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Edith Frimpong, Ebenezer Oduro-Mensah, Linda Vanotoo, Irene Akua Agyepong
A call center was designed and started implementation in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana in 2015, to support frontline provider decision-making and referral for maternal and new born care. This study aimed to understand the organizational functioning of the center and lessons for design improvement, implementation, and scale-up. The study design was a single case study. Data collection involved participant and nonparticipant observation, conversations, and in-depth interviews with call center staff. Data were coded and analyzed manually...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Jie Xu
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is commonly used as a specific marker for the identification of astrocytes. Nevertheless, it is known from the literature that astrocytes in situ in contrast to cultured astrocytes may feature lower levels of GFAP. In order to characterize the properties of GFAP in Calbindin D28k immunoreactive astrocytes, we use primary astrocyte cultures from cells of new-born mice. A double fluorescence immunocytochemical analysis reveals that GFAP in cultured Calbindin D28k astrocytes behaves differently depending on whether the medium contains foetal bovine serum (FBS) or not...
August 3, 2018: Brain Sciences
Arnaud Dupuis, Christian Gachet
Inherited platelet disorders are rare bleeding syndromes due to either platelet function abnormalities or thrombocytopenia which may be associated with functional defects. The haemorrhagic symptoms observed in these patients are mostly muco-cutaneous and of highly variable severity. Although 30 to 50% of the platelet disorders are still of unknown origin, the precise diagnosis of these pathologies by specialized laboratories together with haemorrhagic scores enables an assessment of the risk of bleeding in each patient...
August 1, 2018: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
Immacolata Dall'Oglio, Rachele Mascolo, Emanuela Tiozzo, Anna Portanova, Martina Fiori, Orsola Gawronski, Andrea Dotta, Simone Piga, Caterina Offidani, Rosaria Alvaro, Gennaro Rocco, Jos M Latour
OBJECTIVES: To explore family-centred care practices in Italian neonatal intensive care units and describe areas for improvement. METHODS: A cross-sectional, multicentre, survey was conducted using the Italian language version of "Advancing family-centred new-born intensive care: a self-assessment inventory". The instrument is divided into 10 sections rating the status of family-centred care (1 = not at all, 5 = very well) and ranking the perceived priority for change/improvement (1 = low, 3 = high)...
July 31, 2018: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
Natalia Sánchez, Verónica Inostroza, María Cristina Pérez, Paulina Moya, Angélica Ubilla, Jovita Besa, Emanuel Llaguno, Claudio Vera P-G, Oscar Inzunza, Marcia Gaete
Organogenesis is one of the most striking process during development. During this period, organ primordia pass throughout several stages in which the level of organisation increases in complexity to achieve the final organ architecture. Organ culture, a method in which an isolated organ is explanted and maintained ex-vivo, is an excellent tool for following the morphological dynamics during development. While most of the work has been made in early stages of development, culturing organs in mid-late stages is needed to understand the achievement of the final organ anatomy in the new-born...
July 27, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Jayanta Kumar Bora, Nandita Saikia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: India contributes the highest global share of deaths among the under-fives. Continuous monitoring of the reduction in the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) at local level is thus essential to set priorities for policy-makers and health professionals. In this study, we aimed to provide an update on district-level disparities in the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and the U5MR with special reference to Sustainable Development Goal 3 (SDG3) on preventable deaths among new-borns and children under five...
2018: PloS One
Matilda Aberese-Ako, Irene Akua Agyepong, Han van Dijk
Hospital managers' power to exercise effective leadership in daily management can affect quality of care directly as well as through effects on frontline workers' motivation. This paper explores the influence of contextual factors on hospital managers' leadership styles and the motivation of frontline workers providing maternal and new born care in two public district hospitals in Ghana. It draws on data from an ethnographic study that involved participant observation, conversations and in-depth interviews conducted over 20 months, with frontline health workers and managers...
July 1, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Jian Sun, Xiaochun Wei, Shengchun Li, Changqi Sun, Chunfang Wang, Pengcui Li, Dennis L Wei, Lei Wei
The endochondral ossification plays a critical role in vertebrate limb development and skeletal homeostasis, where limb mesenchyme cells form an intermediate cartilage scaffold that develop into growth plates and then replaced by bone. Although Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is known to control hypertrophic differentiation process of chondrocytes, its role from the mesenchyme cells to the early stages of chondrogenesis is unclear. To define the function of Ihh in the mesenchymal cell's early stages of chondrogenesis, we specifically delete Ihh in Prx1 expressed mesenchyme cells at E9...
July 21, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Sana Eljamel, Annabel Griffiths, Jenni Evans, Indraneel Banerjee, Khalid Hussain, Richard Thompson
BACKGROUND: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a rare, genetic disease which causes persistent hypoglycaemia, typically in new-borns. Patients with the diffuse disease variant often require near-total surgical removal of the pancreas, causing insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The CHI economic burden is currently unknown. This study aimed to estimate the annual cost of illness (COI) of CHI patients in the UK from a service provider perspective (National Health Service, NHS and Personal Social Services), and to explore cost distribution within the patient population...
July 20, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
A J Fasunla
BACKGROUND: The long-term effect of maternal HIV and antiretroviral medication on the hearing of HIV-exposed infants has not been well studied. We determined and compared the hearing thresholds of HIV-exposed infants with that of HIV-unexposed infants within the first month of life and at three, six and nine months of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a Case control study of 126 HIV-exposed newborns and 121 HIV-unexposed newborns. Data collected included Socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and risk factors for hearing loss...
May 2018: West African Journal of Medicine
Sandra Mudhune, Sydney Chauwa Phiri, Marta R Prescott, Elizabeth A McCarthy, Aaron Banda, Prudence Haimbe, Francis Dien Mwansa, Angel Mwiche, Francis Bwalya, Micheck Kabamba, Hilda Shakwelele, Margaret L Prust
BACKGROUND: A strong evidence base exists regarding routine and emergency services that can effectively prevent or reduce maternal and new-born mortality. However, even when skilled providers care for women in labour, many of the recommended services are not provided, despite being available. Barriers to the provision of appropriate childbirth services may include lack of availability of supplies, limited health worker knowledge and confidence, or inadequate time. The WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist (SCC) includes reminders for evidenced-based practices at specific points in the childbirth process...
July 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
Mihee Hong, Seung-Hak Baek
Objective: This study is performed to investigate the trend of health care (HC) utilization among cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) during 2007-2016 by using data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (KNHIS). Methods: The KNHIS data were reorganized to count a specific patient only once for a specific year. Cleft type (cleft lip [CL], cleft palate [CP], and cleft lip and palate [CLP]), sex, and age at HC utilization were investigated. The study period was divided into the first half (2007-2011) and the last half (2012-2016)...
July 2018: Korean Journal of Orthodontics
O Schmitt, E M Baxter, L A Boyle, K O'Driscoll
Nurse sow strategies are used to manage large litters on commercial pig farms. However, new-born piglets transferred to nurse sows in late lactation might be compromised in terms of growth and survival. We investigated the effects of two nurse sow strategies on piglet growth, suckling behaviour and sow nursing behaviour. At 1-day post-farrowing, the four heaviest piglets from large litters were transferred to a nurse sow either 21 (1STEP21, n=9 litters) or 7 (2STEP7, n=10 litters) days into lactation. The remainder of the litter remained with their mother and was either kept intact (remain intact (RI), n=10 litters) or had some piglets cross-fostered to equalise birth weights (remain equalised (RE), n=9 litters)...
July 11, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
O Schmitt, E M Baxter, L A Boyle, K O'Driscoll
Management strategies are needed to optimise the number of piglets weaned from hyper-prolific sows. Nurse sow strategies involve transferring supernumerary new-born piglets onto a sow whose own piglets are either weaned or fostered onto another sow. Such 'nurse sows' have extended lactations spent in farrowing crates, which could have negative implications for their welfare. This study used 47 sows, 20 of which farrowed large litters and had their biggest piglets fostered onto nurse sows which were either 1 week (2STEP7, n=9) or 3 weeks into lactation (1STEP21, n=10)...
July 10, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Shanta Sharma, Indra Dhakal
BACKGROUND: Child birth is a universally celebrated occasion, yet everyday for thousands of women child birth is experienced not as a joyful event as it should be, but as a private hell that may even end in death. The objective of this study is to determine the complications of normal delivery and cesarean section on the mothers and new born. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted in two selected hospitals of Rupandehi district, Nepal. Data was collected as per pretested structured proforma from 550 respondents who were the mothers and new born delivered normally and through cesarean section randomly till the completion of sample size and analyzed by using SPSS, MANOVA and Chi-square test to determine associations between categorical variables...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
Zhila Maghbooli, Arash Hossein-Nezhad, Elham Adabi, Effat Asadollah-Pour, Mahsa Sadeghi, Sara Mohammad-Nabi, Leila Zakeri Rad, Ali-Asghar Malek Hosseini, Mehrnaz Radmehr, Fatemeh Faghihi, Atoosa Aghaei, Abolfazl Omidifar, Yasaman Aghababei, Hadis Behzadi
BACKGROUND: Health in early life is crucial for health later in life. Exposure to air pollution during embryonic and early-life development can result in placental epigenetic modification and foetus reprogramming, which can influence disease susceptibility in later life. Objectives: The aim of this paper was to investigate the placental adaptation in the level of global DNA methylation and differential gene expression in the methylation cycle in new-borns exposed to high fine particulate matter in the foetal stage...
2018: PloS One
Yvonne S Davidson, Andrew Robinson, Vee P Prasher, David M A Mann
While post mortem studies have identified the major cell types and functional systems affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) the initial sites and molecular characteristics of pathology are still unclear. Because individuals with Down syndrome (DS) (trisomy 21) develop the full pathological changes of AD in a predictable way by the time they reach middle to late age, a study of the brains of such persons at different ages makes an ideal 'model system' in which the sites of earliest onset of pathology can be detected and the subsequent progression of changes be monitored...
July 4, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Ishfaq A Sheikh, Essam H Jiffri, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Mohammad A Kamal, Mohd A Beg
AIM: Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is an essential protein with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity present in mammalian milk. It imparts immunity to infants against wide range of pathogenic infections. Several in vitro studies have shown inhibition of LPO activity by pharmaceutical compounds including commonly used antibiotics such as ampicillin and gentamicin, and molecules like prednisolone, norepinephrine, etc. Prescription of such drugs to lactating mothers might have adverse health effects on infants...
June 25, 2018: Life Sciences
Shakeel Ahmed, Shahida Sheraz, Sohail Ahmad Malik, Nasir Rafiq Ahmed, Shahid Ahmad Malik, Shahid Farooq, Abdul Raheem, Faisal Basheer, Zameer Ahmad Nayyar
BACKGROUND: Congenital deafness is commonest birth defect and it affects 2-4 neonates among 1000 live births. Detection and intervention especially before 6 months of age prevents severe linguistic, educational and psychosocial repercussions and helps the deaf child in the development of normal speech and language. Children who are identified after 6 months of age experience great difficulties in attaining speech and language.. METHODS: To find out the frequency of hearing loss in neonates, a hospital based observational study was conducted in Combined Military Hospital Abbottabad from June-to December 2014...
April 2018: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Emilie Abraham, Sophie Rousseaux, Lydiane Agier, Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Jörg Tost, Julien Galineau, Agnès Hulin, Valérie Siroux, Daniel Vaiman, Marie-Aline Charles, Barbara Heude, Anne Forhan, Joel Schwartz, Florent Chuffart, Ekaterina Bourova-Flin, Saadi Khochbin, Rémy Slama, Johanna Lepeule
BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure represents a major health threat to the developing foetus. DNA methylation is one of the most well-known molecular determinants of the epigenetic status of cells. Blood DNA methylation has been proven sensitive to air pollutants, but the molecular impact of air pollution on new-borns has so far received little attention. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), particulate matter (PM10 ), temperature and humidity during pregnancy are associated with differences in placental DNA methylation levels...
September 2018: Environment International
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