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Wellness and Resilience

Myriam Forster, Gower L Amy, Eunice Areba, Barbara J McMorris
INTRODUCTION: Research has demonstrated a robust relationship between psychosocial risk factors (e.g., perceptions of health risk, peer and parent influences, and school climate) and adolescent tobacco use. However, whether internal assets (IAs), factors that promote healthy youth development, can mitigate the adverse effects of psychosocial risks on tobacco use has not been well researched. METHOD: Using a population-based sample of middle and high school students (N = 112,364), multilevel logistic and negative binomial regression models estimated the direct effects of cumulative psychosocial risks and IAs on student tobacco use (e...
October 11, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Nils Borchard, Michael Schirrmann, Maria Luz Cayuela, Claudia Kammann, Nicole Wrage-Mönnig, Jose M Estavillo, Teresa Fuertes-Mendizábal, Gilbert Sigua, Kurt Spokas, James A Ippolito, Jeff Novak
Biochar can reduce both nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions and nitrate (NO3 - ) leaching, but refining biochar's use for estimating these types of losses remains elusive. For example, biochar properties such as ash content and labile organic compounds may induce transient effects that alter N-based losses. Thus, the aim of this meta-analysis was to assess interactions between biochar-induced effects on N2 O emissions and NO3 - retention, regarding the duration of experiments as well as soil and land use properties...
October 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Susan Yoon, Fei Pei, Xiafei Wang, Dalhee Yoon, Guijin Lee, Karla Shockley McCarthy, Sarah J Schoppe-Sullivan
Although research has indicated that maltreated children are at higher risk of adolescent substance use, it remains unclear whether the type and timing of maltreatment affect the likelihood of adolescent substance use. Research has also found father involvement to be a potential protective factor against adolescent substance use, but the role of quality vs. quantity of father involvement as well as gender differences in the effects of father involvement on substance use among at-risk adolescents have not been studied...
October 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Siobhan Robinson, Christa C Christ, Margaret M Cahill, Sara J Aldrich, Elisa Taylor-Yeremeeva
Many people will experience at least one traumatic event in their lifetime, with up to 20% developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) or PTSD-like symptoms. In addition, the likelihood that females will develop PTSD after trauma is more than twice that of males. Despite its prevalence, current treatment strategies for trauma victims are limited and substantial portions of affected individuals remain resistant to treatment suggesting that additional interventions are necessary. Using an animal model of traumatic stress, the present studies tested the hypothesis that either voluntary exercise and/or administration of the adrenergic beta-receptor antagonist propranolol, would ameliorate stress-related maladaptive behaviors...
October 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Sinan Guloksuz, Jim van Os
There had been a long way to go before we felt comfortable about even discussing the issues revolving around the concept of 'schizophrenia', let alone reckoning on mere semantic revision. In this editorial, we aim to extend our discussion on the reasons behind the slow death of the concept of 'schizophrenia' and the benefits of changing the name and embracing a spectrum approach with an umbrella psychosis spectrum disorder (PSD) category (similar to autism spectrum disorder) that goes further than a mere semantic revision...
October 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Ruzan Udumyan, Scott Montgomery, Fang Fang, Unnur Valdimarsdóttir, Katja Fall
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress has been suggested to play a role in cancer progression, but few studies have so far examined the potential influence of stress susceptibility. This national register-based cohort study utilizes a unique data source to investigate whether a stress resilience measure is associated with survival in cancer patients. METHODS: The cohort includes 9,318 Swedish male cancer patients born during 1952-1956 who had their stress resilience evaluated at a semi-structured interview with a psychologist during mandatory conscription examination in late adolescence...
October 17, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Dorit Olenik-Shemesh, Tali Heiman, Noam S Keshet
During emerging adulthood, one's sense of well-being undergoes many rapid changes. Although emerging adults often present considerable energy, creativity, and hopefulness, both in higher education classrooms and workplaces, they often experience a decrease in well-being due to experience confusion, stress encounters, and difficulties in transitioning to adulthood. The authors examined four noteworthy key socioemotional factors that may be linked to emerging adults' sense of well-being: career aspiration, self-esteem, body esteem, and gender...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Stacey Quintero Wolfe, James L West, Matthew A Hunt, Gregory J A Murad, W Christopher Fox, Jamie Dow, Peter J Morone, John C Wellons, Adam Podet, Jason Wilson, Julian K Wu, Alejandro M Spiotta, Kyle M Fargen
Once the accepted norm during Harvey Cushing's time, the mantra of work to the exclusion of family and lifestyle is now recognized as deleterious to overall well-being. A number of neurosurgical residency training programs have implemented wellness programs to enhance the physical, mental, and emotional well-being of trainees and faculty. This manuscript highlights existing organized wellness education within neurosurgery residency programs in order to describe the motivations behind development, structure, and potential implementation strategies, cost of implementation, and identify successes and barriers in the integration process...
October 16, 2018: Neurosurgery
Shin Yuh Ang, Thendral Uthaman, Tracy Carol Ayre, Siew Hoon Lim, Violeta Lopez
It is well-recognized that nurses are exposed to high levels of stress, thus resilience has been postulated as a key trait in enabling nurses to cope successfully and remain in the profession. In this qualitative study, we used Glaser's approach to grounded theory. Nine nurses who scored low and nine nurses who scored high on the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale were recruited for one-on-one semistructured interviews of the factors contributing to their work-related stress and how they overcome these stressors...
October 17, 2018: Nursing & Health Sciences
Abigail F Winkel, Annie Robinson, Aubrie-Ann Jones, Allison P Squires
OBJECTIVE: Enhancing physician resilience has the promise of addressing the problem of burnout, which threatens both doctors and patients and increases in residents with each year of training. Programmes aimed at enhancing physician resilience are heterogeneous and use varied targets to measure efficacy, because there is a lack of clarity regarding this concept. A more robust understanding of how resilience is manifested could enhance efforts to create and measure it in physicians in training...
October 16, 2018: Medical Education
Susan L Murphy, Elliot B Tapper, Jennifer Blackwood, James K Richardson
Falls are prevalent for people with cirrhosis and commonly lead to loss of independence, reduced quality of life, and mortality. Despite a critical need for fall prevention in this population, cirrhosis-specific fall-related mechanisms are not well understood. We posit that most falls in this patient population are due to a coalescence of discrete subclinical impairments that are not typically detected at the point of care. The combined effect of these subtle age- and disease-related neurocognitive and muscular impairments leads to the inability to respond successfully to a postural perturbation within the available 300 to 400 ms...
October 16, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Monica L Miller, Casey Boyer, Mitchell R Emerson, Michael W Neville, Elizabeth T Skoy, Eleanor M Vogt, Lucio Volino, Cathy L Worrall, Kimberly L Zitko, Libby J Ross
The 2017-2018 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Student Affairs Standing Committee addressed charges related to student wellness and resilience and identified ways where AACP can assist member organizations to build positive wellbeing in students. The Committee report provides nine recommendations to AACP, three suggestions for colleges and schools of pharmacy, and one proposed policy statement related to student wellness and resilience. The report focuses on themes of consequences of burnout and declining resilience, culture shift around wellness, creating community around times of grief, partnerships with member organizations to create campus cultures that promote overall wellbeing and strategies to help students to manage stress in healthy ways...
September 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Vijay A Ramchandani, Bethany L Stangl, Sara K Blaine, Martin H Plawecki, Melanie L Schwandt, Laura E Kwako, Rajita Sinha, Melissa A Cyders, Sean O'Connor, Samir Zakhari
It is well known that vulnerability to stress is a risk factor for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Chronic alcohol use can result in neuroadaptations in cortico-striatal pathways and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function that are manifested in altered behavioral and cognitive control functions contributing to alcohol craving, compulsive motivation, consumption, and consequences. This symposium brings together studies utilizing novel approaches to help improve our understanding of stress - past, acute, and chronic - on alcohol seeking and consumption and related outcomes using a combination of human laboratory models, neuroimaging, and clinical measures...
November 2018: Alcohol
Morgan M Levison, Ainslie J Butler, Steven Rebellato, Brenda Armstrong, Marina Whelan, Charles Gardner
Climate change is negatively impacting the health of Canadians and is accordingly expected to have a significant impact on public health agencies and their response to these health impacts throughout the twenty-first century. While national and international research and assessments have explored the potential human health impacts of climate change, few assessments have explored the implications of climate change from a local public health perspective. An applied research approach to expand local knowledge and action of health vulnerabilities through a climate change action plan and vulnerability assessment was utilized by a local public health agency...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Melanie J Gupte, W Benton Swanson, Jiang Hu, Xiaobing Jin, Haiyun Ma, Zhanpeng Zhang, Zhongning Liu, Kai Feng, Ganjun Feng, Guiyong Xiao, Nan Hatch, Yuji Mishina, Peter X Ma
In the U.S., 30% of adults suffer joint pain, most commonly in the knee, which severely limits mobility and is often attributed to injury of cartilage and underlying bone in the joint. Current treatment methods such as microfracture result in less resilient fibrocartilage with eventual failure; autografting can cause donor site morbidity and poor integration. To overcome drawbacks in treatment, tissue engineers can design cell-instructive biomimetic scaffolds using biocompatible materials as alternate therapies for osteochondral defects...
October 12, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Jaswant Bajwa, Mulugeta Abai, Sidonia Couto, Sean Kidd, Aytak Dibavar, Kwame McKenzie
Drawing on a 2-year community-based participatory research project, and grounded in the theories of positive psychology, this article examines the effects of targeted educational support on refugee participants' psychological capital (PsyCap)-hope, self-efficacy, resilience, and optimism-as well as life satisfaction. Two groups of participants attended a 14-week trauma-informed, educational support program in 2 consecutive sessions. The program was designed in collaboration with George Brown College, the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Wellesley Institute, and the Canadian Centre for Victims of Torture...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Community Psychology
Giyeon Kim, Sylvia Y Wang, Martin Sellbom
Objectives: The present study examined differences by race/ethnicity in the measurement equivalence of the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) among older adults in the United States. Method: Drawn from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS), adults aged 65 years and older from three racial/ethnic groups (n = 1,200) were selected for the analyses from a total of 8,245: 400 non-Hispanic Whites, 400 African Americans, and 400 Hispanics/Latinos. We tested measurement equivalence of the SWBS that is categorized into three domains: positive and negative affect (four items), self-realization (four items), and self-efficacy and resilience (three items)...
September 25, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Palakolanu Sudhakar Reddy, Mahamaya G Dhaware, Dumbala Srinivas Reddy, Bommineni Pradeep Reddy, Kummari Divya, Kiran K Sharma, Pooja Bhatnagar-Mathur
Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) is an annual herbaceous self-pollinating C4 cereal crop of the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Finger millet is a food security crop proven to have resilience to changing climate and scores very high in nutrition. In the current study, we have assessed sixteen candidate reference genes for their appropriateness for the normalization studies in finger millet subjected to experimental regimes and treatments. Ten candidate reference genes (GAPDH, β-TUB, CYP, EIF4α, TIP41, UBC, G6PD, S24, MACP and MDH) were cloned and six (ACT, ELF1α, PP2A, PT, S21 and TFIID) were mined from the NCBI database as well as from the literature...
2018: PloS One
Jose Cortes, Terri L Fletcher, David M Latini, Michael R Kauth
OBJECTIVE: To examine health and identity differences between older (50+) and younger (< 50) lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) veterans. METHODS: Participants (N = 254) completed an internet survey assessing depression, anxiety, alcohol use, identity, minority stress, and outness. T tests and logistic regression were used to analyze results. RESULTS: Older LGBT veterans reported less alcohol use (p < .01) than younger counterparts...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Gerontologist
M V Rohit, S Venkata Mohan
Microalgae are gaining commercial interests in the areas food, feed and biofuel sector. They have intrinsic ability to harness energy from sunlight and photosynthetically valorize CO2 into various bio-based products viz., triacylglycerols (TAGs), mono/poly-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, PUFA), pigments etc. Microalgae have adapted to grow in various nutritional environments due to their metabolic versatility and resilience. Strategic evaluation of newly isolated strain Chlorella sp. from a residential lake was performed...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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