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Neha Jaiswal, Juber Akhtar, Satya Prakash Singh, Farogh Ahsan
Genistein is the natural isoflavone and a phytoestrogen with a broad range of pharmacological properties, such as tyrosine and topoisomerase inhibition. It also induces apoptosis and cell proliferation inhibition, differentiates cancer cells. Added health benefits include the reduction of osteoporosis by suppressing osteoclasts and lymphocyte functions, decreased the risk of cardiovascular attacks and relieved postmenopausal problems. Genistein traditionally used in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine and are found to be associated with lower risk of breast, prostate and lung cancer...
December 5, 2018: Drug Research
Farideh Jalali Mashayekhi, Mozhgan Rasti, Zahra Khoshdel, Ali Akbar Owji
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms such as histone modifications may be involved in the structural and behavioral changes associated with addiction. We studied whether morphine-induced changes in mRNA levels of the catecholamine biosynthesis enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), are associated with histone modifications around the promoter of this gene in the locus coeruleus (LC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats. METHODS: Dependence was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injections of morphine for 11 days...
December 5, 2018: European Addiction Research
David Dilworth, Cheryl H Arrowsmith
In this issue of Structure, Haddad et al. (2018) solve the high-resolution trimeric crystal structure of human COMPASS-like components Dpy-30 and Ash2L (2:1) to unravel an uncharacterized interaction surface required for competent H3K4 methylation in cells and clarify Dpy-30's role in the allosteric regulation of KMT2 enzymes.
December 4, 2018: Structure
Jun Xiong, Tian-Tian Ye, Cheng-Jie Ma, Qing-Yun Cheng, Bi-Feng Yuan, Yu-Qi Feng
In addition to DNA cytosine methylation (5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine, m5dC), DNA adenine methylation (N6-methyl-2'-deoxyadenosine, m6dA) is another DNA modification that has been discovered in eukaryotes. Recent studies demonstrated that the content and distribution of m6dA in genomic DNA of vertebrates and mammals exhibit dynamic regulation, indicating m6dA may function as a potential epigenetic mark in DNA of eukaryotes besides m5dC. Whether m6dA undergoes the further oxidation in a similar way to m5dC remains elusive...
December 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Yoriko Heianza, Lu Qi
Obesity and abdominal obesity have been closely related to cardiovascular outcomes, and recent evidence has indicated that environmental and genetic factors act in concert in determining the risks of these conditions. Improving adherence to healthy lifestyle habits and healthy dietary patterns can at least partly counteract genetic variations related risks of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Other factors, such as epigenetic alterations, may also modulate a relationship between genetic susceptibility and these disorders...
December 3, 2018: Endocrinology
Cheuk-Ting Law, Lai Wei, Felice Ho-Ching Tsang, Cerise Yuen-Ki Chan, Iris Ming-Jing Xu, Robin Kit-Ho Lai, Daniel Wai-Hung Ho, Joyce Man-Fong Lee, Carmen Chak-Lui Wong, Irene Oi-Lin Ng, Chun-Ming Wong
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third lethal cancer worldwide. Increasing evidence showed that epigenetic alterations play an important role in human carcinogenesis. Deregulation of DNA methylation and histone modifications have recently been characterized in HCC, but the significance of chromatin remodeling in liver carcinogenesis remains to be explored. In this study, by systematically analyzing the expression of chromatin remodeling genes in human HCCs, we found that HELicase, Lymphoid-Specific (HELLS), a SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling enzyme, was remarkably overexpressed in HCC...
December 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Santiago Herrera, Wilfred C de Vega, David Ashbrook, Suzanne D Vernon, Patrick O McGowan
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex disease of unknown etiology. Multiple studies point to disruptions in immune functioning in ME/CFS patients as well as specific genetic polymorphisms and alterations of the DNA methylome in lymphocytes. However, potential interactions between DNA methylation and genetic background in relation to ME/CFS have not been examined. In this study we explored this association by characterizing the epigenetic (~480 thousand CpG loci) and genetic (~4...
December 5, 2018: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Fabio Ciccarone, Serena Castelli, Laura Ioannilli, Maria Rosa Ciriolo
SCOPE: Epigenetic aberrations caused by environmental factors and lifestyle choices have been associated with the development of a number of pathologies including cardiovascular disorders. However, whether obesity-related heart dysfunction can occur via epigenetic mechanisms is largely undisclosed. The manifested role of DNA hydroxymethylation in heart pathophysiology prompted us to investigate its levels/machinery in heart of mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) and its possible relation with genes linked to obesity-associated cardiac remodelling...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Rana Shafabakhsh, Esmat Aghadavod, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Gordon Ferns, Zatollah Asemi
Retinopathy, characterized by an alteration of the retinal microvasculature, is a common complication of diabetes mellitus. These changes can cause increased permeability and alter endothelial cell proliferation, edema, and abnormal neovascularization and eventually result in blindness. The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) is complicated, involving many factors/mediators such as genetic susceptibility, microRNAs, and cytokines. One of the factors involved in DR pathogenesis is epigenetic changes that can have a key role in the regulation of gene expression; these include microRNAs, histone modifications, and methylation of DNA...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Rajab Mardani, Mohammad Hassan Jafari Najaf Abadi, Mahsa Motieian, Sima Taghizadeh-Boroujeni, Amir Bayat, Alireza Farsinezhad, Seyed Mohammad Gheibi Hayat, Mahtab Motieian, Hossein Pourghadamyari
Leukemia is known as a progressive malignant disease, which destroys the blood-forming organs and results in adverse effects on the proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. There are four main classes of leukemia including acute leukemia, chronic leukemia, myelogenous leukemia, and lymphocytic leukemia. Given that a variety of internal and external factors could be associated with the initiation and progression of different types of leukemia. One of the important factors is epigenetic regulators such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (ncRNA)...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Shuhei Asada, Toshio Kitamura
An epigenetic modulator Additional sex combs-like 1 (ASXL1) is recurrently mutated in myeloid neoplasms such as myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). ASXL1 mutations are also frequently detected in clonal hematopoiesis with indeterminate potential (CHIP), which is the clonal expansion of premalignant hematopoietic cells without any evidence of hematological malignancies. Thus, understanding the roles of ASXL1 in hematopoiesis and myeloid neoplasms is a clinically crucial issue...
December 5, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
Wesley H Brooks
The "X chromosome-nucleolus nexus" hypothesis provides a comprehensive explanation of how autoantibodies can develop following cellular stress. The hypothesis connects autoimmune diseases with the impact of environmental factors, such as viruses, through epigenetic disruption. The inactive X chromosome, a major epigenetic structure in the female cell's nucleus, is a key component of the hypothesis. The inactive X is vulnerable to disruption due to the following: (1) its heavy requirements for methylation to suppress gene expression, (2) its peripheral location at the nuclear envelope, (3) its late replication timing, and (4) its frequently observed close association with the nucleolus...
December 4, 2018: Immunologic Research
Steven Georges, Lidia Rodriguez Calleja, Camille Jacques, Melanie Lavaud, Brice Moukengue, Fernando Lecanda, Thibaut Quillard, Marta Tellez Gabriel, Pierre-François Cartron, Marc Baud'huin, François Lamoureux, Dominique Heymann, Benjamin Ory
The metastatic dissemination is a complex multistep process by which tumor cells from a primary site enter into the systemic circulation to finally spread at distant sites. Even if this mechanism is rare at the tumor level, it remains the major cause of Osteosarcoma-patients' relapse and mortality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been described as novel epigenetics' genes' expression regulators actively implicated in cancer progression and dissemination. The understanding of their implication in the metastatic spreading could help clinicians to improve the outcome of osteosarcoma...
November 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Abu Ali Ibn Sina, Laura G Carrascosa, Ziyu Liang, Yadveer S Grewal, Andri Wardiana, Muhammad J A Shiddiky, Robert A Gardiner, Hemamali Samaratunga, Maher K Gandhi, Rodney J Scott, Darren Korbie, Matt Trau
Epigenetic reprogramming in cancer genomes creates a distinct methylation landscape encompassing clustered methylation at regulatory regions separated by large intergenic tracks of hypomethylated regions. This methylation landscape that we referred to as Methylscape is displayed by most cancer types, thus may serve as a universal cancer biomarker. To-date most research has focused on the biological consequences of DNA Methylscape changes whereas its impact on DNA physicochemical properties remains unexplored...
December 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Stefano Indraccolo, Giuseppe Lombardi, Matteo Fassan, Lorenza Pasqualini, Silvia Giunco, Raffaella Marcato, Alessandra Gasparini, Cinzia Candiotto, Silvia Nalio, Pasquale Fiduccia, Giuseppe Nicolò Fanelli, Ardi Pambuku, Alessandro Della Puppa, Domenico D'Avella, Laura Bonaldi, Marina P Gardiman, Roberta Bertorelle, Anita De Rossi, Vittorina Zagonel
PURPOSE: In-depth characterization of recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) might contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms behind tumor progression and enable rGBM treatment with targeted drugs. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this study, GBM samples were collected at diagnosis and recurrence from adult patients treated with Stupp protocol. Expression of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins was evaluated by IHC, followed by whole exome sequencing (WES) of tumor samples showing loss of MSH6 reactivity...
December 4, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Samira Tarashi, Sara Ahmadi Badi, Arfa Moshiri, Mahshid Nasehi, Abolfazl Fateh, Farzam Vaziri, Seyed Davar Siadat
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is a worldwide health concern, which needs robust and efficient control strategies, and the evaluation of human microbiota can be very important in this regard. Dysbiosis of normal microbiota is an important issue in the pathogenesis of Mtb. However, only few studies demonstrated the interaction between Mtb infection and microbiota. The current study aimed at reviewing literature on gut and lung microbiota in Mtb infection. Eleven articles regarding gut and lung microbiota composition in individuals with Mtb infection were selected, and then the importance of gut-lung axis in Mtb infection was evaluated...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Musa Marimani, Aijaz Ahmad, Adriano Duse
Tuberculosis (TB) infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is still a persistent global health problem, particularly in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported a mortality rate of about 1.8 million worldwide due to TB complications in 2015. The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was introduced in 1921 and is still widely used to prevent TB development. This vaccine offers up to 80% protection against various forms of TB; however its efficacy against lung infection varies among different geographical settings...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Mi-Jin An, Dae-Hyun Kim, Chul-Hong Kim, Mijin Kim, Sangmyung Rhee, Sang-Beom Seo, Jung-Woong Kim
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third most lethal cancer worldwide. Although gene mutations associated with HCC development have been intensively studied, how epigenetic factors specifically modulate the functional properties of HCC by regulating target gene expression is unclear. Here we demonstrated the overexpression of KDM3B in liver tissue of HCC patients using public RNA-seq data. Ablation of KDM3B by CRISPR/Cas9 retarded the cell cycle and proliferation of hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells...
December 1, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jie Xiong, Wei-Li Zhao
Natural-killer/T cell lymphoma (NKTCL) represents the most common subtype of extranodal lymphoma with aggressive clinical behavior. Prevalent in Asians and South Americans, the pathogenesis of NKTCL remains to be fully elucidated. Using system biology techniques including genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics, novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets have been revealed in NKTCL. Whole-exome sequencing studies identify recurrent somatic gene mutations, involving RNA helicases, tumor suppressors, JAK-STAT pathway molecules, and epigenetic modifiers...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
C Simon Durai Raj, Krishnaraj Thirugnanasambantham, Mohamed Ibrahim Hairul Islam, S Mathan Kumar, Sandhya Sundaram, Ganapathy Ashok, Venugopal Senthilkumar, Senguttuvan Muralidaran, S Saravanan
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease leading to bones and joints destruction. It is one of the major causes of lifetime disability and mortality among humans in the developing and developed countries. It was evident that epigenetic dysregulation is related to the pathogenesis of RA. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are epigenetic regulators for diverse biological processes and also provided novel molecular insights in the formation of arthritis...
December 3, 2018: MicroRNA
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