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Su-Eon Jin, Siwon You, Seungho Jeon, Sung-Joo Hwang
Diazepam is highly sorbed to the plastic materials of administration sets for intravenous infusion. This can be detrimental as it should be delivered to the patient at the administered amount for efficacy and safety. We report here the sorption levels of diazepam onto various types of tubes in administration sets. The tube materials of the administration sets included polyvinylchloride (PVC) and the non-PVC materials such as polyurethane (PU) and polyolefin (PO) were used. Two conditions of diazepam administered in preclinical and clinical settings were tested using an infusion pump...
June 15, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Mohammad Reza Siahi Shadbad, Faranak Ghaderi, Leila Hatami, Farnaz Monajjemzadeh
In this study the stability of parenteral acyclovir (ACV) when diluted in dextrose (DEX) as large volume intravenous fluid preparation (LVIF) was evaluated and the possible Maillard reaction adducts were monitored in the recommended infusion time. Different physicochemical methods were used to evaluate the Maillard reaction of dextrose with ACV to track the reaction in real infusion condition. Other large volume intravenous fluids were checked regarding the diluted drug stability profile. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass data proved the reaction of glucose with dextrose...
February 10, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Fatma Maraiki, Faiyaz Farooq, Mohamed Ahmed
OBJECTIVES: To identify the intravenous (IV) medications that are prepared in glass bottles at the institution and establish which of these medications can be prepared in flexible IV bags such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or non-PVC instead of glass bottles. The cost implication of switching from glass bottles to flexible IV bags was calculated. METHODS: A study using FOCUS-PDCA model to identify IV medications prepared in glass bottles and establish which of these medications could be prepared in IV bags (PVC or non-PVC)...
August 2016: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
M Sabarimalai Manikandan, Barathram Ramkumar, Pranav S Deshpande, Tilendra Choudhary
An automated noise-robust premature ventricular contraction (PVC) detection method is proposed based on the sparse signal decomposition, temporal features, and decision rules. In this Letter, the authors exploit sparse expansion of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals on mixed dictionaries for simultaneously enhancing the QRS complex and reducing the influence of tall P and T waves, baseline wanders, and muscle artefacts. They further investigate a set of ten generalised temporal features combined with decision-rule-based detection algorithm for discriminating PVC beats from non-PVC beats...
December 2015: Healthcare Technology Letters
Jianli Yang, Yang Bai, Guojun Li, Ming Liu, Xiuling Liu
Premature ventricular contraction (PVC) is one of the most serious arrhythmias. Without early diagnosis and proper treatment, PVC can result in significant complications. In this paper, a novel feature extraction method based on a sparse auto-encoder (SAE) and softmax regression (SR) classifier was used to differentiate PVCs from other common Non-PVC rhythms, including normal sinus (N), left bundle branch block (LBBB), right bundle branch block (RBBB), atrial premature contraction (APC), and paced beat (PB) rhythms...
2015: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Carine F B van Huls van Taxis, Sebastiaan R D Piers, Marta de Riva Silva, Olaf M Dekkers, Daniël A Pijnappels, Martin J Schalij, Adrianus P Wijnmaalen, Katja Zeppenfeld
BACKGROUND: High idiopathic premature ventricular contractions (PVC) burden has been associated with PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. Patients may be symptomatic before left ventricular (LV) dysfunction develops. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and circumferential end-systolic wall stress (cESS) on echocardiography are markers for increased ventricular wall stress. This study aimed to evaluate the relation between presenting symptoms, PVC burden, and increased ventricular wall stress in patients with frequent PVCs and preserved LV function...
December 2015: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Peter M van Dam, Jeffrey P Gordon, Michael M Laks, Noel G Boyle
Non-invasive electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) of the cardiac muscle can help the pre-procedure planning of the ablation of ventricular arrhythmias by reducing the time to localize the origin. Our non-invasive ECGI system, the cardiac isochrone positioning system (CIPS), requires non-intersecting meshes of the heart, lungs and torso. However, software to reconstruct the meshes of the heart, lungs and torso with the capability to check and prevent these intersections is currently lacking. Consequently the reconstruction of a patient specific model with realistic atrial and ventricular wall thickness and incorporating blood cavities, lungs and torso usually requires additional several days of manual work...
November 2015: Journal of Electrocardiology
Kang Hoon Park, Dong June Chung
BACKGROUND: Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) are added to poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC) infusion tubes as a plasticizer to ensure tube flexibility. In addition to previously reported disadvantages of DEHP, released DEHP molecules from PVC tubes can easily interact with surfactants in anticancer drug solutions (i.e., polysorbate 80 for Taxotere®-Inj) and reduce the solubility of docetaxel in aqueous solution during anticancer drug administration. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the in vitro stability of docetaxel in a 0...
2015: Biomaterials Research
Monika Zabłocka-Malicka, Piotr Rutkowski, Włodzimierz Szczepaniak
Screened multiwire, PVC insulated tinned copper cable was gasified with steam at high temperature (HTSG) under atmospheric pressure for recovery of cooper. Gases from the process were additionally equilibrated at 850°C on the bed of calcined clay granules and more than 98% of C+H content in the cable was transformed to non-condensing species. Granules prepared from local clay were generally resistant for chlorination, there was also almost no deposition of metals, Cu and Sn, on the catalytic bed. It was found that 28% of chlorine reacted to form CaCl2, 71% was retained in aqueous condensate and only 0...
December 2015: Waste Management
Joachim Alexandre, Thomas Hof, Paolo Emilio Puddu, René Rouet, Romain Guinamard, Alain Manrique, Farzin Beygui, Laurent Sallé, Paul Milliez
In ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) context, clinical studies have shown the deleterious effect of high aldosterone levels on ventricular arrhythmia occurrence and cardiac mortality. Previous in vitro reports showed that during ischemia-reperfusion, aldosterone modulates K+ currents involved in the holding of the resting membrane potential (RMP). The aim of this study was to assess the electrophysiological impact of aldosterone on IK1 current during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. We used an in vitro model of "border zone" using right rabbit ventricle and standard microelectrode technique followed by cell-attached recordings from freshly isolated rabbit ventricular cardiomyocytes...
2015: PloS One
Eleanor Evans, Guido Buonincontri, David Izquierdo, Carmen Methner, Rob C Hawkes, Richard E Ansorge, Thomas Krieg, T Adrian Carpenter, Stephen J Sawiak
Accurate kinetic modelling using dynamic PET requires knowledge of the tracer concentration in plasma, known as the arterial input function (AIF). AIFs are usually determined by invasive blood sampling, but this is prohibitive in murine studies due to low total blood volumes. As a result of the low spatial resolution of PET, image-derived input functions (IDIFs) must be extracted from left ventricular blood pool (LVBP) ROIs of the mouse heart. This is challenging because of partial volume and spillover effects between the LVBP and myocardium, contaminating IDIFs with tissue signal...
June 1, 2015: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Hiroshige Murata, Yasushi Miyauchi, Meiso Hayashi, Yu-Ki Iwasaki, Kenji Yodogawa, Akira Ueno, Hiroshi Hayashi, Ippei Tsuboi, Shunsuke Uetake, Kenta Takahashi, Teppei Yamamoto, Mitsunori Maruyama, Koichi Akutsu, Takeshi Yamamoto, Yoshinori Kobayashi, Keiji Tanaka, Hirotsugu Atarashi, Takao Katoh, Wataru Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Few reports are available on the characteristics of electrical storms of ventricular tachycardia (VT storm) refractory to intravenous (IV) amiodarone. METHODS AND RESULTS: IV-amiodarone was administered to 60 patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmia between 2007 and 2012. VT storms, defined as 3 or more episodes of VT within 24 h, occurred in 30 patients (68±12 years, 7 female), with 12 having ischemic and 18 non-ischemic heart disease. We compared the clinical and electrocardiographic characteristics of the patients with VT storms suppressed by IV-amiodarone (Effective group) to those of patients not affected by the treatment (Refractory group)...
2015: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Olga Kudryavtseva, Christian Aalkjær, Toke Bek
The cellular basis for the regulation of retinal blood flow is unknown, but recently a new type of perivascular cell (PVC) with pericyte characteristics was identified in the retinal arterial vascular wall located immediately external to the vascular smooth muscle cells. A possible involvement of this cell type in the regulation of retinal vascular tone might be elucidated by studying differences in the response after the addition of compounds stimulating respectively relaxation and contraction. The effects of PGE2 and PGF2α on vascular tone and calcium activity in PVCs in porcine retinal arterioles were studied in a confocal myograph after the addition of the ryanodine receptor blocker ryanodine, the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nifedipine, the non-specific cation channel blocker LOE908, the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) blocker CPA, and the inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) and transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel blocker 2-APB...
September 2015: Experimental Eye Research
Mario Schmack, Goen Ho, Martin Anda
This paper describes the development and experimental evaluation of a novel bubble column-based humidification-dehumidification system, for small-scale desalination of saline groundwater or seawater in remote regions. A bubble evaporator prototype was built and matched with a simple flat-plate type condenser for concept assessment. Consistent bubble evaporation rates of between 80 and 88 ml per hour were demonstrated. Particular focus was on the performance of the simple condenser prototype, manufactured from rectangular polyvinylchlorid plastic pipe and copper sheet, a material with a high thermal conductivity that quickly allows for conduction of the heat energy...
2016: Environmental Technology
Yen-Hua Cho, Li-Ling Yen, Kai-Ling Yu, Chun-Chu Chang, Hsuen-Ling Chen
BACKGROUND & PROBLEMS: Peripheral venous catheter (PVC) is commonly used to provide nutrition and medicine to pediatric inpatients. Phlebitis is a common side effect of PVC insertion. Over 90% of pediatric patients in the paedi-atric medical ward at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH) receive PVC insertion, with an incident rate of phlebitis of 5.07%. Common cause factors of phlebitis are: insufficient sterilization time, inappropriate methods used to fix the PVC, the use of fixtures that loosen easily, high re-fix rates, and inadequate wound care after catheter removal...
June 2015: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Nicole Marsh, Joan Webster, Gabor Mihala, Claire M Rickard
BACKGROUND: A peripheral venous catheter (PVC) is typically used for short-term delivery of intravascular fluids and medications. It is an essential element of modern medicine and the most frequent invasive procedure performed in hospitals. However, PVCs often fail before intravenous treatment is completed: this can occur because the device is not adequately attached to the skin, allowing the PVC to fall out, leading to complications such as phlebitis (irritation or inflammation to the vein wall), infiltration (fluid leaking into surrounding tissues) or occlusion (blockage)...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Shu Zhang, Balbir Singh, Diego A Rodriguez, Alexandr Robertovich Chasnoits, Azlan Hussin, Chi-Keong Ching, Dejia Huang, Yen-Bin Liu, Jeffrey Cerkvenik, Sarah Willey, Young-Hoon Kim
AIMS: This study aims to demonstrate that primary prevention (PP) patients with one or more additional risk factors are at a similar risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias when compared with secondary prevention (SP) patients, and would receive similar benefit from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), or cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) implant. The study evaluates the benefits of therapy for high-risk patients in countries where defibrillation therapy for PP of SCA is underutilized...
November 2015: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Mark A Kubicki, Forbes McGain, Catherine J O'Shea, Samantha Bates
BACKGROUND: The provision of health care has significant direct environmental effects such as energy and water use and waste production, and indirect effects, including manufacturing and transport of drugs and equipment. Recycling of hospital waste is one strategy to reduce waste disposed of as landfill, preserve resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially remain fiscally responsible. We began an intensive care unit recycling program, because a significant proportion of ICU waste was known to be recyclable...
June 2015: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
Wenming Wu, Jing Wu, Jae-Heon Kim, Nae Yoon Lee
This paper introduces an instantaneous and robust strategy for bonding a variety of non-silicon substrates such as thermoplastics, metals, an alloy, and ceramics to poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) irreversibly, mediated by one-step chemical modification using a mercaptosilane at room temperature followed by corona treatment to realize heterogeneous assembly also at room temperature. The mercapto functional group is one of the strongest nucleophiles, and it can instantaneously react with electrophiles of substrates, resulting in an alkoxysilane-terminated substrate at room temperature...
July 7, 2015: Lab on a Chip
M Cassiède, J M Shaw
Two parallel multi-element ultrasonic acoustic arrays combined with sets of focal laws for acoustic signal generation and a classical tomographic inversion algorithm are used to generate real-time two-dimensional micro seismic acoustic images of multiphase materials. Proof of concept and calibration measurements were performed for single phase and two phase liquids, uniform polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plates, and aluminum cylinders imbedded in PVC plates. Measurement artefacts, arising from the limited range of viewing angles, and the compromise between data acquisition rate and image quality are discussed...
April 2015: Review of Scientific Instruments
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