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Wellness and Resilience

Stacey Crane, Joan E Haase, Susan E Hickman
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: Pediatric oncology phase 1 clinical trials (P1Ts) are essential to developing new anticancer therapies; however, they raise complex ethical concerns about balancing the need for this research with the well-being of participating children. The purpose of this integrative review was to synthesize and appraise the evidence of how P1T participation, which begins with consent and ends with the transition off the P1T, can affect the well-being (either positively or negatively) of children with cancer...
September 1, 2018: Oncology Nursing Forum
J Cotter, A R Yung
Exposure to traumatic experiences in childhood is a risk (and potentially causal) factor for the development of a range of adverse physical and mental health conditions. In addition to the onset of clinical disorders, there is emerging evidence that childhood trauma may also be associated with other long-term outcomes, such as the persistence and severity of an individual's symptoms, as well as their long-term social and occupational functioning. However, the reasons for this remain poorly understood. A greater understanding both of the mediators that drive these associations, and those variables that enhance resilience against such damaging experiences may help to inform effective therapeutic interventions...
March 2018: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
Adnane Bargaz, Karim Lyamlouli, Mohamed Chtouki, Youssef Zeroual, Driss Dhiba
Tomorrow's agriculture, challenged by increasing global demand for food, scarcity of arable lands, and resources alongside multiple environment pressures, needs to be managed smartly through sustainable and eco-efficient approaches. Modern agriculture has to be more productive, sustainable, and environmentally friendly. While macronutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sulfur (S) supplied by mineral fertilizers are vital to crop production, agriculturally beneficial microorganisms may also contribute directly (i...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kathryn M Andolsek
Until recently, most initiatives to address physician burnout have focused on improving the resilience of individual physicians. These measures are necessary but insufficient since it is now recognized that organizations have a major role in causing, preventing, and mitigating physician burnout. Burnout must be addressed by organizational change. The first steps to improving clinician well-being are measurement and monitoring. Several validated scales are available to assess well-being. Results of assessments can be used to engage clinicians in open conversations on issues and potential solutions...
October 2018: FP Essentials
Fred W Sabb, Gerhard Hellemann, Nicholas B Allen, Carrie E Bearden
INTRODUCTION: Working Memory and Task-Switching are essential components of cognitive control, which underlies many symptoms evident across multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, including psychotic and mood disorders. Vulnerability to these disorders has a substantial genetic component, suggesting that clinically unaffected first-degree relatives may carry some vulnerability-related traits. Converging evidence from animal and human studies demonstrates that dopamine transmission, striatal and frontal brain regions, and attention and switching behaviors are essential components of a multilevel circuit involved in salience, and disruptions in that circuit may lead to features of psychosis...
June 2018: Brain and Behavior
Erik Nykwest, Berend Rinderspacher, Jennifer Elward, Raymond Brennan, Krista Limmer
A doped non-diamagnetic alumina (Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) would enable the usage of cutting edge technology, such as magnetoforming, to create advanced systems that take advantage of the high chemical and physical resilience of alumina. This study elucidates the magnetic properties of Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu doped α- and θ-alumina. Density functional theory was used to predict the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of doped alumina, as well as its stability...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Yawei Si, Zhenhua Song, Xiaoyan Sun, Jin-Hui Wang
Major depression in negative mood is presumably induced by chronic stress with lack of reward. However, most individuals who experience chronic stress demonstrate resilience. Molecular mechanisms underlying stress- induced depression versus resilience remain unknown, which are investigated in brain reward circuits. Mice were treated by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for 4 weeks. The tests of sucrose preference, Y-maze, and forced swimming were used to identify depression-like emotion behavior or resilience...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
James A Naifeh, Holly B Herberman Mash, Murray B Stein, Carol S Fullerton, Ronald C Kessler, Robert J Ursano
Responding to an unprecedented increase in the suicide rate among soldiers, in 2008 the US Army and US National Institute of Mental Health funded the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS), a multicomponent epidemiological and neurobiological study of risk and resilience factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors, and their psychopathological correlates among Army personnel. Using a combination of administrative records, representative surveys, computerized neurocognitive tests, and blood samples, Army STARRS and its longitudinal follow-up study (STARRS-LS) are designed to identify potentially actionable findings to inform the Army's suicide prevention efforts...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Hiroaki Hori, Seiji Nakamura, Fuyuko Yoshida, Toshiya Teraishi, Daimei Sasayama, Miho Ota, Kotaro Hattori, Yoshiharu Kim, Teruhiko Higuchi, Hiroshi Kunugi
Etiology of depression and its vulnerability remains elusive. Using a latent profile analysis on dimensional personality traits, we previously identified 3 different phenotypes in the general population, namely stress-resilient, -vulnerable, and -resistant groups. Here we performed microarray-based blood gene expression profiling of these 3 groups (n = 20 for each group) in order to identify genes involved in stress vulnerability as it relates to the risk of depression. Identified differentially expressed genes among the groups were most markedly enriched in ribosome-related pathways...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Yi-Wen Chen, Ang Doma Sherpa, Chiye Aoki
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the effects of ketamine on vulnerability of female adolescent mice to activity-based anorexia (ABA). METHOD: Twenty-four female C57Bl/6 J mice underwent ABA induction, which involved exposing wheel-acclimated adolescent mice to two bouts of food restriction (FR)-the first ABA (P41-44, mid-adolescence) and the second ABA (P55-59, late adolescence), with recovery in between. Ketamine (3 or 30 mg/kg) or vehicle was given once, on the second day of FR of the first ABA (P42)...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Douglas Russell, Mary Margaret Gleason
A child's experiences during the first 3 years of life can have a profound impact on mental health outcomes later in childhood and across the lifespan. Safe and effective therapies for mental health concerns in early childhood exist, but access to them is limited. Pediatricians have a unique opportunity to identify risk and resilience factors and support healthy emotional, behavioral, and social development during infancy and toddlerhood. This article presents a developmentally focused approach to integrating the growing science of early childhood social-emotional development into primary care practice, providing both empiric and practical rationales...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Momina Hussain, Muhammad Atif Iqbal, Bradley J Till, Mehboob-Ur- Rahman
Wheat is a staple food crop of many countries. Improving resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses remain key breeding targets. Among these, rust diseases are the most detrimental in terms of depressing wheat production. In the present study, chemical mutagenesis was used to induce mutations in the wheat variety NN-Gandum-1. This cultivar is moderately resistant to leaf and yellow rust. The aim of mutagenesis was to improve resistance to the disease as well as to study function of genes conferring resistance to the disease...
2018: PloS One
Emanuel Bahn, Michelle van Heerden, John Gueulette, Jacobus P Slabbert, William Shaw, Jürgen Debus, Markus Alber
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The high plasticity of the intestinal epithelium is maintained by a resilient reserve stem cell population, whose extent and biology are a matter of ongoing debate. The in vivo clonogenic assay (IVCA), presents a well established and efficient analysis of radiation insult to the intestinal crypts. However, we found that inadequate mathematical analysis over the last four decades led to systematic errors and contradictory results in estimates of radio-sensitivity and size of the reserve stem cell pool...
August 9, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Gerry F Killeen, Thomas E Reed
BACKGROUND: Portfolio effects were first described as a basis for mitigating against financial risk by diversifying investments. Distributing investment across several different assets can stabilize returns and reduce risks by statistical averaging of individual asset dynamics that often correlate weakly or negatively with each other. The same simple probability theory is equally applicable to complex ecosystems, in which biological and environmental diversity stabilizes ecosystems against natural and human-mediated perturbations...
August 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
Subin Park, Soo Jung Rim, Jin Yong Jun
This study investigated the factors associated with suicidal ideation among 174 North Korean refugees (aged 13⁻27 years) residing in South Korea. Specifically, we compared sociodemographic, familial, social, and psychological characteristics between participants with and without suicidal ideation. Twenty-nine refugees (16.7%) had exhibited suicidal ideation in the past 12 months. These refugees had significantly lower levels of familial cohesion ( U = 1459.0; p < 0.001), self-esteem ( U = 1032.0; p < 0...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Evelin M Cotella, Antonela Scarponi Gomez, Paige Lemen, Carrie Chen, Guillermo Fernández, Christian Hansen, James P Herman, María Gabriela Paglini
Adolescence is a period of active development of stress regulatory neurocircuitry. As a consequence, mechanisms that control the responses to stress are not fully matured during this developmental period, which may result in vulnerability to chronic stress. We hypothesized that adolescent chronic stress would have negative consequences on stress adaptation later in life. Male Wistar rats (PND40) were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) for 2 weeks, with 2 daily stressors randomly presented and overnight social stressors twice a week...
August 7, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Ben Wisner, Douglas Paton, Eva Alisic, Oliver Eastwood, Cheney Shreve, Maureen Fordham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To identify strategies for communicating with youth and children pre- and post-disaster in the context of a broader survey of child participation in disaster risk reduction as well as methods for communication with children. RECENT FINDINGS: Youth and children are capable of peer and community education and activism concerning disaster issues and such participation benefits the young actors. Family and sibling support are important in easing the impact of trauma on children...
August 9, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Rony Berger, Joy Benatov, Raphael Cuadros, Jacob VanNattan, Marc Gelkopf
Children in Sub-Saharan Africa are living under chronic adversity due to poverty, serious health issues, physical and sexual abuse, and armed conflicts. These highly stressful conditions have deleterious effects on their mental health and socio-emotional adjustment. Since many children lack adequate access to mental health care, culturally adapted school-based resiliency programs could provide a resource to scaffold their development and promote their mental health. This study evaluated the efficacy of a universal school-based intervention in enhancing the resiliency of Tanzanian primary school children and cultivating prosocial behaviors...
August 9, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Luciano Garcia Lourenção
OBJECTIVE: to assess the levels of engagement at work of nurses enrolled in multi-professional residency and professional development programs in health care of a Brazilian public institution. METHOD: a cross-sectional study with 36 professionals. The data were collected in September 2013, with use of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), composed of seventeen self-evaluation items with the dimensions vigor, dedication and absorption, as well as an overall score...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Ahmed Mustafa, Martin Bruwier, Pierre Archambeau, Sébastian Erpicum, Michel Pirotton, Benjamin Dewals, Jacques Teller
Urban development may increase the risk of future floods because of local changes in hydrological conditions and an increase in flood exposure that arises from an increasing population and expanding infrastructure within flood-prone zones. Existing urban land use change models generally consider the expansion process and do not consider the densification of existing urban areas. In this paper, we simulate 24 possible urbanization scenarios in Wallonia region (Belgium) until 2100. These scenarios are generated using an agent-based model that considers urban expansion and densification as well as development restrictions in flood-prone zones...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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