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Yanli Liu, Jing Shen, Xin Yang, Qingzhu Sun, Xiaojun Yang
Abdominal fat or fatty liver cause huge economic loss in poultry industry and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is also a global health issue in human. More than 90% of de novo lipogenesis in human and chickens is undertaken by the liver which is proved to be full of lipid in new-born chickens. Folic acid was thought to have correlation with lipid metabolism. Primary hepatocytes from new-born chickens were employed as a natural fatty liver model in vitro and further to explore whether folic acid could relieve fatty liver in the current study...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Suhail A Khan, Manjiri Khare, Haitham Dagash, Venkatesh Kairamkonda
Meconium pseudocyst (MPC) is a rare but well-known surgical condition due to prenatal bowel perforation. A case of MPC secondary to prenatal bowel perforation is presented. Massive ascites requiring peritoneal drainage and disappearance of prenatal intraperitoneal calcifications have not been previously reported in MPC. MPC may present at birth with large ascites requiring peritoneal drainage to establish breathing and ventilation. Absence of prenatal intra-abdominal calcifications does not rule out MPC.
February 2019: Radiology Case Reports
B Wei, Q Meng, S He, Z Qu, S Nie, B Shi, A Shan
Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation because DDGS contain about 10% crude fat, which is largely composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids. l-carnitine serves an important function in fatty acids β-oxidation, and also has antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of l-carnitine in the DDGS diet of gestating and lactating sows on reproductive performance, milk composition and antioxidant status of sows and their offspring. One hundred and twenty sows (Landrace×Large white, mean parity 4...
November 23, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Syeda Batool Mazhar, Afshan Batool
BACKGROUND: WHO MCS in 2011 evaluated the incidence and management strategies linked with maternal and neonatal mortality in facilities across 26 countries including Pakistan. This study, a sub-analysis assessed the availability of essential obstetric and newborn care at referral level facilities of Pakistan that were selected for WHO MCS to correlate it with maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed the infrastructure, equipment and services in 16 referral level government hospitals participating in WHO MCS from 1st March to 30th May, 2011...
July 2018: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Nazia Fatima, Sohail Arshad, Ahmed Iqbal Quddusi, Abdur Rehman, Aashee Nadeem, Imran Iqbal
BACKGROUND: Persistent pulmonary hypertension is a serious disease among new-borns. Inhaled nitric oxide is first line of therapy along with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Pulmonary vasodilators such as sildenafil, bosentan and milrinone are also used to treat persistent pulmonary hypertension especially in resource limited centres where inhaled nitric oxide is not available. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of sildenafil alone and sildenafil with bosentan on severity of tricuspid regurgitation and duration of hospitalization in new-borns with persistent pulmonary hypertension...
July 2018: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Manuela W A Schols, Colinda M B Serie, Nick J Broers, Corine de Ruiter
Early detection of child abuse risk factors in families of new-born babies is an important task of the public youth health care system in the Netherlands. The Early Risks of Physical Abuse and Neglect Scale (ERPANS) was originally developed in Belgium as an observation scale for public child healthcare nurses. The present longitudinal study is an independent prospective validation of the ERPANS in a Dutch community sample (N = 1257) of families with a new-born. Results showed a commonality of underlying subsets of items belonging to the 'Disturbed parent-child relationship' and 'Psychological problems' factors, but the factor 'Communication problems' of the original ERPANS could not be replicated...
November 14, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Bo Shi, Shixing Li, Hao Ju, Xin Liu, Dan Li, Ying Li
The present study aimed to evaluate the renoprotective effects of chelerythrine (CHE), a protein kinase C inhibitor, on neonatal rats after partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) surgery. New born Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to partial UUO 48 h after birth and received a daily intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg CHE. At 21-day age, the rats were scarified and the kidneys were collected for analysis. Results showed that CHE treatment significantly increased kidney weight and restored renal function in the obstructed kidney...
November 12, 2018: Life Sciences
Jawad Fares, Zeina Bou Diab, Sanaa Nabha, Youssef Fares
The hippocampus is one of the sites in the mammalian brain that is capable of continuously generating controversy. Adult neurogenesis is a remarkable process, and yet an intensely debatable topic in contemporary neuroscience due to its distinctiveness and conceivable impact on neural activity. The belief that neurogenesis continues through adulthood has provoked remarkable efforts to describe how newborn neurons differentiate and incorporate into the adult brain. It has also encouraged studies that investigate the consequences of inadequate neurogenesis in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, and explore the potential role of neural progenitor cells in brain repair...
November 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Camilla Lindgren Schwartz, Sofie Christiansen, Anne Marie Vinggaard, Marta Axelstad, Ulla Hass, Terje Svingen
Male reproductive development is intricately dependent on fetal androgen action. Consequently, disrupted androgen action during fetal life can interfere with the development of the reproductive system resulting in adverse effects on reproductive function later in life. One biomarker used to evaluate fetal androgen action is the anogenital distance (AGD), the distance between the anus and the external genitalia. A short male AGD is strongly associated with genital malformations at birth and reproductive disorders in adulthood...
November 14, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Pallavi Saxena, Dibyabhaba Pradhan, Rashi Verma, Shashi Nandar Kumar, Ravi Deval, Arun Kumar Jain
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco-smoking is one of the most important risk factor for preterm delivery, pregnancy loss, low birth weight, and fetal growth restriction. It is estimated that approximately 30% of growth-restricted neonates could be independently associated with maternal smoking. METHODS: In this study, gene expression profile, GSE11798, was chosen from GEO database with an aim to perceive change in gene expression signature in new born due to maternal smoking...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Clarence S Yah, Ernest Tambo
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) accounts for more than two thirds of the world's HIV infection. Despite scaled-up prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programmes, mother to child transmission of HIV (MTCT) continues to escalate. We describe the challenges faced by PMTCT in MTCT in SSA. The study reviewed articles and reports published online. The most common barriers and challenges were non-disclosure of HIV status, late initiation of ARVs treatment/adherence, STIs screening, long clinics waiting time, non-involvement of men in ANC/PMTCT, infant feeding methods and sensitization of community members on ANC/PMTCT programmes...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Yin Ba, Jin Xu, Lin Yuan, Haiyan Zhu, Yipei Yang, Mei Mei Lam, Shulian Zhang, Mili Xiao, Jiayin Xu, Rong Zhang, Chao Chen
Objective: To validate a three-step protocol that assesses the clinical risk associated with using blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMS) in neonates for the management of dysglycaemia. Method: The three-step validation approach included confirmation of the accuracy of the reference method using National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) glucose standards, assessment of analytical risk performed on whole blood collected from paediatric patients routinely tested for glucose and a clinical risk assessment performed using heel stick capillary samples collected from 147 new-born babies and neonates admitted to intensive care...
2018: BMJ Paediatrics Open
María Carolina Silva, Alvaro Sepúlveda-Martínez, Rodolfo Guíñez, María Teresa Haye, Mauro Parra-Cordero
BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: To assess the perinatal outcome of pregnancies with chorionic bump detected at the first trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study of pregnancies with chorionic bump identified at the first trimester ultrasound that was performed from October 2014 and October 2016. The control group consisted of the following 5 unaffected pregnancies after each case. From the first trimester ultrasound, maternal and perinatal characteristics were obtained and stored in a dedicated database...
November 2, 2018: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
Khushbu Adhikari, Charanjeet Singh Saimbi, Birendra Prasad Gupta
INTRODUCTION: Chronic periodontitis is an infectious disease. Porphyromonas gingivalis is the major pathogen associated with it and can be found in all ecosystems in the oral cavity. The presence of this organism is highly correlated with preterm and low birth weight babies. So, this study aimed to assess vertical transmission of P.gingivalis from pregnant women to their new born. METHODS: Forty six pregnant women with chronic periodontitis were recruited for this cross-sectional study...
July 2018: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
Amanda de Oliveira Melo, Daniela Braz Dos Santos, Luciana Damacena Silva, Thiago Lopes Rocha, José Clecildo Barreto Bezerra
Schistosomiasis is a disease that affects tropical and subtropical areas and is considered the second most prevalent parasitic disease in the world. One of the ways of combating this disease is the use of molluscicidal agents to eliminate or reduce the population of intermediate host snails. Polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) is a chemical biocide commonly used as a disinfectant and antiseptic in the food industry and very successfully for the disinfection of swimming pools. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) indicated the PHMB as low environmental risk...
February 2019: Chemosphere
Fodé Diop, Thomas Vial, Pauline Ferraris, Sineewanlaya Wichit, Michèle Bengue, Rodolphe Hamel, Loïc Talignani, Florian Liegeois, Julien Pompon, Hans Yssel, Guillaume Marti, Dorothée Missé
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. Although infection with ZIKV generally leads to mild disease, its recent emergence in the Americas has been associated with an increase in the development of the Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, as well as with neurological complications, in particular congenital microcephaly, in new-borns. To date, little information is available on neuroinflammation induced by ZIKV, notably in microglial cells in the context of their metabolic activity, a series of chemical transformations that are essential for their growth, reproduction, structural maintenance and environmental responses...
2018: PloS One
Mairead Kiely, Kevin D Cashman
Food-based solutions for optimal vitamin D nutrition and health through the life cycle (ODIN) was a cross-disciplinary, collaborative project, including 30 partners from 19 countries, which aimed to develop evidence-based solutions to prevent low vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) < 30 nmol/L) using a food-first approach. This paper provides a summary overview of some of the important ODIN outcomes and outlines some outstanding data requirements. In a study of almost 56,000 individuals, the first internationally standardised dataset of vitamin D status showed that 13% of EU residents overall, across a latitude gradient of 35° N to 69° N, had serum 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L and 40% were < 50 nmol/L...
October 24, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Åsa Wahlberg, Ulf Högberg, Maria Emmelin
BACKGROUND: It is known that healthcare providers might be affected by severe medical events in which patients are badly hurt. In birth care, escalating situations can result in death or injury to a mother or new-born child. OBJECTIVE: To explore the process that Swedish midwives and obstetricians go through after a severe event in the maternity unit. DESIGN: A modified Constructivist Grounded Theory analysis, based on fourteen in-depth interviews with birth care professionals...
August 12, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Ge Tian, Fen Wang, Xin Xiang Xu, Zhi Hang Jia, Shun Feng Ge, Yuan Mao Jiang
Taking 6-year-old Yanfu3/SH6/Malus hupehensis Rehd. as the test material, the dynamics of plant growth and nitrogen (N) accumulation under seven periods from germination stage to fruit maturity stage were examined by destructive analysis. The absorption, utilization, and distribution of fertilizer N were studied by 15 N isotope tracer technique to clarify the N accumulation dynamics of apple trees and the maximum efficiency period of fertilizer N, and to provide theoretical basis for scientific application of N fertilizer...
October 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Rathin Maity, Santanu Majumder, Amit Roychowdhury, Subrata Saha
The goal of this finite element study is to reduce the stress shielding effect in tibial fracture fixation. Five different plates with modified geometry have been modeled. The fracture gap is assumed to be filled with callus, which is new born healing tissue. The effect of different plate modifications in four different healing stages has been compared to the nonmodified plate. It has been observed that all the modified models have higher callus stress than the nonmodified model, and the best modified plate has reduced the stress shielding effect by 117% for the first healing stage...
2018: Journal of Long-term Effects of Medical Implants
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