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Ji-Yeong Byeon, Choong-Min Lee, Yea-Jin Lee, Young-Hoon Kim, Se-Hyung Kim, Eui Hyun Jung, Won Ki Chae, Yun Jeong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang, Seok-Yong Lee
Tolterodine is metabolized to an active 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine (5-HMT) by CYP2D6. This study investigated the relationship between CYP2D6 genotypes and pharmacokinetics of tolterodine and its active metabolite in healthy Korean subjects. All volunteers were genotyped for CYP2D6 and divided into four different genotype groups (CYP2D6*wt/*wt [*wt = *1 or *2], CYP2D6*wt/*10, CYP2D6*10/*10, and CYP2D6*5/*10). Each subject received a single oral dose of tolterodine tartrate (2 mg) in single-dose phase of the study...
December 12, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Risako Kawata, Tatsuhito Ii, Tatsuya Hori, Yukino Machida, Kazuhiko Ochiai, Daigo Azakami, Toshiyuki Ishiwata, Masaki Michishita
A 14-year and 8-month-old intact male Amur tiger presented with an enlarged left testis, measuring 5.7 × 5.5 × 4.5 cm. The cut surface was mottled dark red to reddish brown in color. Microscopically, the enlarged left testis comprised round or polygonal neoplastic cells arranged in a diffuse sheet pattern. These neoplastic cells had a hyperchromatic nucleus and an abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, these neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, melan-A, inhibin-α, and S100 and negative for desmin and WT-1...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Chao Wang, Xiao-Xia Hou, Hong-Liang Rui, Li-Jing Li, Jing Zhao, Min Yang, Li-Jun Sun, Hong-Rui Dong, Hong Cheng, Yi-Pu Chen
Background/Aims: It is known that chronic low-grade inflammation contributes to the initiation and development of both diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN), so we designed this study to investigate the role of P2X7R and NLRP3 inflammasome in DN pathogenesis and the antagonistic effects of artificially cultivated Ophiocordyceps sinensis (ACOS). Methods: A rat model of DN caused by high-fat-diet feeding and low-dose streptozotocin injection and a mouse podocyte injury model induced by high-glucose (HG) stimulation were established, and the intervention effects of ACOS on them were observed...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Laurence Gariépy-Assal, Rodney D Gilbert, Aleksas Žiaugra, Bethany Joy Foster
Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS), a condition caused by mutations in the tumor-suppressor gene WT-1, is associated with a triad of disorders: ambiguous genitalia, nephrotic syndrome leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and Wilms' tumor. Given the variable disease course, management is challenging. We aimed to describe the evolution of DDS and the range of management strategies by summarizing the clinical courses of cases collected from a questionnaire sent to the international pediatric nephrology community...
2018: Clinical Nephrology. Case Studies
Luigi Della Corte, Pierluigi Giampaolino, Annamaria Fabozzi, Miriam Cieri, Brunella Zizolfi, Ilaria Morra, Giuseppe Bifulco
Ovarian cancer is considered the leading cause of death among gynecologic neoplasias. Breast metastases from primary ovarian cancer have been reported in only 0.03-0.6% of all breast cancers. A 38-year-old female, multipara, affected by advanced ovarian cancer and undergone a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, and pelvic peritonectomy two years earlier, was discovered to have a breast metastasis. She underwent a quadrantectomy (QSI) with an open biopsy of nodularity attached to the pectoral muscle fascia: on definitive histological characterization the breast lesions showed a high-grade invasive carcinoma, with papillary serum differentiation, and the immunohistochemistry study of breast lesion showed positivity for cytokeratin 7 and an extensive positivity for Wilm's tumor (WT)-1 and paired box 8 (PAX8)...
November 19, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Toshiaki Takahashi, Florian Friedmacher, Julia Zimmer, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and associated pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) are thought to be caused by a malformation of the diaphragmatic and pulmonary mesenchyme. Dispatched RND transporter family member 1 (Disp-1) encodes a transmembrane protein that regulates the release of cholesterol and palmitoyl, which is critical for normal diaphragmatic and airway development. Disp-1 is strongly expressed in mesenchymal compartments of fetal diaphragms and lungs. Recently, Disp-1 mutations have been identified in patients with CDH...
October 31, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
Sotaro Kayano, Hiroshi Sasaki, Takahiro Kimura, Shin Egawa
Metanephric adenoma is a rare benign renal epithelial tumor. We have experienced two cases of metanephric adenoma. The first case was a left renal tumor found by ultrasonography in a 26-year-old woman. The abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a 90 mm mass that was enhanced slightly in the early phase, and enhanced further in the late phase. Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed with suspicion of renal cell carcinoma. The second case was a right renal tumor found by CT imaging for heart disease in a 64-year-old man...
August 2018: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
M Tecilla, M Bielli, F C Origgi
A 14-year-old red-ear slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) with no history of pre-existing clinical disease died and was referred for necropsy examination. Grossly, oesophageal prolapse, bilateral renal cysts and a paraduodenal cystic mass were detected. Tissues were processed routinely for histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with primary antibodies specific for Wilm's tumour suppressor gene-1 (WT-1), insulin, glucagon and pancytokeratins. Microscopically, renal medullary cysts and medullary atrophy resembled the changes associated with polycystic kidney disease (PKD)...
October 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
José M Porcel
The use of biomarkers on pleural fluid (PF) specimens may assist the decision-making process and enhance clinical diagnostic pathways. Three paradigmatic examples are heart failure, tuberculosis and, particularly, malignancy. An elevated PF concentration of the amino-terminal fragment of probrain natriuretic peptide (>1500 pg/ml) is a hallmark of acute decompensated heart failure. Adenosine deaminase, interferon-γ and interleukin-27 are three valuable biomarkers for diagnosing tuberculous pleurisy, yet only the first has been firmly established in clinical practice...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
Yutaka Negoro, Ryoichi Yano, Mari Yoshimura, Yoko Suehiro, Shinji Yamashita, Takaaki Kodawara, Kyohei Watanabe, Hitoshi Tsukamoto, Toshiaki Nakamura, Maiko Kadowaki, Miwa Morikawa, Yukihiro Umeda, Masaki Anzai, Tamotsu Ishizuka, Nobuyuki Goto
BACKGROUND: The association between UGT1A1 polymorphism and etoposide-induced toxicities is still not clear. The aim of this study was to assess the association between uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene polymorphism and severe hematologic toxicities in Japanese patients receiving etoposide plus platinum chemotherapy for small-cell lung cancer. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included patients with small-cell lung cancer who had received their first-line chemotherapy with etoposide plus cisplatin or carboplatin, between October 2008 and April 2018, at the University of Fukui Hospital...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Wen Zhang, Xu Lu, Peilin Cui, Chunmei Piao, Man Xiao, Xuesong Liu, Yue Wang, Xuan Wu, Jingwei Liu, Lin Yang
Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapies have been created for a broad expanse of cancers, and DC vaccines prepared with Wilms' tumor protein 1 (WT1) peptides have shown great therapeutic efficacy in these diseases. In this paper, we report the results of a phase I/II study of a DC-based vaccination for advanced breast, ovarian, and gastric cancers, and we offer evidence that patients can be effectively vaccinated with autologous DCs pulsed with WT1 peptide. There were ten patients who took part in this clinical study; they were treated biweekly with a WT1 peptide-pulsed DC vaccination, with toxicity and clinical and immunological responses as the principal endpoints...
October 10, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Kadir Harun Sarun, Kenneth Lee, Marissa Williams, Casey Maree Wright, Candice Julie Clarke, Ngan Ching Cheng, Ken Takahashi, Yuen Yee Cheng
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a deadly cancer that is caused by asbestos exposure and that has limited treatment options. The current standard of MPM diagnosis requires the testing of multiple immunohistochemical (IHC) markers on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue to differentiate MPM from other lung malignancies. To date, no single biomarker exists for definitive diagnosis of MPM due to the lack of specificity and sensitivity; therefore, there is ongoing research and development in order to identify alternative biomarkers for this purpose...
October 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Masateru Takigawa, Ruairidh Martin, Ghassen Cheniti, Takeshi Kitamura, Konstantinos Vlachos, Antonio Frontera, Claire A Martin, Felix Bourier, Anna Lam, Xavier Pillois, Josselin Duchateau, Nicolas Klotz, Thomas Pambrun, Arnaud Denis, Nicolas Derval, Mélèze Hocini, Michel Haïssaguerre, Frédéric Sacher, Pierre Jaïs, Hubert Cochet
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the local electrograms (EGMs) and wall thickness (WT) heterogeneity within infarct scars has not been thoroughly described. The relationship between WT and voltages and substrates for ventricular tachycardia (VT) was examined. METHODS: In 12 consecutive patients with myocardial infarction and VT, WT, defined by a multidetector computed tomography, and voltage were compared. In multicomponent EGMs, amplitudes of both far- and near-field components were manually measured, and the performance of the three-dimensional-mapping system automatic voltage measurement was assessed...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Leal Herlitz, Ondrej Hes, Michal Michal, Maria Tretiakova, Miguel Reyes-Múgica, Jane K Nguyen, Megan L Troxell, Christopher G Przybycin, Cristina Magi-Galluzzi, Jesse K McKenney
Renal mass lesions with a follicular architecture resembling atrophic kidney have been described, but their distinction from thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney remains controversial. We collected 8 cases of this purported "atrophic kidney"-like lesion to fully describe their clinical and histologic spectrum, their possible etiology, and to discuss their distinction from other renal neoplasms. Eight total cases were identified with patient ages ranging from 9 to 48 years (mean: 29 y; median: 28...
December 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Sufia Husain, Ibrahim Ginawi, Abdelhafiz Ibrahim Bashir, Hala Kfoury, Tariq Eid Al Johani, Hanan Hagar, Lama Raddaoui, Mohammed Al Ghonaim, Abdulkareem Alsuwaida
AIM: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common progressive chronic renal disease. Podocyte injury and loss are the postulated pivotal events that trigger FSGS. In this study, the authors aim to examine the evolution of FSGS in murine models histologically, ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically with special emphasis on podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: FSGS resembling primary FSGS in humans was initiated in Wistar rats using intravenous Adriamycin injections...
September 2018: Ultrastructural Pathology
Xinyi Yu, Liqun Chen, Ke Wu, Shujuan Yan, Ruyi Zhang, Chen Zhao, Zongyue Zeng, Yi Shu, Shifeng Huang, Jiayan Lei, Xiaojuan Ji, Chengfu Yuan, Linghuan Zhang, Yixiao Feng, Wei Liu, Bo Huang, Bo Zhang, Wenping Luo, Xi Wang, Bo Liu, Rex C Haydon, Hue H Luu, Tong-Chuan He, Hua Gan
Glomerular podocytes are highly specialized epithelial cells and play an essential role in establishing the selective permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier of kidney. Maintaining the viability and structural integrity of podocytes is critical to the clinical management of glomerular diseases, which requires a thorough understanding of podocyte cell biology. As mature podocytes lose proliferative capacity, a conditionally SV40 mutant tsA58-immortalized mouse podocyte line (designated as tsPC) was established from the Immortomouse over 20 years ago...
June 2018: Genes & Diseases
Nabiha Missaoui, Said Salhi, Ahlem Bdioui, Sarra Mestiri, Nihed Abdessayed, Moncef Mokni, Mohamed Tahar Yacoubi
Background: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer-related death. Histological assessment remains the standard clue for the diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. Misinterpretation and inconsistent application of histological criteria may lead to significant interobserver variability and poor reproducibility of the diagnosis. In this study, we investigated the discrepancy in histological diagnosis and the significance of a designed panel of immunohistochemical markers for the improvement of the diagnostic reproducibility of ovarian carcinomas...
September 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Caroline Rauch, Elisabeth Feifel, Georg Kern, Cormac Murphy, Florian Meier, Walther Parson, Mario Beilmann, Paul Jennings, Gerhard Gstraunthaler, Anja Wilmes
Podocytes play a critical role in glomerular barrier function, both in health and disease. However, in vivo terminally differentiated podocytes are difficult to be maintained in in vitro culture. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer the unique possibility for directed differentiation into mature podocytes. The current differentiation protocol to generate iPSC-derived podocyte-like cells provides a robust and reproducible method to obtain podocyte-like cells after 10 days that can be employed in in vitro research and biomedical engineering...
2018: PloS One
L-C Horn, S Opitz, R Handzel, C E Brambs
Ectopic pregnancies are the main sources of pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality in the first trimester. They are usually located in the ampullary part of the fallopian tube and the incidence increases in the setting of assisted reproductive techniques, older age at the time of the first pregnancy, and prior adnexal procedures. The clinical aspects and diagnostic challenges of an ectopic pregnancy for the pathologist are to be outlined. A review of the relevant literature was performed. Proof of gestational tissue is of utmost importance in the pathological-anatomical evaluation of an ectopic pregnancy...
September 2018: Der Pathologe
Se-Hyung Kim, Ji-Young Byeon, Young-Hoon Kim, Choong-Min Lee, Yun Jeong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang, Seok-Yong Lee
Atomoxetine is a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor indicated in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. It is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 to its equipotent metabolite, 4-hydroxyatomoxetine, which promptly undergoes further glucuronidation to an inactive 4-HAT-O-glucuronide. Clinical trials have shown that decreased CYP2D6 activity leads to substantially elevated atomoxetine exposure and increase in adverse reactions. The aim of this study was to to develop a pharmacologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of atomoxetine in different CYP2D6 genotypes...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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