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Katie L Togher, Gerard W O'Keeffe, Ali S Khashan, Gerard Clarke, Louise C Kenny
Prenatal distress is associated with adverse outcomes in affected offspring. Alterations in placental glucocorticoid signalling and subsequent foetal overexposure to glucocorticoids have been implicated as an underlying mechanism. Infant sex is emerging as an important factor in disease susceptibility. This study aimed to examine the effects of maternal distress across pregnancy on birth outcomes and placental glucocorticoid genes in a sex-dependent manner. Participants completed psychological distress questionnaires throughout pregnancy...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tesfay Hailu, Kidane Nigus, Gebreamlak Gidey, Birhane Hailu, Yohannes Moges
OBJECTIVES: Partograph is one of the best effective obstetric tools used to monitoring labor and prevent prolonged or obstructed labor which accounts for about 22% of maternal deaths in Ethiopia. This study was aimed to assess partograph utilization and associated factors among obstetric care givers. Facility based cross sectional study was used in the randomly selected health facilities. Total 220 obstetric care givers were selected using simple random sampling technique. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 22...
October 10, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Maria Soledad Ausas, Laura Mazzitelli-Fuentes, Fernanda Ruth Roman, Sonia Alejandra Crichigno, Ana Paula De Vincenti, Lucas Alberto Mongiat
Alterations in the social environment, such as isolating an individual that would normally live in a social group, can generate physiological responses that compromise an individual's capacity to learn. To investigate this, we tested whether social isolation impairs learning skills in the rainbow trout. We show that rainbow trout can achieve an active avoidance (AA) learning program with inter-individual variability. Moreover, c-Fos expression in dorsomedial telencephalon (Dm) correlates with the AA performance, indicating that this structure is involved in this cognitive task...
October 5, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Tegene Legese Dadi, Bayu Begashaw Bekele, Habtamu Kebebe Kasaye, Tadesse Nigussie
BACKGROUND: Every family expect to have a healthy mother and new born baby after pregnancy. Especially for parents, pregnancy is a time of great anticipation. Access to maternal and child health care insures safer pregnancy and its outcome. MWHs is one the strategy. The objective was to synthesize the best available evidence on effectiveness of maternity waiting homes on the reduction of maternal mortality and stillbirth in developing countries. METHODS: Before conducting this review non-occurrences of the same review is verified...
October 1, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Michael P Okoh, Lukman A Alli, Martti E E Tolvanen, Maxwell Nwegbu
Introduction Nigeria has the largest burden of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) with estimated 100,000 new born affected annually. SCD is a hemoglobin (Hb) disorder with the major form resulting from the substitution of a polar glutamate (Glu) by non-polar Valine (Val) in an invariant region, of Hb chain-subunit. Species of Hb found in sickle cell trait are HbA and HbS at a 60:40 proportion, in SCD only HbS, in the HbC disease only HbC, and in the SC disease it's HbS and HbC in a 50:50 equal proportion. Objective This paper reviews herbal medicines usagein sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) to ameliorate the crisis associated with SCD...
October 1, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Charlotte de Lange, Rønnaug Solberg, Jon Erik Holtedahl, Andreas Tulipan, Jon Barlinn, William Trigg, Torild Wickstrøm, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Eirik Malinen, Mona Elisabeth Revheim
INTRODUCTION: Inflammation associated with microglial activation may be an early prognostic indicator of perinatal hypoxic ischemic injury, where translocator protein (TSPO) is a known inflammatory biomarker. This piglet study used dynamic TSPO-PET with [18 F]GE180 to evaluate if microglial activation after global perinatal hypoxic injury could be detected. METHODS: New born anesthetized pigs (n = 14) underwent hypoxia with fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 )0...
August 24, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Yeow-Kuan Chong, Chi-Chun Ho, Shui-Yee Leung, Susanna K P Lau, Patrick C Y Woo
Mass spectrometry (MS) is a sensitive, specific and versatile analytical technique in the clinical laboratory that has recently undergone rapid development. From initial use in metabolic profiling, it has matured into applications including clinical toxicology assays, target hormone and metabolite quantitation, and more recently, rapid microbial identification and antimicrobial resistance detection by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). In this mini-review, we first succinctly outline the basics of clinical mass spectrometry...
2018: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
Jyoti Ramesh Chandran, Sajala Vimal Raj
Background and Objectives: Hepatitis B is a major health concern in Asia. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may cause hepatic cirrhosis and liver cancer. HBV is transmitted horizontally through blood and blood products and vertically from mother to infant. Perinatal infection is the main route of transmission in regions with high prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) carriage, and perinatal transmission leads to high rates of chronic infection. Therefore, it is important to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV1...
October 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Yan Zhang, Xiaoping Huang, Jie Zhou, Yongxiang Yin, Ting Zhang, Daozhen Chen
AIMS: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-specific hepatic disorder with potentially deleterious consequences of fetuses. Although the intimate relationship between ICP and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been previously reported in physiological and pathological conditions, the detailed mechanisms in the process of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy has been unclear. The aims of this study are to assess the role of PPARγ regulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation in the process of the ICP...
October 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Karim S Echtay, Martin Bienengraeber, Peter Mayinger, Simone Heimpel, Edith Winkler, Doerthe Druhmann, Karina Frischmuth, Frits Kamp, Shu-Gui Huang
The uncoupling protein (UCP1) is a proton (H+ ) transporter in the mitochondrial inner membrane. By dissipating the electrochemical H+ gradient, UCP1 uncouples respiration from ATP synthesis, which drives an increase in substrate oxidation via the TCA cycle flux that generates more heat. The mitochondrial uncoupling-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue is vital primarily to mammals, such as rodents and new-born humans, but more recently additional functions in adult humans have been described...
September 11, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Abdifatah Elmi Farah, Abdulahi Haji Abbas, Ahmed Tahir Ahmed
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, the trend of neonatal mortality showed slow pace of reduction from 2000-2016 compared to the reduction in infant and under-five mortality over the same period. This study aimed at unpacking the trends of admission, specific causes and rate of neonatal mortality as well as predictors of neonatal mortality at a general hospital in Somali region of Ethiopia. METHODS: A hospital based retrospective cohort study was conducted from 25th of May 2017to 10th of June, 2017...
2018: PloS One
Reem Masarwa, Benjamin Bar-Oz, Einat Gorelik, Shimon Reif, Amichai Perlman, Ilan Matok
OBJECTIVE: There is a marked increase in the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) in the last decade. Many newborns are likely to be exposed during pregnancy and labor. We aimed to evaluate the association between exposure to SSRIs and SNRIs during pregnancy and the risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). To compare the risk for PPHN between specific SSRI agents. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane were searched up to July 2017...
August 28, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Tadese Ejigu Tafere, Mesganaw Fanthahun Afework, Alemayehu Worku Yalew
BACKGROUND: The neonatal period is only 1/60th of the first 5 years of life but it accounts for 63% of all infant deaths and 44% of all under-five deaths in Ethiopia. Most causes of neonatal death are preventable with clean cord care, temperature control by delaying first bath and initiation of early breastfeeding which has additional benefit of controlling hypothermia. Poor positive pressure ventilation (PPV) with ambubag is also another essential neborn care practice to reduce neonatal death even though it was not the focus of this study with the assumption that it cannot be measured only by exit interview (needs direct observation about the procedure)...
August 29, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Yea-Hyun Leem, Morimasa Kato, Hyukki Chang
PURPOSE: Chronic stress can lead to mood-related psychomotor behaviors such as despair. Decreased hippocampal neurogenesis has been observed in patients with depression and in animal models of depression. Exercise enhances the population of the new born cells in the dentate gyrus (DG). A few studies have demonstrated that creatine has antidepressant effects in humans. However, the mechanism underpinning these effects is poorly understood. Therefore, we examined whether regular exercise and/or creatine was closely associated with the activity of the Wnt/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway in the hippocampal DG...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Samira Foji, Manijeh Yousefi Moghadam, Hosein TabasiAsl, Milad Nazarzadeh, Hamid Salehiniya
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of ENTONOX inhalation and spinal injection on the reduction of labor pain, the Apgar score of the neonates, and their side effects on new-born children and pregnant women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present clinical trial study is conducted among the pregnant women in the maternity ward of a child delivery hospital in Iran. All Participants were divided in two groups ENTONOX Inhalation and Spinal Anesthesia...
September 2018: BioMedicine
Yixiu Zhao, Xin Zhang, Jing Luan, Buchang Zhao, Na An, Na Sun, Xinhui Wang, Tao Zhao, Yanhong Sun, Zidong Donna Fu, Yan Zhang, Yan Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Shenxian-shengmai (SXSM) oral liquid, a Chinese patent compound medicine, has been used to treat sinus bradyarrhythmias induced by mild sick sinus syndrome in clinical practice. Myocardial ischemia, in particular in serious or right coronary-related heart diseases, can cause bradyarrhythmias and cardiac dysfunction. Moreover, reperfusion of ischemic myocardium is associated with additional myocardial damage known as myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of SXSM on bradyarrhythmias and cardiac dysfunction induced by myocardial I/R injury, and to explore the underlying mechanisms...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jens P Goetze, Ingrid Hunter, Nora E Zois, Dijana Terzic, Nana Valeur, L H Olsen, Julie Smith, Peter Plomgaard, Lasse H Hansen, Jens F Rehfeld, L Balling, Finn Gustafsson
Cardiac myocytes express the cholecystokinin gene (CCK) at propeptide level. We recently reported that cardiac CCK expression is acutely regulated by isoprenaline in a porcine model. The regulation of CCK expression after myocardial infarction, in exercise, and in severe heart failure is, however, unknown. Cardiac tissue was obtained from healthy new-born and adolescent farm pigs. Myocardial infarction was induced by coronary artery occlusion in adult minipigs. Healthy male subjects performed a 3-hour exercise test, and patients with severe heart failure referred for right heart catheterization were included...
August 16, 2018: Peptides
Faizan Ahmad, Ra J Prabhu, Jun Liao, Shwe Soe, Michael D Jones, Jonathan Miller, Parker Berthelson, Daniel Enge, Katherine M Copeland, Samar Shaabeth, Richard Johnston, Ian Maconochie, Peter S Theobald
Neonatal heart disorders represent a major clinical challenge, with congenital heart disease alone affecting 36,000 new-borns annually within the European Union. Surgical intervention to restore normal function includes the implantation of synthetic and biological materials; however, a lack of experimental data describing the mechanical behaviour of neonatal cardiac tissue is likely to contribute to the relatively poor short- and long-term outcome of these implants. This study focused on characterising the mechanical behaviour of neonatal cardiac tissue using a porcine model, to enhance the understanding of how this differs to the equivalent mature tissue...
July 29, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Fu-Yi Shen, Ying-Cai Song, Fei Guo, Zhen-Dong Xu, Qian Li, Bing Zhang, Yu-Qin Ma, Yue-Qi Zhang, Rong Lin, Yang Li, Zhi-Qiang Liu
Sevoflurane is one of the most commonly used volatile anaesthetics for children, but the safety of prolonged or repeated clinical use of sevoflurane in infants or children is controversial. Here, we investigated the effects of sevoflurane on rats in early life and the time scale of those effects. Our behavioral results indicated that repeated short-term exposure of new-born rats to sevoflurane caused learning and memory impairment, while a single exposure of rats to sevoflurane was relatively safe. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that repeated sevoflurane exposure impaired long-term potentiation (LTP), downregulated the expression of certain synaptogenesis-related proteins (GluR1, PSD95) and upregulated proteins related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the hippocampus...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Erik de Jonge, Kishwar Azad, Munir Hossen, Abdul Kuddus, Dharma S Manandhar, Ellen van de Poel, Swati Sarbani Roy, Naomi Saville, Aman Sen, Catherine Sikorski, Prasanta Tripathy, Anthony Costello, Tanja A J Houweling
BACKGROUND: In Bangladesh, India and Nepal, neonatal outcomes of poor infants are considerably worse than those of better-off infants. Understanding how these inequalities vary by country and place of delivery (home or facility) will allow targeting of interventions to those who need them most. We describe socio-economic inequalities in newborn care in rural areas of Bangladesh, Nepal and India for all deliveries and by place of delivery. METHODS: We used data from surveillance sites in Bangladesh, India and from Makwanpur and Dhanusha districts in Nepal, covering periods from 2001 to 2011...
August 15, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
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