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Matthew Essandoh, Daniel Wolgemuth, Charles U Pittman, Dinesh Mohan, Todd Mlsna
The release of herbicides is known to negatively impact humans and the environment. We report the use of a low cost biochar (prepared through fast pyrolysis) to successfully remove phenoxy herbicides from aqueous solutions. The biochar was characterized using: FT-IR, SEM, pHpzc, elemental analysis, and surface area measurements. Sorption experiments were run at pH values from 2 to 10, adsorbate concentrations from 25 to 300 mg/L and temperatures from 25 to 45 °C. Adsorption isotherms were evaluated from 25 to 45 °C using both two parameter (Freundlich and Langmuir) and three parameter (Redlich-Peterson and Toth) adsorption isotherm models...
May 2017: Chemosphere
Matthew Essandoh, Daniel Wolgemuth, Charles U Pittman, Dinesh Mohan, Todd Mlsna
Switchgrass biochar (SGB) was made by fast pyrolysis in an auger-fed reactor at 425 °C with a solid residence time of 60 s in the pyrolysis zone during bio-oil production. Magnetic switchgrass biochar (MSGB) was prepared by iron oxide precipitation onto the biochar surface using an aqueous Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) solution followed by NaOH treatment. Both the SGB and the MSGB were characterized by FTIR, SEM, SEM-EDX, TGA, pHpzc, elemental analysis, and surface area measurements. Batch sorption studies of metribuzin from aqueous solutions were carried out at different pH values, adsorbate concentrations, and temperatures...
February 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
V M Doenni, C M Song, M N Hill, Q J Pittman
A large body of evidence has been brought forward connecting developmental immune activation to abnormal fear and anxiety levels. Anxiety disorders have extremely high lifetime prevalence, yet susceptibility factors that contribute to their emergence are poorly understood. In this research we investigated whether an inflammatory insult early in life can alter the response to fear conditioning in adulthood. Fear learning and extinction are important and adaptive behaviors, mediated largely by the amygdala and its interconnectivity with cortico-limbic circuits...
July 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Wouter van Rheenen, Aleksey Shatunov, Annelot M Dekker, Russell L McLaughlin, Frank P Diekstra, Sara L Pulit, Rick A A van der Spek, Urmo Võsa, Simone de Jong, Matthew R Robinson, Jian Yang, Isabella Fogh, Perry Tc van Doormaal, Gijs H P Tazelaar, Max Koppers, Anna M Blokhuis, William Sproviero, Ashley R Jones, Kevin P Kenna, Kristel R van Eijk, Oliver Harschnitz, Raymond D Schellevis, William J Brands, Jelena Medic, Androniki Menelaou, Alice Vajda, Nicola Ticozzi, Kuang Lin, Boris Rogelj, Katarina Vrabec, Metka Ravnik-Glavač, Blaž Koritnik, Janez Zidar, Lea Leonardis, Leja Dolenc Grošelj, Stéphanie Millecamps, François Salachas, Vincent Meininger, Mamede de Carvalho, Susana Pinto, Jesus S Mora, Ricardo Rojas-García, Meraida Polak, Siddharthan Chandran, Shuna Colville, Robert Swingler, Karen E Morrison, Pamela J Shaw, John Hardy, Richard W Orrell, Alan Pittman, Katie Sidle, Pietro Fratta, Andrea Malaspina, Simon Topp, Susanne Petri, Susanne Abdulla, Carsten Drepper, Michael Sendtner, Thomas Meyer, Roel A Ophoff, Kim A Staats, Martina Wiedau-Pazos, Catherine Lomen-Hoerth, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, John Q Trojanowski, Lauren Elman, Leo McCluskey, A Nazli Basak, Ceren Tunca, Hamid Hamzeiy, Yesim Parman, Thomas Meitinger, Peter Lichtner, Milena Radivojkov-Blagojevic, Christian R Andres, Cindy Maurel, Gilbert Bensimon, Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Alexis Brice, Christine A M Payan, Safaa Saker-Delye, Alexandra Dürr, Nicholas W Wood, Lukas Tittmann, Wolfgang Lieb, Andre Franke, Marcella Rietschel, Sven Cichon, Markus M Nöthen, Philippe Amouyel, Christophe Tzourio, Jean-François Dartigues, Andre G Uitterlinden, Fernando Rivadeneira, Karol Estrada, Albert Hofman, Charles Curtis, Hylke M Blauw, Anneke J van der Kooi, Marianne de Visser, An Goris, Markus Weber, Christopher E Shaw, Bradley N Smith, Orietta Pansarasa, Cristina Cereda, Roberto Del Bo, Giacomo P Comi, Sandra D'Alfonso, Cinzia Bertolin, Gianni Sorarù, Letizia Mazzini, Viviana Pensato, Cinzia Gellera, Cinzia Tiloca, Antonia Ratti, Andrea Calvo, Cristina Moglia, Maura Brunetti, Simona Arcuti, Rosa Capozzo, Chiara Zecca, Christian Lunetta, Silvana Penco, Nilo Riva, Alessandro Padovani, Massimiliano Filosto, Bernard Muller, Robbert Jan Stuit, Ian Blair, Katharine Zhang, Emily P McCann, Jennifer A Fifita, Garth A Nicholson, Dominic B Rowe, Roger Pamphlett, Matthew C Kiernan, Julian Grosskreutz, Otto W Witte, Thomas Ringer, Tino Prell, Beatrice Stubendorff, Ingo Kurth, Christian A Hübner, P Nigel Leigh, Federico Casale, Adriano Chio, Ettore Beghi, Elisabetta Pupillo, Rosanna Tortelli, Giancarlo Logroscino, John Powell, Albert C Ludolph, Jochen H Weishaupt, Wim Robberecht, Philip Van Damme, Lude Franke, Tune H Pers, Robert H Brown, Jonathan D Glass, John E Landers, Orla Hardiman, Peter M Andersen, Philippe Corcia, Patrick Vourc'h, Vincenzo Silani, Naomi R Wray, Peter M Visscher, Paul I W de Bakker, Michael A van Es, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Cathryn M Lewis, Gerome Breen, Ammar Al-Chalabi, Leonard H van den Berg, Jan H Veldink
To elucidate the genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and find associated loci, we assembled a custom imputation reference panel from whole-genome-sequenced patients with ALS and matched controls (n = 1,861). Through imputation and mixed-model association analysis in 12,577 cases and 23,475 controls, combined with 2,579 cases and 2,767 controls in an independent replication cohort, we fine-mapped a new risk locus on chromosome 21 and identified C21orf2 as a gene associated with ALS risk...
September 2016: Nature Genetics
V M Doenni, J M Gray, C M Song, S Patel, M N Hill, Q J Pittman
Early-life inflammation has been shown to exert profound effects on brain development and behavior, including altered emotional behavior, stress responsivity and neurochemical/neuropeptide receptor expression and function. The current study extends this research by examining the impact of inflammation, triggered with the bacterial compound lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on postnatal day (P) 14, on social behavior during adolescence. We investigated the role that the endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays in sociability after early-life LPS...
November 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
L M Harden, S Kent, Q J Pittman, J Roth
Fever has been recognized as an important symptom of disease since ancient times. For many years, fever was treated as a putative life-threatening phenomenon. More recently, it has been recognized as an important part of the body's defense mechanisms; indeed at times it has even been used as a therapeutic agent. The knowledge of the functional role of the central nervous system in the genesis of fever has greatly improved over the last decade. It is clear that the febrile process, which develops in the sick individual, is just one of many brain-controlled sickness symptoms...
November 2015: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Dinesh Mohan, Prachi Singh, Ankur Sarswat, Philip H Steele, Charles U Pittman
Energy cane biochar (ECBC) was prepared in a 72 s fast pyrolysis at 425 °C in an auger-fed reactor and ground into 250-600 μm diameter particles. This biochar was magnetized by fusing an iron oxide phase to the particles by mixing aqueous biochar suspensions with aqueous Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) solutions, followed by NaOH treatment (MECBC). These biochars were characterized by Raman, FT-IR, X-ray, SEM, SEM-EDX, TEM, EDXRF, pHzpc, elemental analyses, S(BET), and magnetic moment determinations. The S(BET) of energy cane biochar was negligible and increased to 37...
June 15, 2015: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Olivier Delmas, Moana Pittman, Kevin Cassou, Olivier Guilbaud, Sophie Kazamias, Gabriel V Cojocaru, Olivier Neveu, Julien Demailly, Elsa Baynard, Daniel Ursescu, David Ros
We have investigated a new scheme for laser plasma transient collisional soft x-ray lasers based on the use of an additional laser to produce the preplasma. Soft x-ray emission measurements made for different solid targets are presented and discussed. A significant enhancement of the SXRL emission as compared to double-pulse single-beam grazing incidence (DGRIP) using the same pump laser is reported for 13.9- and 32.6-nm SXRL wavelengths.
November 1, 2014: Optics Letters
Scott L Spear, Troy Pittman
BACKGROUND: The current standard for breast augmentation involves placement of an implant. As an alternative, surgeons have been exploring breast augmentation with autologous tissue in the form of injectable fat. OBJECTIVES: The authors explore the efficacy and safety of lipoaugmentation of the breast, with specific interest in volume changes, fat retention, overall aesthetic improvement, and patient satisfaction. METHODS: Direct measurements, 2- and 3-dimensional images, mammograms, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained preoperatively from 10 consecutive patients undergoing augmentation mammaplasty with autologous fat transfer...
March 2014: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
H Hu, W Ho, K Mackie, Q J Pittman, K A Sharkey
Cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB(1)) are highly expressed on presynaptic terminals in the brain where they are importantly involved in the control of neurotransmitter release. Alteration of CB(1) expression is associated with a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. There is now compelling evidence that peripheral inflammatory disorders are associated with depression and cognitive impairments. These can be modeled in rodents with peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but central effects of this treatment remain to be fully elucidated...
December 27, 2012: Neuroscience
A K Henderson, Q J Pittman, G C Teskey
High frequency stimulation (HFS) has the potential to interfere with learning and memory. HFS and motor skill training both lead to potentiation of the stimulated network and alter motor map expression. However, the extent to which HFS can interfere with the learning and performance of a skilled motor task and the resulting effect on the representation of movement has not been examined. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms associated with HFS and skilled motor training on the motor cortex are not known. We hypothesized that HFS would impair performance on a skilled reaching task, and would be associated with alterations in motor map expression and protein levels compared to non-stimulated and untrained controls...
July 26, 2012: Neuroscience
D W Pittman, M R McGinnis, L M Richardson, E J Miller, M L Alimohamed, J P Baird
Hyperphagia is a reported side effect of anxiolytic benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide (CDP). Prior research has focused primarily on the ingestive responses to sweet or solid foods. We examined CDP effects on licking for normally accepted and avoided taste solutions across a range of concentrations. The effect of CDP (10 mg/kg) versus saline on the licking patterns of water-restricted rats for water and 3 concentrations of sucrose, saccharin, NaCl, monosodium glutamate (MSG), citric acid, and quinine (Q-HCl) solutions was evaluated during 1 h tests...
June 2012: Chemical Senses
I M Hons, M A Storr, K Mackie, B Lutz, Q J Pittman, G M Mawe, K A Sharkey
BACKGROUND: The enteric nervous system (ENS) possesses extensive synaptic connections which integrate information and provide appropriate outputs to coordinate the activity of the gastrointestinal tract. The regulation of enteric synapses is not well understood. Cannabinoid (CB)(1) receptors inhibit the release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the ENS, but their role in the synapse is not understood. We tested the hypothesis that enteric CB(1) receptors provide inhibitory control of excitatory neurotransmission in the ENS...
March 2012: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
V Tobin, Y Schwab, N Lelos, T Onaka, Q J Pittman, M Ludwig
In magnocellular neurones of the supraoptic nucleus (SON), the neuropeptides vasopressin and oxytocin are synthesised and packaged into large dense-cored vesicles (LDCVs). These vesicles undergo regulated exocytosis from nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary gland and from somata/dendrites in the SON. Regulated exocytosis of LDCVs is considered to involve the soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex [comprising vesicle associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP-2), syntaxin-1 and soluble N-ethylmaleimide attachment protein-25 (SNAP-25)] and regulatory proteins [such as synaptotagmin-1, munc-18 and Ca(2+) -dependent activator protein for secretion (CAPS-1)]...
April 2012: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Dinesh Mohan, Shalini Rajput, Vinod K Singh, Philip H Steele, Charles U Pittman
Oak wood and oak bark chars were obtained from fast pyrolysis in an auger reactor at 400-450 °C. These chars were characterized and utilized for Cr(VI) remediation from water. Batch sorption studies were performed at different temperatures, pH values and solid to liquid ratios. Maximum chromium was removed at pH 2.0. A kinetic study yielded an optimum equilibrium time of 48 h with an adsorbent dose of 10 g/L. Sorption studies were conducted over a concentration range of 1-100mg/L. Cr(VI) removal increased with an increase in temperature (Q(Oak wood)(°): 25 °C = 3...
April 15, 2011: Journal of Hazardous Materials
S J Spencer, M A Galic, Q J Pittman
The early life environment can be crucial in influencing the development of an animal's long-term physiology. There is now much evidence to suggest that perinatal challenges to an animal's immune system will result in changes in adult rat behavior, physiology, and molecular pathways following a single inflammatory event during development caused by the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In particular, it is now apparent that neonatal LPS administration can influence the adult neuroimmune response to a second LPS challenge through hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis modifications, some of which are caused by alterations in peripheral prostaglandin synthesis...
January 2011: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Aleksander S Golub, Michael A Tevald, Roland N Pittman
We have developed an optical method for the evaluation of the oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) in microscopic volumes of spinotrapezius muscle. Using phosphorescence quenching microscopy (PQM) for the measurement of interstitial Po(2), together with rapid pneumatic compression of the organ, we recorded the oxygen disappearance curve (ODC) in the muscle of the anesthetized rats. A 0.6-mm diameter area in the tissue, preloaded with the phosphorescent oxygen probe, was excited once a second by a 532-nm Q-switched laser with pulse duration of 15 ns...
January 2011: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
A C Kentner, Q J Pittman
Acute inflammation results in alterations in both peripheral and central nervous system cytokine levels that together can exert transient but profound alterations in neuroendocrine function. This has been particularly well studied with respect to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes. There is now evidence, particularly in rodents, that an inflammation in the neonatal period can have long-term, sex-specific effects on these neuroendocrine axes that persist into adulthood...
October 2010: Endocrinology
N P Hyland, J M Rybicka, W Ho, Q J Pittman, W K Macnaughton, K A Sharkey
BACKGROUND: The gut plays a significant role in the development of obesity, notably through peptide signaling to the brain. However, few studies have investigated intestinal function per se in a rodent model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Our aim was to investigate intestinal secretomotor function and glucose transport in DIO and diet-resistant (DR) rat jejunum. METHODS: Male outbred Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on a medium high fat diet for 9-10 weeks and split into DIO and DR groups based on weight gain...
June 2010: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
A C Kentner, S A McLeod, E F Field, Q J Pittman
Inflammatory molecules, such as cyclooxygenase (COX), a prostaglandin synthetic enzyme, have been identified as a marker of depressive symptomology. Previously, we have observed elevated basal COX-2 expression in the hypothalamus of adult male rats treated neonatally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which might suggest a phenotype for disrupted hedonic behavior, a symptom of depression. However, COX-2 and its contribution to the expression of anhedonic behavior has not been investigated in these males or in female rats across the estrous cycle, which is the purpose of the current work...
June 2010: Endocrinology
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