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Cortisol Immunity

Jessalyn M Hadfield, Elizabeth C Bowdridge, Ida Holásková, Ted H Elsasser, Robert A Dailey
Innate immune response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge varies among sheep breeds. How different breeds respond to bacterial infections impacts management practices of sheep producers. Hence, clinical response, acute-phase response, and gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory markers in peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) were examined after an LPS challenge in Dorset and Suffolk ewes. Ewes received either PBS or 2.5 µg/kg LPS (i.v.) 4 to 5 d after onset of synchronized estrus. Blood was collected via jugular venipuncture intermittently for 24 h to determine WBC counts...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
S Katherine Sweatt, Barbara A Gower, Angela Y Chieh, Yang Liu, Li Li
OBJECTIVES: Sleep duration is associated with adiposity in adults. Abdominal adiposity specifically is strongly correlated with metabolic alterations, however, the relationships between abdominal adiposity and sleep quality are incompletely understood. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that abdominal adiposity is related to poor sleep quality while total adiposity is not; and to explore whether pathways, including immune system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, link abdominal adiposity to poor sleep quality...
July 25, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Sushri Priyadarshini, Biswaranjan Pradhan, Philip Griebel, Palok Aich
Epidemiological studies implicate stress as an important factor contributing to the increasing prevalence of metabolic disorders. Studies have correlated visceral obesity and atherosclerosis with hyper-cortisolemia, a sequela of chronic psychological stress in humans and animals. Although several hormonal markers of stress have been associated with various metabolic disorders, the mechanism by which these hormones alter metabolic functions have not been established. We used an in vitro model system, culturing 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and RAW 264...
July 27, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Kheng Siang Ted Ng, Angelia Sia, Maxel K W Ng, Crystal T Y Tan, Hui Yu Chan, Chay Hoon Tan, Iris Rawtaer, Lei Feng, Rathi Mahendran, Anis Larbi, Ee Heok Kua, Roger C M Ho
The effect of horticultural therapy (HT) on immune and endocrine biomarkers remains largely unknown. We designed a waitlist-control randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of HT in improving mental well-being and modulating biomarker levels. A total of 59 older adults was recruited, with 29 randomly assigned to the HT intervention and 30 to the waitlist control group. The participants attended weekly intervention sessions for the first 3 months and monthly sessions for the subsequent 3 months...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Andreas Menke, Dominik Lehrieder, Jasmin Fietz, Carolin Leistner, Catherina Wurst, Saskia Stonawski, Jannika Reitz, Karin Lechner, Yasmin Busch, Heike Weber, Jürgen Deckert, Katharina Domschke
Anxious depression is a common subtype of major depressive disorder (MDD) and is associated with greater severity and poorer outcome. Alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, especially of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function, are often observed in MDD, but evidence lacks for anxious depression. Childhood adversity is known to influence both the HPA axis and risk of MDD. Therefore, we investigated GR-function in anxious depression dependent on childhood adversity. We enrolled 144 depressed in-patients (49...
July 26, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Primož Novak, Andreja N Kopitar, Gaj Vidmar, Alojz Ihan, Martin Štefančič
In physical and rehabilitation medicine, there are few reports on the effects of therapeutic low-frequency electrical stimulation on the immune response of the organism, even though electrical stimulation is used widely in clinical practice and sports medicine. The aim of our study was to examine the possible immunological consequences of moderate transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for quadriceps muscle strengthening in healthy individuals. The study included twelve healthy male adult volunteers (mean age 42 years) without contraindications for electrical stimulation...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
Cody E Morris, Lee J Winchester, Andrew J Jackson, Ariel S Tomes, Wesley A Neal, Damon M Wilcoxen, Harish Chander, Scott W Arnett
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate physiological strain index (PSI) along with specific immune system markers in response to a simulated firefighting occupation workload. METHODS: Ten healthy male adults completed a 6-min simulated fire stair climb (SFSC) at 60 steps/min. The protocol consisted of four conditions, some including the wearing of a 34.04 kg vest to simulate personal protective equipment (PPE) and/or inclusion of a color-word interference test (CWIT) as a distracting mechanism...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Sushri Priyadarshini, Biswaranjan Pradhan, Palok Aich
Regulation of adipogenesis, root cause for obesity, is very poorly understood. Studies, however, have laid several evidences of immuno-metabolic regulations of adipose tissue in chronic psychological stress, leading to visceral obesity and atherosclerosis as some of various severe outcomes of stress manifestation. Despite pronounced associations of hormonal markers of stress with dys-regulated metabolic states, the contributing signaling events are yet to be established. It is apparent that to understand contributing signaling events we need a model...
August 10, 2018: Biology Open
Janicke Nordgreen, Camilla Munsterhjelm, Frida Aae, Anastasija Popova, Preben Boysen, Birgit Ranheim, Mari Heinonen, Joanna Raszplewicz, Petteri Piepponen, Andreas Lervik, Anna Valros, Andrew M Janczak
Most of us have experienced deterioration of mood while ill. In humans, immune activation is associated with lethargy and social withdrawal, irritability and aggression; changes in social motivation could, in theory, lead to less functional interactions. This might also be the case for animals housed in close confinement. Tail biting in pigs is an example of damaging social behavior, and sickness is thought to be a risk factor for tail biting outbreaks. One possible mechanism whereby sickness may influence behavior is through cytokines...
August 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Carisha S Thesing, Mariska Bot, Yuri Milaneschi, Erik J Giltay, Brenda W J H Penninx
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that omega-3 (n-3) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), might have beneficial effects on somatic and mental health, potentially partly due to their mitigating effects on three major biological stress systems: the immune-inflammatory system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between (cumulative measures of) markers of three biological stress systems and n-3 PUFA and DHA plasma levels...
July 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Benjamin Coiffard, Aissatou B Diallo, Aurélien Culver, Soraya Mezouar, Emmanuelle Hammad, Coralie Vigne, Corine Nicolino-Brunet, Françoise Dignat-George, Karine Baumstarck, Mohamed Boucekine, Marc Leone, Jean-Louis Mege
BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythms are important regulators of immune functions. Admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) may impact molecular clock activity and host response. Our objective was to assess and compare the immune circadian rhythms in trauma patients who develop and in those who do not develop sepsis. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from severe trauma patients within 4 days after admission, with collections taking place every 4 hours over a 24-hours period...
August 2, 2018: Shock
Robert A Huggins, Andrea R Fortunati, Ryan M Curtis, David P Looney, Chris A West, Elaine C Lee, Maren S Fragala, Mathew L Hall, Douglas J Casa
Huggins, RA, Fortunati, AR, Curtis, RM, Looney, DP, West, CA, Lee, EC, Fragala, MS, Hall, ML, and Casa, DJ. Monitoring blood biomarkers and training load throughout a collegiate soccer season. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This observational study aimed to characterize the responses of a comprehensive panel of biomarkers, observed ranges, training load (TL) metrics, and performance throughout the collegiate soccer season (August-November). Biomarkers (n = 92) were collected before the start of pre-season (PS), in-season weeks (W)1, W4, W8, and W12 in NCAA Division I male soccer players (n = 20, mean ± SD; age = 21 ± 1 years, height = 180 ± 6 cm, body mass = 78...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Shaopu Wang, Susanne Meese, Susanne E Ulbrich, Heinrich Bollwein, Monika Röntgen, Ulrike Gimsa, Angela Schwarm
This in vitro study examined the ability of important immune modulators [β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cortisol, prolactin, isoproterenol and insulin] to influence the responsiveness of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from multiparous dairy cows 29 ± 2 days before and 14 ± 3 days after calving. The activation and proliferation of PBMC in response to the mitogen phytohemagglutinin was estimated by the oxygen consumption rate after 24 hr and the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) method after 72 hr respectively...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Fatma Ucan Yarkac, Ozge Gokturk, Osman Demir
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of periodontal treatment on the inflammatory markers in gingival crevicular fluid and the concentration of salivary cortisol between non-pregnant and pregnant women with gingivitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 30 non-pregnant women (mean age 27.93 ± 6.61 years) and 30 pregnant women (mean age 28.93 ± 4.04 years). Each participant presented with the clinical symptoms of generalized, moderate-to-severe gingivitis...
July 31, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Heloísa H A Barcellos, Gessi Koakoski, Fabiele Chaulet, Karina S Kirsten, Luiz C Kreutz, Allan V Kalueff, Leonardo J G Barcellos
Environmental enrichment is widely used to improve welfare and behavioral performance of animal species. It ensures housing of laboratory animals in environments with space and complexity that enable the expression of their normal behavioral repertoire. Auditory enrichment by exposure to classical music decreases abnormal behaviors and endocrine stress responses in humans, non-humans primates, and rodents. However, little is known about the role of auditory enrichment in laboratory zebrafish. Given the growing importance of zebrafish for neuroscience research, such studies become critical...
2018: PeerJ
Gang Liu, Zhangying Ye, Dezhao Liu, Jian Zhao, Elayaraja Sivaramasamy, Yale Deng, Songming Zhu
A 120-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of different stocking densities on growth, the non-specific immunities, antioxidant status and digestive enzyme activities of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings under a zero-water exchange biofloc system. Tilapias (0.51 ± 0.05 g) were randomly distributed in twelve tanks, each with 300 L water. The experimental design was completely randomized using three replications with four treatments 166 orgs m-3 (LD, low density), 333 orgs m-3 (MD, middle density) and 600 orgs m-3 (HD, high density) with glucose added as biofloc groups, and a clear water group without glucose added as a control 333 orgs m-3 ...
July 26, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Patty Lathan, Ann L Thompson
Hypoadrenocorticism (HOAC; Addison's disease) is an endocrine condition seen in small animal practice. Dogs with this disease can present in a variety of ways from acute hypovolemic collapse to vague, chronic, waxing, and waning clinical signs. In the most common form of this disease, animals have both mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid deficiency, resulting in hyponatremia and hyperkalemia, and signs of cortisol deficiency. The etiology may be immune-mediated destruction of the adrenal cortex, drug-induced adrenocortical necrosis (mitotane), enzyme inhibition (trilostane), or infiltrative processes such as neoplastic or fungal disease...
2018: Veterinary medicine
Jeremy R Townsend, David Bender, William C Vantrease, Philip A Sapp, Ann M Toy, Clint A Woods, Kent D Johnson
We sought to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation ( Bacillus subtilis DE111; 1 billion CFU∙d-1 ) on markers of immune and hormonal status in collegiate male athletes following 12 weeks of offseason training. Twenty-five Division I male baseball athletes (20.1 ± 1.5 years, 85.5 ± 10.5 kg, 184.7 ± 6.3 cm) participated in this double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Participants were randomly assigned to a probiotic (PRO; n = 13) or placebo (PL; n = 12) group. Pre- and post-training, all athletes provided resting blood and saliva samples...
July 26, 2018: Sports
Eleonora Da Pozzo, Chiara Giacomelli, Chiara Cavallini, Claudia Martini
The stress hormone cortisol has been recognized as a coordinator of immune response. However, its different ability to modulate the release of inflammatory mediators in males and females has not been clarified yet. Indeed, the dissection of cortisol specific actions may be difficult due to the complex hormonal and physio-pathological individual status. Herein, the release of inflammatory mediators following increasing cortisol concentrations was investigated in an in vitro model of primary human male and female lymphomonocytes...
2018: PloS One
Jean Norden, Kim F Pearce, Julie A E Irving, Matthew P Collin, Xiao N Wang, Daniel Wolff, Hans-Jochem Kolb, Gerard Socie, Zoya Kuzmina, Hildegard Greinix, Ernst Holler, Vanderson Rocha, Eliane Gluckman, Ilona Hromadnikova, Anne M Dickinson
Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only cure for most haematological malignancies, however, the mortality rate remains high. Complications after HSCT include relapse, graft versus host disease (GvHD), graft rejection and infection. Over the last few years several groups, have demonstrated that non-HLA gene polymorphisms can be predictive of outcome after HSCT. Since the glucocorticoid cortisol is pivotal in the regulation of the immune system, we decided to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs6198, rs33388 and rs33389) within the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and correlate with HSCT outcome...
July 25, 2018: International Journal of Immunogenetics
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