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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113652/vascular-endothelial-fsh-receptor-a-target-of-interest-for-cancer-therapy
#1
Nicolae Ghinea
Improved molecular understanding of tumor microenvironment has resulted in the identification of various cancer cell targets for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, including the receptor for the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a glycoprotein hormone responsible for growth, maturation and function of human reproductive system. The expression and localization of the FSHR-protein were associated with the tumor epithelial cells and/or with the peripheral tumor blood vessels. The available evidence indicates that in ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, and breast cancer, the tumor epithelial FSHR promotes proliferation, migration and invasion of cancer cells...
August 2, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112043/ultrasonic-diagnosis-combined-with-targeted-ultrasound-contrast-agent-improves-diagnostic-sensitivity-of-ultrasonic-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#2
Xiaohong Zhang, Can Xiao
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most prevalent human cancers, which is known for local growth, easily migration, long-distance invasion and reoccurrence. Targeted ultrasound (US) contrast combined with ultrasound for lung cancer diagnosis has been applied in the clinic. In the present study, a novel targeted ultrasound contrast agent containing chistosan/Fe3 O4 -parceled bispecific antibody (TcBab) targeting carcino-embryonic antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor was introduced, and the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity was investigated in patients with NSCLC...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108367/b-cell-therapy-in-anca-associated-vasculitis-current-and-emerging-treatment-options
#3
REVIEW
Mark McClure, Seerapani Gopaluni, David Jayne, Rachel Jones
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is an organ-threatening and life-threatening multi-system autoimmune disease in which B cell-derived ANCAs cause neutrophil activation and endothelial damage, strongly implicating these autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of AAV. B cell depletion with rituximab combined with glucocorticoids is associated with a reduction in ANCA concentrations and with clinical remission in the majority of patients with AAV. However, the safety profile of rituximab is no better than that of conventional therapy with cyclophosphamide, and long-term glucocorticoid treatment is needed to achieve and maintain disease-free remission...
August 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101525/targeting-pdgf-mediated-recruitment-of-pericytes-blocks-vascular-mimicry-and-tumor-growth
#4
Victor Ljl Thijssen, Yvette Wj Paulis, Patrycja Nowak-Sliwinska, Katrin L Deumelandt, Kayoko Hosaka, Patricia Mmb Soetekouw, Anca M Cimpean, Marius Raica, Patrick Pauwels, Joost J van den Oord, Vivianne Cg Tjan-Heijnen, Mary J Hendrix, Carl-Henrik Heldin, Yihai Cao, Arjan W Griffioen
Aggressive tumor cells can adopt an endothelial cell-like phenotype and contribute to the formation of a tumor vasculature, independent of tumor angiogenesis. This adoptive mechanism is referred to as vascular mimicry and it is associated with poor survival in cancer patients. To what extend tumor cells capable of vascular mimicry phenocopy the angiogenic cascade is still poorly explored. Here, we identify pericytes as important players in vascular mimicry. We found that pericytes are recruited by vascular mimicry-positive tumor cells in order to facilitate sprouting and to provide structural support of the vascular-like networks...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100173/connexin-30-2-is-expressed-in-exocrine-vascular-endothelial-and-ductal-epithelial-cells-throughout-pancreatic-postnatal-development
#5
C Coronel-Cruz, I Sánchez, B Hernández-Tellez, V Rodríguez-Mata, E Pinzón-Estrada, A Castell-Rodríguez, E M Pérez-Armendariz
Previously we have demonstrated that the GJ protein connexin 30.2 (Cx30.2) is expressed in pancreatic beta cells and endothelial cells (ECs) of the islet. In the present study, we address whether Cx30.2 is expressed in the exocrine pancreas, including its vascular system. For this, adult mouse pancreatic sections were double labeled with specific antibodies against Cx30.2 and CD31, an endothelial cell marker, or with anti-α-actin smooth muscle, a smooth muscle cell (SMC) marker or anti-mucin-1, a marker of epithelial ductal cells, using immunofluorescence (IF) studies...
August 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093530/inter-%C3%AE-inhibitor-proteins-maintain-neutrophils-in-a-resting-state-by-regulating-shape-and-reducing-ros-production
#6
Soe Soe Htwe, Hidenori Wake, Keyue Liu, Kiyoshi Teshigawara, Barbara S Stonestreet, Yow-Pin Lim, Masahiro Nishibori
The plasma levels of inter-α inhibitor proteins (IAIPs) are decreased in patients with sepsis and the reduced levels correlate with increased mortality. In the present study, we examined the effects of IAIPs on human neutrophils to better understand the beneficial effects of IAIPs in the treatment of sepsis. We demonstrated that IAIPs induced a spherical shape that was smaller in size with a smooth cellular surface in a concentration-dependent manner. These changes were inhibited by a specific antibody against IAIPs...
August 14, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092338/b-cell-phenotypes-in-baboons-with-pig-artery-patch-grafts-receiving-conventional-immunosuppressive-therapy
#7
Takayuki Yamamoto, Qi Li, Hidetaka Hara, Liaoran Wang, Hongmin Zhou, Juan Li, Devin E Eckhoff, A Joseph Tector, Edwin C Klein, Ray Lovingood, Mohamed Ezzelarab, David Ayares, Yi Wang, David K C Cooper, Hayato Iwase
BACKGROUND: In the pig-to-baboon artery patch model with no immunosuppressive therapy, a graft from an α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO) pig elicits a significant anti-nonGal IgG response, indicating sensitization to the graft. A costimulation blockade-based regimen, e.g., anti-CD154mAb or anti-CD40mAb, prevents sensitization. However, neither of these agents is currently FDA-approved. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of FDA-approved agents on the T and B cell responses...
August 6, 2018: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090038/immunohistochemical-differentiation-between-chronic-enteropathy-associated-with-slco2a1-gene-and-other-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#8
Satoko Yamaguchi, Shunichi Yanai, Shotaro Nakamura, Keisuke Kawasaki, Makoto Eizuka, Noriyuki Uesugi, Tamotsu Sugai, Junji Umeno, Motohiro Esaki, Takayuki Matsumoto
Background/Aims: We recently identified recessive mutations in the solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1 gene ( SLCO2A1 ) as causative variants of chronic enteropathy associated with SLCO2A1 (CEAS). The aim of this study was to evaluate SLCO2A1 protein expression in the intestinal tissues of patients with CEAS, intestinal Behçet's disease (BD), simple ulcer (SU), and Crohn's disease (CD). Methods: Immunohistochemical staining using a polyclonal anti-SLCO2A1 antibody was performed on the resected intestinal specimens from 13 cases of CD, 9 cases of intestinal BD/SU, and 3 cases of CEAS...
July 2018: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30088964/elucidation-of-critical-epitope-of-anti-rat-podoplanin-monoclonal-antibody-pmab-2
#9
Yoshikazu Furusawa, Shinji Yamada, Shunsuke Itai, Takuro Nakamura, Masato Fukui, Hiroyuki Harada, Mika K Kaneko, Yukinari Kato
Rat podoplanin (rPDPN) is a recognized lymphatic endothelial cell marker and is expressed on the podocytes of kidney and type I lung alveolar cells. rPDPN is a type I transmembrane sialoglycoprotein and induces platelet aggregation via the C-type lectin-like receptor-2 of platelets. It comprises four platelet aggregation-stimulating (PLAG) domains: PLAG1-3, present in the N-terminus, and PLAG4, in the center of the PDPN protein. Previously, we developed a mouse anti-rPDPN monoclonal antibody clone, PMab-2, by immunizing the PLAG2 and PLAG3 domains of rPDPN...
August 8, 2018: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086288/soluble-vegfr1-signaling-guides-vascular-patterns-into-dense-branching-morphologies
#10
Dóra Lakatos, Ellák Somfai, Elöd Méhes, András Czirók
Vascular patterning is a key process during development and disease. The diffusive decoy receptor sVEGFR1 (sFlt1) is a known regulator of endothelial cell behavior, yet the mechanism by which it controls vascular structure is little understood. We propose computational models to shed light on how vascular patterning is guided by self-organized gradients of the VEGF/sVEGFR1 factors. We demonstrate that a diffusive inhibitor can generate structures with a dense branching morphology in models where the activator elicits directed growth...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084319/prediction-of-occult-lymph-node-metastasis-in-head-and-neck-cancer-with-cd31-vessel-quantification
#11
Maxime Mermod, Massimo Bongiovanni, Tatiana Petrova, Elena Goun, Christian Simon, Genrich Tolstonog, Yan Monnier
Objective The management of occult lymph node metastasis (LNM) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has been a matter of controversy for decades. The vascular density within the tumor microenvironment, as an indicator of ongoing angiogenesis, could constitute an attractive predictor of LNM. The use of the panvascular endothelial antibody CD31 as a marker of occult LNM has never been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of CD31 microvascular density for the detection of occult LNM in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx...
August 7, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079992/anti-fractalkine-antibody-suppresses-joint-destruction-by-inhibiting-migration-of-osteoclast-precursors-to-the-synovium-in-experimental-arthritis
#12
Kana Hoshino-Negishi, Masayoshi Ohkuro, Tomoya Nakatani, Yoshikazu Kuboi, Miyuki Nishimura, Yoko Ida, Jungo Kakuta, Akiko Hamaguchi, Minoru Kumai, Tsutomu Kamisako, Fumihiro Sugiyama, Wataru Ikeda, Naoto Ishii, Nobuyuki Yasuda, Toshio Imai
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the role of the fractalkine (FKN)-CX3CR1 pathway in joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis, we examined the effect of treatment with anti-mouse FKN (mFKN) monoclonal antibody (mAb) on joint destruction and the migration of osteoclast precursors (OCPs) into the joint, using the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. METHODS: DBA/1 mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen to induce arthritis, then treated with anti-mFKN mAb. Disease severity was monitored by arthritis score, and joint destruction was evaluated by soft X-ray and histological analysis...
August 6, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078603/cell-specific-microvesicles-vary-with-season-and-disease-predisposition-in-healthy-and-previously-laminitic-ponies
#13
E J T Finding, C Lawson, J Elliott, P A Harris, N J Menzies-Gow
Microvesicles are small (up to 1 μm) vesicles found in plasma and other bodily fluids. They are recognised as part of the normal system of inter-cellular communication but altered numbers are also used as biomarkers of disease. Microvesicles have not been studied in detail in the horse but may be relevant to diseases such as laminitis. Identification of equine cell specific microvesicles was performed by developing a panel of cross reactive antibodies to use in flow cytometry to detect microvesicles of platelet, leucocyte and endothelial origin in plasma from healthy ponies and those predisposed to laminitis...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077733/rapidly-purified-ganglion-cells-from-neonatal-mouse-retinas-allow-studies-of-mitochondrial-morphology-and-autophagy
#14
Marta Zaninello, Luca Scorrano
Retinal explants and mixed primary cultures are currently used to investigate retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) pathophysiology and pharmacology, but information on yield, quality and quantity of contaminant cells for the available RGCs enrichment techniques is lacking. Here we compare two methods of mouse primary RGCs purification and show that mitochondrial and autophagy parameters can be measured in rapidly purified RGCs. RGCs were purified from P0 mouse eyes using two methods based on the surface antigen Thy1...
August 2, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076830/increased-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-3-an-anti-viral-signaling-molecule-and-related-genes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-brains
#15
Douglas G Walker, Tiffany M Tang, Lih-Fen Lue
The focus of this study is the expression of Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3), a receptor for double-stranded RNA, in human brains affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Toll-like receptors are a family of pattern recognition molecules primarily involved in host defenses to microbial pathogens, but roles in neurodegenerative disease have also been shown, as amyloid beta (Aβ) can be a ligand for TLR-2 and -4 and α-synuclein for TLR-1 and TLR-2, while TLR-9 activation promotes Aβ removal. However, involvement of TLR-3 in AD has not been rigorously studied...
August 1, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073902/the-safety-of-ramucirumab-for-the-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer
#16
Alba Noguerido, Núria Mulet-Margalef, Ignacio Matos, Javier Ros, Guillem Argilés, Elena Élez, Josep Tabernero
Ramucirumab, a human monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), is an antiangiogenic therapy that has been approved in combination with FOLFIRI in second-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), after progression on or after therapy with bevacizumab, oxaliplatin and a fluoropyrimidine. A thorough review of the safety of ramucirumab in this setting and in the context of other antiangiogenic agents is merited. Areas covered: We provide an overview of activity and summarize in detail the overall safety and tolerability profile of ramucirumab in mCRC patients on the basis of a literature review of all published clinical trials in this setting, including both single-agent and combination studies...
August 3, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071927/higher-levels-of-sdma-and-not-adma-are-associated-with-poorer-survival-of-trial-patients-with-systemic-anca-associated-vasculitis
#17
Uta Erdbrügger, Jan T Kielstein, Kerstin Westman, Jennie Z Ma, Wenjun Xin, Stephanie M Bode-Böger, Mȧrten Segelmark, Niels Rasmussen, Kirsten De Groot
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial dysfunction, increased cardiovascular events (CVE), and accelerated atherosclerosis have been described in patients with small vessel vasculitis and collagen vascular disease. Identifying predictors of cardiovascular risk will help to optimize short- and long-term care of patients with vasculitis. The present study investigates the predictive role of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and its stereoisomer symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) for cardiovascular risk, all-cause mortality, and renal function in patients with anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic antibodies-associated small vessel vasculitis (AASV) subjected to standardized treatment regimens in four European Vasculitis Study Group trials representing all stages of renal disease...
April 2, 2018: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065025/egfl7-enhances-surface-expression-of-integrin-%C3%AE-5-%C3%AE-1-to-promote-angiogenesis-in-malignant-brain-tumors
#18
Nevenka Dudvarski Stanković, Frank Bicker, Stefanie Keller, David Tw Jones, Patrick N Harter, Arne Kienzle, Clarissa Gillmann, Philipp Arnold, Anna Golebiewska, Olivier Keunen, Alf Giese, Andreas von Deimling, Tobias Bäuerle, Simone P Niclou, Michel Mittelbronn, Weilan Ye, Stefan M Pfister, Mirko Hh Schmidt
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a typically lethal type of brain tumor with a median survival of 15 months postdiagnosis. This negative prognosis prompted the exploration of alternative treatment options. In particular, the reliance of GBM on angiogenesis triggered the development of anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) blocking antibodies such as bevacizumab. Although its application in human GBM only increased progression-free periods but did not improve overall survival, physicians and researchers still utilize this treatment option due to the lack of adequate alternatives...
July 31, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060839/comparative-neuropathology-of-major-indian-bluetongue-virus-serotypes-in-a-neonatal-balb-c-mouse-model
#19
A Anjaneya, K P Singh, S Cherian, M Saminathan, R Singh, M A Ramakrishnan, S Maan, N S Maan, D Hemadri, P P Rao, K Putty, Y Krishnajyothi, P P Mertens
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is neurotropic in nature, especially in ruminant fetuses and in-utero infection results in abortion and congenital brain malformations. The aim of the present study was to compare the neuropathogenicity of major Indian BTV serotypes 1, 2, 10, 16 and 23 by gross and histopathological lesions and virus distribution in experimentally infected neonatal BALB/c mice. Each BTV serotype (20 μl of inoculum containing 1 × 105 tissue culture infectious dose [TCID]50 /ml of virus) was inoculated intracerebrally into 3-day-old mice, while a control group was inoculated with mock-infected cell culture medium...
July 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30059033/methods-for-detecting-cytotoxic-amyloids-following-infection-of-pulmonary-endothelial-cells-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#20
Ron Balczon, Michael Francis, Silas Leavesley, Troy Stevens
Patients who survive pneumonia have elevated death rates in the months following hospital discharge. It has been hypothesized that infection of pulmonary tissue during pneumonia results in the production of long-lived cytotoxins that can lead to subsequent end organ failure. We have developed in vitro assays to test the hypothesis that cytotoxins are produced during pulmonary infection. Isolated rat pulmonary endothelial cells and the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as model systems, and the production of cytoxins following infection of the endothelial cells by the bacteria is demonstrated using cell culture followed by direct quantitation using lactate dehydrogenase assays and a novel microscopic method utilizing ImageJ technology...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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