-quantification-of-cannabidiol-cannabidivarin-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabivarin-and-cannabigerol-in-mouse-peripheral-tissues
#2
Fabiana Piscitelli, Ester Pagano, Anna Lauritano, Angelo A Izzo, Vincenzo Di Marzo
Cannabis has been known as a medicine for several thousand years across many cultures and its beneficial effects are mostly due to the presence of cannabinoids, unique natural products, whose pharmacology is going to gain increasing interest in the scientific community. The discovery of the main psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L., Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), led to the identification of at least 100 additional phytocannabinoids, including cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarin (CBDV), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ(9)-THCV), and cannabigerol (CBG)...
April 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109780/neuroimaging-studies-towards-understanding-the-central-effects-of-pharmacological-cannabis-products-on-patients-with-epilepsy
#3
REVIEW
Jane B Allendorfer, Jerzy P Szaflarski
Recent interest for the use of cannabis-derived products as therapeutic agents in the treatment of epilepsies has necessitated a reevaluation of their effects on brain and behavior. Overall, prolonged cannabis use is thought to result in functional and structural brain alterations. These effects may be dependent on a number of factors: e.g., which phytocannabinoid is used (e.g., cannabidiol (CBD) vs. tetrahyrocannabinol (THC)), the frequency of use (occasional vs. heavy), and at what age (prenatal, childhood, adulthood) the use began...
May 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087250/pharmacology-of-cannabinoids-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#4
REVIEW
Tyler E Gaston, Daniel Friedman
The use of cannabis products in the treatment of epilepsy has long been of interest to researchers and clinicians alike; however, until recently very little published data were available to support its use. This article summarizes the available scientific data of pharmacology from human and animal studies on the major cannabinoids which have been of interest in the treatment of epilepsy, including ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC), cannabidiol (CBD), ∆9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (∆9-THCV), cannabidivarin (CBDV), and ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ9-THCA)...
May 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957741/quantitative-determination-of-cannabinoids-in-cannabis-and-cannabis-products-using-ultra-high-performance-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-and-diode-array-mass-spectrometric-detection
#5
Mei Wang, Yan-Hong Wang, Bharathi Avula, Mohamed M Radwan, Amira S Wanas, Zlatko Mehmedic, John van Antwerp, Mahmoud A ElSohly, Ikhlas A Khan
Ultra-high-performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) is an efficient analytical technique and has not been fully employed for the analysis of cannabis. Here, a novel method was developed for the analysis of 30 cannabis plant extracts and preparations using UHPSFC/PDA-MS. Nine of the most abundant cannabinoids, viz. CBD, ∆(8) -THC, THCV, ∆(9) -THC, CBN, CBG, THCA-A, CBDA, and CBGA, were quantitatively determined (RSDs < 6.9%). Unlike GC methods, no derivatization or decarboxylation was required prior to UHPSFC analysis...
May 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899456/free-and-glucuronide-whole-blood-cannabinoids-pharmacokinetics-after-controlled-smoked-vaporized-and-oral-cannabis-administration-in-frequent-and-occasional-cannabis-users-identification-of-recent-cannabis-intake
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Matthew N Newmeyer, Madeleine J Swortwood, Allan J Barnes, Osama A Abulseoud, Karl B Scheidweiler, Marilyn A Huestis
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in markers of recent cannabis use because following frequent cannabis intake, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) may be detected in blood for up to 30 days. The minor cannabinoids cannabidiol, cannabinol (CBN), and THC-glucuronide were previously detected for ≤2.1 h in frequent and occasional smokers' blood after cannabis smoking. Cannabigerol (CBG), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THCV might also be recent use markers, but their blood pharmacokinetics have not been investigated...
December 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647820/cannabinoid-disposition-in-oral-fluid-after-controlled-smoked-vaporized-and-oral-cannabis-administration
#7
Madeleine J Swortwood, Matthew N Newmeyer, Maria Andersson, Osama A Abulseoud, Karl B Scheidweiler, Marilyn A Huestis
Oral fluid (OF) is an important matrix for monitoring drugs. Smoking cannabis is common, but vaporization and edible consumption also are popular. OF pharmacokinetics are available for controlled smoked cannabis, but few data exist for vaporized and oral routes. Frequent and occasional cannabis smokers were recruited as participants for four dosing sessions including one active (6.9% Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) or placebo cannabis-containing brownie, followed by one active or placebo cigarette, or one active or placebo vaporized cannabis dose...
June 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573936/efficacy-and-safety-of-cannabidiol-and-tetrahydrocannabivarin-on-glycemic-and-lipid-parameters-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-parallel-group-pilot-study
#8
Khalid A Jadoon, Stuart H Ratcliffe, David A Barrett, E Louise Thomas, Colin Stott, Jimmy D Bell, Saoirse E O'Sullivan, Garry D Tan
OBJECTIVE: Cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) are nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoids affecting lipid and glucose metabolism in animal models. This study set out to examine the effects of these compounds in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 62 subjects with noninsulin-treated type 2 diabetes were randomized to five treatment arms: CBD (100 mg twice daily), THCV (5 mg twice daily), 1:1 ratio of CBD and THCV (5 mg/5 mg, twice daily), 20:1 ratio of CBD and THCV (100 mg/5 mg, twice daily), or matched placebo for 13 weeks...
October 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539096/long-term-stability-of-cannabinoids-in-oral-fluid-after-controlled-cannabis-administration
#9
Karl B Scheidweiler, Maria Andersson, Madeleine J Swortwood, Cristina Sempio, Marilyn A Huestis
Cannabinoid stability in oral fluid (OF) is important for assuring accurate results since OF has become a valid alternative matrix of choice for drug testing. We previously published OF cannabinoid stability studies using Quantisal™, Oral-Eze®, and StatSure™ devices stored at room temperature for 1 week, 4 °C for up to 4 weeks, and at -20 °C up to 24 weeks. Extending refrigerated stability up to 3 months would be helpful for clinical and forensic testing, for re-analysis of OF samples and for batching research analyses...
January 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498155/pure-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabivarin-and-a-cannabis-sativa-extract-with-high-content-in-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabivarin-inhibit-nitrite-production-in-murine-peritoneal-macrophages
#10
Barbara Romano, Ester Pagano, Pierangelo Orlando, Raffaele Capasso, Maria Grazia Cascio, Roger Pertwee, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Angelo A Izzo, Francesca Borrelli
Historical and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. We have here investigated the effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and of a Cannabis sativa extract with high (64.8%) content in THCV (THCV-BDS) on nitric oxide (NO) production, and on cannabinoid and transient receptor potential (TRP) channel expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages. THCV-BDS and THCV exhibited similar affinity in radioligand binding assays for CB1 and CB2 receptors, and inhibited, via CB2 but not CB1 cannabinoid receptors, nitrite production evoked by LPS in peritoneal macrophages...
August 3, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422645/simultaneous-quantification-of-11-cannabinoids-and-metabolites-in-human-urine-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-using-wax-s-tips
#11
Maria Andersson, Karl B Scheidweiler, Cristina Sempio, Allan J Barnes, Marilyn A Huestis
A comprehensive cannabinoid urine quantification method may improve clinical and forensic result interpretation and is necessary to support our clinical research. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry quantification method for ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCAA), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THCV (THCVCOOH), THC-glucuronide (THC-gluc), and THCCOOH-glucuronide (THCCOOH-gluc) in urine was developed and validated according to the Scientific Working Group on Toxicology guidelines...
September 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341312/simultaneous-quantification-of-major-cannabinoids-and-metabolites-in-human-urine-and-plasma-by-hplc-ms-ms-and-enzyme-alkaline-hydrolysis
#12
Oier Aizpurua-Olaizola, Iratxe Zarandona, Laura Ortiz, Patricia Navarro, Nestor Etxebarria, Aresatz Usobiaga
A high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantification of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its two metabolites 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), and four additional cannabinoids (cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and cannabinol (CBN)) in 1 mL of human urine and plasma was developed and validated. The hydrolysis process was studied to ensure complete hydrolysis of glucuronide conjugates and the extraction of a total amount of analytes...
April 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236483/quantification-of-cannabinoids-and-their-free-and-glucuronide-metabolites-in-whole-blood-by-disposable-pipette-extraction-and-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#13
Karl B Scheidweiler, Matthew N Newmeyer, Allan J Barnes, Marilyn A Huestis
Identifying recent cannabis intake is confounded by prolonged cannabinoid excretion in chronic frequent cannabis users. We previously observed detection times ≤2.1h for cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-glucuronide in whole blood after smoking, suggesting their applicability for identifying recent intake. However, whole blood collection may not occur for up to 4h during driving under the influence of drugs investigations, making a recent-use marker with a 6-8h detection window helpful for improving whole blood cannabinoid interpretation...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27094344/differential-effectiveness-of-selected-non-psychotropic-phytocannabinoids-on-human-sebocyte-functions-implicates-their-introduction-in-dry-seborrhoeic-skin-and-acne-treatment
#14
Attila Oláh, Arnold Markovics, Judit Szabó-Papp, Pálma Tímea Szabó, Colin Stott, Christos C Zouboulis, Tamás Bíró
Acne is a common skin disease characterized by elevated sebum production and inflammation of the sebaceous glands. We have previously shown that a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid ((-)-cannabidiol [CBD]) exerted complex anti-acne effects by normalizing 'pro-acne agents'-induced excessive sebaceous lipid production, reducing proliferation and alleviating inflammation in human SZ95 sebocytes. Therefore, in this study we aimed to explore the putative anti-acne effects of further non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids ((-)-cannabichromene [CBC], (-)-cannabidivarin [CBDV], (-)-cannabigerol [CBG], (-)-cannabigerovarin [CBGV] and (-)-Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabivarin [THCV])...
September 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26651563/determination-of-11-cannabinoids-in-biomass-and-extracts-of-different-varieties-of-cannabis-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#15
Waseem Gul, Shahbaz W Gul, Mohamed M Radwan, Amira S Wanas, Zlatko Mehmedic, Ikhlas I Khan, Maged H M Sharaf, Mahmoud A ElSohly
An HPLC single-laboratory validation was performed for the detection and quantification of the 11 major cannabinoids in most cannabis varieties, namely, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabinol (CBN), Δ9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), Δ8-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC), cannabicyclol (CBL), cannabichromene (CBC), and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (THCAA). The analysis was carried out on the biomass and extracts of these varieties...
November 2015: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26577065/the-effect-of-five-day-dosing-with-thcv-on-thc-induced-cognitive-psychological-and-physiological-effects-in-healthy-male-human-volunteers-a-placebo-controlled-double-blind-crossover-pilot-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Amir Englund, Zerrin Atakan, Aleksandra Kralj, Nigel Tunstall, Robin Murray, Paul Morrison
RATIONALE: Cannabis is mostly grown under illegal and unregulated circumstances, which seems to favour a product increasingly high in its main cannabinoid ∆-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). ∆-9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) is a relatively untested cannabinoid which is said to be a cannabinoid receptor neutral antagonist, and may inhibit the effects of THC. OBJECTIVES: To explore the safety and tolerability of repeated THCV administration and its effects on symptoms normally induced by THC in a sample of healthy volunteers...
February 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26362774/the-cb1-neutral-antagonist-tetrahydrocannabivarin-reduces-default-mode-network-and-increases-executive-control-network-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-healthy-volunteers
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ewelina Rzepa, Luke Tudge, Ciara McCabe
BACKGROUND: The cannabinoid cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) neutral antagonist tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCv) has been suggested as a possible treatment for obesity, but without the depressogenic side-effects of inverse antagonists such as Rimonabant. However, how THCv might affect the resting state functional connectivity of the human brain is as yet unknown. METHOD: We examined the effects of a single 10mg oral dose of THCv and placebo in 20 healthy volunteers in a randomized, within-subject, double-blind design...
September 10, 2015: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26197538/effect-of-non-psychotropic-plant-derived-cannabinoids-on-bladder-contractility-focus-on-cannabigerol
#18
Ester Pagano, Vittorino Montanaro, Antonio Di Girolamo, Antonio Pistone, Vincenzo Altieri, Jordan K Zjawiony, Angelo A Izzo, Raffaele Capasso
There are anecdotal reports that some Cannabis preparations may be useful for bladder dysfunctions. Here, we investigated the effect of a number of non- psychotropic phytocannabinoids, namely cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabidivarin (CBDV), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabichromene (CBC) on mouse bladder contractility in vitro. CBG, THCV, CBD and CBDV, but not CBC, at concentration ranging from 10(-8) M to 10(-4) M, decreased (with similar potency), the contractions induced by acetylcholine without significantly modifying the contractions induced by electrical stimulation...
June 2015: Natural Product Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25595882/two-non-psychoactive-cannabinoids-reduce-intracellular-lipid-levels-and-inhibit-hepatosteatosis
#19
Cristoforo Silvestri, Debora Paris, Andrea Martella, Dominique Melck, Irene Guadagnino, Mike Cawthorne, Andrea Motta, Vincenzo Di Marzo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity and associated metabolic syndrome have quickly become a pandemic and a major detriment to global human health. The presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; hepatosteatosis) in obesity has been linked to the worsening of the metabolic syndrome, including the development of insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Currently, there are few options to treat NAFLD, including life style changes and insulin sensitizers. Recent evidence suggests that the cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabidiol (CBD) improve insulin sensitivity; we aimed at studying their effects on lipid levels...
June 2015: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25542687/neural-effects-of-cannabinoid-cb1-neutral-antagonist-tetrahydrocannabivarin-on-food-reward-and-aversion-in-healthy-volunteers
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Luke Tudge, Clare Williams, Philip J Cowen, Ciara McCabe
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in the regulation of reward and aversion in the brain may underlie disorders such as obesity and eating disorders. We previously showed that the cannabis receptor subtype (CB1) inverse agonist rimonabant, an antiobesity drug withdrawn due to depressogenic side effects, diminished neural reward responses yet increased aversive responses (Horder et al., 2010). Unlike rimonabant, tetrahydrocannabivarin is a neutral CB1 receptor antagonist (Pertwee, 2005) and may therefore produce different modulations of the neural reward system...
December 25, 2014: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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