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Cortisol Immunity

Neeti Lakhani, Devki Nandan Kamra, Preeti Lakhani, Mohanned Naif Alhussien
The present study was performed to ascertain the synergistic effects of phytogenic feed additives (PFA-7) supplementation on immune status and haemato-biochemical profile of buffalo calves. The PFA-7 is a mixture of neem seed cake (Azadirachta indica), mahua seed cake (Madhuca longifolia), fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare), harad (Terminalia chebula), fruit pulp of bahera (Terminalia bellirica), fruit pulp of amla (Phyllanthus emblica) and ajwain seed (Trachyspermum ammi) mixed in 2:2:2:1:1:1:1 proportion. Male buffalo calves (n = 21) having similar age and body weight were allotted to three groups in a completely randomised design...
October 17, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
T Yasui, R M Ehrhardt, G R Bowman, M Vázquez-Añon, J D Richards, C A Atwell, T R Overton
Trace minerals have important roles in immune function and oxidative metabolism; however, little is known about the relationships between supplementation level and source with outcomes in dairy cattle. Multiparous Holstein cows (n=48) beginning at 60 to 140 days in milk were utilized to determine the effects of trace mineral amount and source on aspects of oxidative metabolism and responses to intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Cows were fed a basal diet meeting National Research Council (NRC) requirements except for no added zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) or manganese (Mn)...
October 16, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Luciele Guerra Minuzzi, Luis Rama, Matheus Uba Chupel, Fátima Rosado, Gabriel Keine Kuga, Rafael Calais Gaspar, Vitor Rosetto Muñoz, José Rodrigo Pauli, Artur Paiva, Ana Maria Teixeira
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a training season (approximately 7 months) on physiological and salivary immune-endocrine markers in master athletes. Nine male master athletes were evaluated at the beginning of the season (M1) and a week after the main official competition at the end of the sports season (M2). The controlled variables included Maximal oxygen consumption, anthropometric, physiological, and salivary immune-endocrine markers. Master athletes presented a reduced percentage of fat mass and increased lean body mass at the end of the season...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Emmanuel Amabebe, Dilly O C Anumba
Stress stimuli are ubiquitous and women do not enjoy any exemptions. The physiologic "fight-or-flight" response may be deleterious to the female lower genital tract microbiome if the stress stimuli persist for longer than necessary. Persistent exposure to psychosocial stress and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axes, and associated hormones are risk factors for several infections including genitourinary tract infections. Though this could be due to a dysregulated immune response, a cortisol-induced inhibition of vaginal glycogen deposition may be involved especially in the instance of vaginal infection...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Rachael A Heckenberg, Pennie Eddy, Stephen Kent, Bradley J Wright
OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) have been related with improved job satisfaction, wellbeing, health, and reduced workplace stress with employees. However, until now, synthesis of the evidence of the effect of MBIs on physiological indices associated with stress and ill-health has been lacking. Therefore the current systematic review aimed to synthesise the literature from employee samples to provide guidance for future investigations in terms of which physiological indicators and biological systems may be most impacted by MBIs...
November 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Tze Pin Ng, Yanxia Lu, Robin Wai Mun Choo, Crystal Tze Ying Tan, Ma Shwe Z Nyunt, Qi Gao, Esther Wing Hei Mok, Anis Larbi
Sarcopenia, a core feature of the physical frailty syndrome, is characterized by multisystem physiological dysregulation. No study has explored qualitatively the hierarchical network of relationships among different dysregulated pathways involved in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia. We used 40 blood biomarkers belonging to community-dwelling prefrail and frail older persons to derive measures of multiple physiological pathways, and structural equation modeling to generate path network models of the multisystem physiological dysregulations associated with muscle mass and function (MMF)...
October 9, 2018: Aging Cell
Siyu Chen, Jian Wang, Dandan Peng, Gan Li, Jian Chen, Xianhong Gu
The microbiome has emerged as a new player on behavior, physiology and stress because of its significant effects on the brain-gut axis. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of brain-gut function in dairy cows. We investigated the effects of a heat-stress (HS) environment and individual differences of heat sensitivity (IH) on bovine physiological characteristics and microbial composition. Results indicate that both HS and IH increased rectal temperature (RT) (P < 0.05). An HS environment increased plasma, as well as milk cortisol and cytokines in plasma; however, it decreased plasma, and milk oxytocin, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine (P < 0...
October 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
R T Casey, O Giger, I Seetho, A Marker, D Pitfield, L H Boyle, M Gurnell, A Shaw, M Tischowitz, E R Maher, V K Chatterjee, T Janowitz, G Mells, P Corrie, B G Challis
CONTEXT: Metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. A subset of ACC is due to Lynch syndrome, an inherited tumor syndrome resulting from germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. It has been demonstrated that several cancers characterized by MMR deficiency are sensitive to immune checkpoint inhibitors that target PD-1. Here, we provide the first report of PD-1 blockade with pembrolizumab in a patient with Lynch syndrome and progressive cortisol-secreting metastatic ACC...
June 21, 2018: Seminars in Oncology
Barry M Lester, Elisabeth Conradt, Linda L LaGasse, Edward Z Tronick, James F Padbury, Carmen J Marsit
: media-1vid110.1542/5804912859001PEDS-VA_2017-1890 Video Abstract OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine if variations in maternal care alter DNA methylation in term, healthy, 5-month-old infants. This work was based on landmark studies in animal models demonstrating that nurturing care by dams would alter their newborns' stress responses through epigenetic mechanisms. We used breastfeeding as a proxy for animal maternal behavior. We hypothesized alterations in DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene and less hypothalamic stress response in infants of mothers who breastfed their infants versus infants of mothers who did not breastfeed...
October 2018: Pediatrics
Hilana Dos Santos Sena Brunel, Bruno Stéfano Lima Dallago, Aline Melgaço Bezerra de Almeida, Aline Zorzan de Assis, Rafaella Jacinta de Bento Calzada, Adriano Braga Brasileiro de Alvarenga, Adriana Morato Menezes, João Paulo Barbosa, Paula Rodrigues Lopes, Félix Hilário Diaz González, Concepta McManus, Donald Broom, Francisco Ernesto Moreno Bernal
Pre-loading handling and conditions of transport are related to welfare, disease risk and product quality of production animals. These steps continue to be one of the major animal management problems in Brazil. This study evaluated the effects of different types of pre-loading handling and road transport times on the haematological and biochemical traits of cattle. Eighteen male cattle were submitted to three travel times (24, 48 and 72 h) in a truck soon after load using different types of pre-loading handling: traditional (rough handling), training (gentle handling) and use of flags to movement cattle...
June 2018: International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine
Sarah M Chinn, Daniel H Monson, M Tim Tinker, Michelle M Staedler, Daniel E Crocker
Lactation is the most energetically demanding stage of reproduction in female mammals. Increased energetic allocation toward current reproduction may result in fitness costs, although the mechanisms underlying these trade-offs are not well understood. Trade-offs during lactation may include reduced energetic allocation to cellular maintenance, immune response, and survival and may be influenced by resource limitation. As the smallest marine mammal, sea otters ( Enhydra lutris ) have the highest mass-specific metabolic rate necessitating substantial energetic requirements for survival...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Anuj Singh, Muneendra Kumar, Vinod Kumar, Debashis Roy, Raju Kushwaha, Shalini Vaswani, Avinash Kumar
Nickel (Ni) has not been elucidated as an essential mineral in dairy animals, though in plants and lower organisms, its role in activation of urease enzyme is well known. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Ni supplementation on intake, growth performance, urease activity, antioxidant and immune status, and energy and lipid metabolism in growing cattle. Eighteen growing Hariana heifers were randomly allocated into three groups on body weight (125 ± 3.0 kg) and age basis (10 ± 2.0 months)...
September 20, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Maurizio Cutolo
Circadian rhythms (Nobel prize for Medicine 2017) regulate, under action of biological clocks located both at the level of central nervous system and inside peripheral cells, several daily activities, embracing sleep, feeding times, energy metabolism, endocrine and immune functions with related pathological conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In RA the circadian rhythms impact on cellular functions, involving night synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, cell migration to inflamed tissues, phagocytosis, proliferative cell response and all are peaking at late night...
September 15, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Paulina Gronesova, Danka Cholujova, Katarina Kozic, Michaela Korbuly, Miroslav Vlcek, Adela Penesova, Richard Imrich, Jan Sedlak, Luba Hunakova
The aim of our prospective, interventional, pre-post, single arm study was to supplement the lack of knowledge of the effect of short-term Pilates intervention on selected blood parameters of healthy women. Female volunteers were recruited for 2-weeks Pilates intervention. Blood has been collected and anthropometric parameters were measured before and after exercise period (EP). Plasma insulin, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels, erythrocyte antioxidant activity, glutathione levels, NK cytotoxicity and plasma cytokines were analysed...
July 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
Luz Natalia Franco Montoya, Gisele Cristina Favero, Fabio Sabbadin Zanuzzo, Elisabeth Criscuolo Urbinati
This study investigated the effects of two β-glucan molecules with different purities and isolated by different biotechnological processes on the immune response of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) prior and after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. In this sense, we evaluated serum cortisol and plasma glucose levels, the number of leukocytes (lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes), as well as the respiratory activity of leukocytes prior to, 6 and 24 h post infection (hpi). During 15 days, fish were fed with diets containing 0...
September 13, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jing Lv, Jianhong Li, Chao Wang, Peng Zhao, Yanju Bi, Xin Zhang, Ran Yi, Xiang Li, Jun Bao
This study investigated behavioral and physiological responses of suckling calves to either positive or negative situations. Twelve healthy female suckling Holstein calves at approximately 30 days of age were randomly selected and allocated to two groups: a) a positive situation (POS) group that received a feed reward and b) a negative situation (NEG) group that experienced food frustration. Behavior, heart rate (HR), and immune parameters were measured during the emotion-inducing periods and analyzed via ANOVA...
September 10, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Yuanyuan Luo, Benhua Zeng, Li Zeng, Xiangyu Du, Bo Li, Ran Huo, Lanxiang Liu, Haiyang Wang, Meixue Dong, Junxi Pan, Peng Zheng, Chanjuan Zhou, Hong Wei, Peng Xie
Gut microbiota has an important role in the immune system, metabolism, and digestion, and has a significant effect on the nervous system. Recent studies have revealed that abnormal gut microbiota induces abnormal behaviors, which may be associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Therefore, we investigated the behavioral changes in germ-free (GF) mice by behavioral tests, quantified the basal serum cortisol levels, and examined glucocorticoid receptor pathway genes in hippocampus using microarray analysis followed by real-time PCR validation, to explore the molecular mechanisms by which the gut microbiota influences the host's behaviors and brain function...
September 7, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Jian Zhang, Yanqin Lu, Yanzhou Wang, Xiuzhi Ren, Jinxiang Han
Intestinal microbial flora, known as the second gene pool of the human body, play an important role in immune function, nutrient uptake, and various activities of host cells, as well as in human disease. Intestinal microorganisms are involved in a variety of mechanisms that affect bone health. Gut microbes are closely related to genetic variation, and gene regulation plays an important part in the development of bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis. Intestinal microorganisms can disrupt the balance between bone formation and resorption by indirectly stimulating or inhibiting osteoblasts and osteoclasts...
August 2018: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Rui Li, Zehe Song, Jianfei Zhao, Dongxiao Huo, Zhiyong Fan, De-Xing Hou, Xi He
L-theanine, a natural nonprotein amino acid with a high biological activity, is reported to exert anti-stress properties. An experiment with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary L-theanine on growth performance and immune function in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged broilers. A total of 432 one-day-old male yellow-feathered broilers were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments (control, antibiotic and L-theanine diets) with 2 subgroups of each (6 replicate cages; 12 birds/cage)...
September 2018: Animal nutrition
Karen Yirmiya, Amir Djalovski, Shai Motsan, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman
The relations between stress, HPA-axis, and the immune system have been extensively studied; however, no study to date addressed the joint contribution of immune and HPA biomarkers to the development of anxiety in youth exposed to chronic trauma as mediated by mother-child interaction patterns. A unique cohort of war-exposed children and their mothers, compared to matched controls, were followed from infancy and the current study reports findings from early adolescence (mean age = 11.66, SD = 1.23; N = 111; exposed = 58 control = 53)...
August 10, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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