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Burst spinal stimulator

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104734/voluntary-urination-control-by-brainstem-neurons-that-relax-the-urethral-sphincter
#1
Jason A Keller, Jingyi Chen, Sierra Simpson, Eric Hou-Jen Wang, Varoth Lilascharoen, Olivier George, Byung Kook Lim, Lisa Stowers
Voluntary urination ensures that waste is eliminated when safe and socially appropriate, even without a pressing urge. Uncontrolled urination, or incontinence, is a common problem with few treatment options. Normal urine release requires a small region in the brainstem known as Barrington's nucleus (Bar), but specific neurons that relax the urethral sphincter and enable urine flow are unknown. Here we identify a small subset of Bar neurons that control the urethral sphincter in mice. These excitatory neurons express estrogen receptor 1 (BarESR1 ), project to sphincter-relaxing interneurons in the spinal cord and are active during natural urination...
August 13, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30087593/priming-with-intermittent-theta-burst-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-promotes-spinal-plasticity-induced-by-peripheral-patterned-electrical-stimulation
#2
Tomofumi Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki Fujiwara, Su-Chuan Lin, Yoko Takahashi, Kozo Hatori, Meigen Liu, Ying-Zu Huang
This study explored the effect of corticospinal activity on spinal plasticity by examining the interactions between intermittent theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTBS) of the motor cortex and peripheral patterned electrical stimulation (PES) of the common peroneal nerve (CPN). Healthy volunteers ( n = 10) received iTBS to the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle zone of the motor cortex and PES of the CPN in three separate sessions: (1) iTBS-before-PES, (2) iTBS-after-PES, and (3) sham iTBS-before-PES...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30042314/spinal-cord-stimulation-for-neuropathic-pain-current-trends-and-future-applications
#3
REVIEW
Ivano Dones, Vincenzo Levi
The origin and the neural pathways involved in chronic neuropathic pain are still not extensively understood. For this reason, despite the wide variety of pain medications available on the market, neuropathic pain is challenging to treat. The present therapeutic alternative considered as the gold standard for many kinds of chronic neuropathic pain is epidural spinal cord stimulation (SCS). Despite its proved efficacy, the favourable cost-effectiveness when compared to the long-term use of poorly effective drugs and the expanding array of indications and technical improvements, SCS is still worldwide largely neglected by general practitioners, neurologists, neurosurgeons and pain therapists, often bringing to a large delay in considering as a therapeutic option for patients affected by neuropathic chronic pain...
July 24, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008667/evidence-for-a-supraspinal-contribution-to-the-human-crossed-reflex-response-during-human-walking
#4
Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting, Sabata Gervasio, Veronique Marchand-Pauvert
In humans, an ipsilateral tibial nerve (iTN) stimulation elicits short-latency-crossed-responses (SLCR) comprised of two bursts in the contralateral gastrocnemius lateralis (cGL) muscle. The average onset latency has been reported to be 57-69 ms with a duration of 30.4 ± 6.6 ms. The aim of this study was to elucidate if a transcortical pathway contributes to the SLCR. In Experiment 1 ( n = 9), single pulse supra-threshold transcranial magnetic stimulation (supraTMS) was applied alone or in combination with iTN stimulation (85% of the maximum M-wave) while participants walked on a treadmill (delay between the SLCR and the motor evoked potentials (MEP) varied between -30 and 200 ms)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895874/intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-for-upper-limb-dysfunction-and-spasticity-in-spinal-cord-injury-a-single-blind-randomized-feasibility-study
#5
Aref-Ali Gharooni, Krishnan Padmakumari Sivaraman Nair, Debby Hawkins, Ian Scivill, Daniel Hind, Ram Hariharan
STUDY DESIGN: Single-blind, sham-controlled, crossover randomized feasibility study OBJECTIVES: (1) Assess the feasibility of a full-scale trial of intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) for upper-limb sensorimotor dysfunction following spinal cord injury (SCI). (2) Determine the safety and tolerability of iTBS over primary motor cortex on upper-limb function in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Large Tertiary Spinal Injuries Centre METHODS: Participants with incomplete SCI, suffering with upper-limb spasticity were recruited and randomized to receive active/sham iTBS over the hand representation of the primary motor cortex...
June 12, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890210/the-rostral-medulla-of-bullfrog-tadpoles-contains-critical-lung-rhythmogenic-and-chemosensitive-regions-across-metamorphosis
#6
Mitchell D Reed, Kimberly E Iceman, Michael B Harris, Barbara E Taylor
The development of amphibian breathing provides insight into vertebrate respiratory control mechanisms. Neural oscillators in the rostral and caudal medulla drive ventilation in amphibians, and previous reports describe ventilatory oscillators and CO2 sensitive regions arise during different stages of amphibian metamorphosis. However, inconsistent findings have been enigmatic, and make comparisons to potential mammalian counterparts challenging. In the current study we assessed amphibian central CO2 responsiveness and respiratory rhythm generation during two different developmental stages...
June 8, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790837/modulation-of-spinal-motor-networks-by-astrocyte-derived-adenosine-is-dependent-on-d1-like-dopamine-receptor-signalling
#7
David Acton, Matthew J Broadhead, Gareth Brian Miles
Astrocytes modulate many neuronal networks, including spinal networks responsible for the generation of locomotor behaviour. Astrocytic modulation of spinal motor circuits involves release of ATP from astrocytes, hydrolysation of ATP to adenosine, and subsequent activation of neuronal A1 adenosine receptors (A1Rs). The net effect of this pathway is a reduction in the frequency of locomotor-related activity. Recently, it was proposed that A1Rs modulate burst frequency by blocking the D1-like dopamine receptor (D1LR) signalling pathway; however, adenosine also modulates ventral horn circuits by dopamine-independent pathways...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707900/an-observational-case-series-of-spinal-cord-stimulation-waveforms-visualized-on-intraoperative-neuromonitoring
#8
Steven M Falowski
INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative neuromonitoring for spinal cord stimulation uses electromyography (EMG) responses to determine myotomal coverage as a marker for dermatomal coverage. These responses are utilized to determine the orientation of the electrode. Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) collision testing can also be used in which sensory signals are decreased and/or eliminated when stimulation is activated. METHODS: Fifteen patients were observed in the study...
April 29, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679457/burst-spinal-cord-stimulation-in-peripherally-injured-chronic-neuropathic-rats-a-delayed-effect
#9
Koen P V Meuwissen, Jianwen Wendy Gu, Tianhe C Zhang, Elbert A J Joosten
OBJECTIVE: Two well-known spinal cord stimulation (SCS) paradigms, conventional (Con) and burst SCS, are hypothesized to exert their antinociceptive effects through different stimulation-induced mechanisms. We studied the course of the behavioral antinociceptive effect during 60 minutes of SCS and 30 minutes post-SCS in a rat model of chronic neuropathic pain. METHODS: Animals underwent a unilateral partial sciatic nerve ligation, after which quadripolar electrodes were implanted into the epidural space at vertebral level T13 (n = 43 rats)...
April 11, 2018: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603444/femoral-vascular-conductance-and-peroneal-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-responses-to-acute-epidural-spinal-cord-stimulation-in-humans
#10
Seth W Holwerda, Marshall T Holland, Chandan G Reddy, Gary L Pierce
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this research? Does acute spinal cord stimulation increase vascular conductance and decrease muscle sympathetic nerve activity in the lower limbs of humans? What is the main finding and its importance? Acute spinal cord stimulation led to a rapid rise in femoral vascular conductance, and peroneal muscle sympathetic nerve activity demonstrated a delayed reduction that was not associated with the initial increase in femoral vascular conductance...
June 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530711/mapping-and-neuromodulation-of-lower-urinary-tract-function-using-spinal-cord-stimulation-in-female-rats
#11
Huiyi H Chang, Jih-Chao Yeh, Ronaldo M Ichiyama, Larissa V Rodriguez, Leif A Havton
Spinal cord epidural stimulation (SCS) represents a form of neuromodulation for the management of spasticity and pain. This technology has recently emerged as a new approach for potentially augmenting locomotion and voiding function in humans and rodents after spinal cord injury. However, the effect of SCS on micturition has not been studied extensively. Here, SCS was first applied as a direct stimulus onto individual segmental levels of the lumbar spinal cord in rats to map evoked external urethral sphincter (EUS) electromyography activity and SCS-induced voiding contractions...
July 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519242/fgf-signaling-controls-shh-dependent-oligodendroglial-fate-specification-in-the-ventral-spinal-cord
#12
Marie-Amélie Farreny, Eric Agius, Sophie Bel-Vialar, Nathalie Escalas, Nagham Khouri-Farah, Chadi Soukkarieh, Cathy Danesin, Fabienne Pituello, Philippe Cochard, Cathy Soula
BACKGROUND: Most oligodendrocytes of the spinal cord originate from ventral progenitor cells of the pMN domain, characterized by expression of the transcription factor Olig2. A minority of oligodendrocytes is also recognized to emerge from dorsal progenitors during fetal development. The prevailing view is that generation of ventral oligodendrocytes depends on Sonic hedgehog (Shh) while dorsal oligodendrocytes develop under the influence of Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs). RESULTS: Using the well-established model of the chicken embryo, we show that ventral spinal progenitor cells activate FGF signaling at the onset of oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) generation...
March 8, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453976/cell-type-specific-expression-of-constitutively-active-rheb-promotes-regeneration-of-bulbospinal-respiratory-axons-following-cervical-sci
#13
Mark W Urban, Biswarup Ghosh, Laura R Strojny, Cole G Block, Sara M Blazejewski, Megan C Wright, George M Smith, Angelo C Lepore
Damage to respiratory neural circuitry and consequent loss of diaphragm function is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals suffering from traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Repair of CNS axons after SCI remains a therapeutic challenge, despite current efforts. SCI disrupts inspiratory signals originating in the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) of the medulla from their phrenic motor neuron (PhMN) targets, resulting in loss of diaphragm function. Using a rat model of cervical hemisection SCI, we aimed to restore rVRG-PhMN-diaphragm circuitry by stimulating regeneration of injured rVRG axons via targeted induction of Rheb (ras homolog enriched in brain), a signaling molecule that regulates neuronal-intrinsic axon growth potential...
May 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451889/effects-of-patterned-peripheral-nerve-stimulation-on-soleus-spinal-motor-neuron-excitability
#14
Samuel Jimenez, Laura Mordillo-Mateos, Michele Dileone, Michela Campolo, Carmen Carrasco-Lopez, Fabricia Moitinho-Ferreira, Tomas Gallego-Izquierdo, Hartwig R Siebner, Josep Valls-Solé, Juan Aguilar, Antonio Oliviero
Spinal plasticity is thought to contribute to sensorimotor recovery of limb function in several neurological disorders and can be experimentally induced in animals and humans using different stimulation protocols. In healthy individuals, electrical continuous Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS) of the median nerve has been shown to change spinal motoneuron excitability in the cervical spinal cord as indexed by a change in mean H-reflex amplitude in the flexor carpi radialis muscle. It is unknown whether continuous TBS of a peripheral nerve can also shift motoneuron excitability in the lower limb...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431275/burst-spinal-cord-stimulation-review-of-preclinical-studies-and-comments-on-clinical-outcomes
#15
REVIEW
Krishnan Chakravarthy, Alexander R Kent, Adil Raza, Fang Xing, Thomas M Kinfe
BACKGROUND: Burst spinal cord stimulation (SCS) technology uses a novel waveform that consists of closely packed high-frequency electrical impulses followed by a quiescent period. Within the growing field of neuromodulation, burst stimulation is unique in that it mimics the natural burst firing of the nervous system, in particular the thalamo-cingulate rhythmicity, resulting in modulation of the affective and attentional components of pain processing (e.g., medial thalamic pathways). STUDY DESIGN: A review of preclinical and clinical studies regarding burst SCS for various chronic pain states...
February 12, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391084/complications-and-caveats-of-burst-spinal-cord-stimulation
#16
Hao Li, Karen Waterhouse, Aleksander Vitali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364070/swimming-rhythm-generation-in-the-caudal-hindbrain-of-the-lamprey
#17
James T Buchanan
The spinal cord has been well established as the site of generation of the locomotor rhythm in vertebrates, but studies have suggested that the caudal hindbrain in larval fish and amphibians can also generate locomotor rhythms. Here, we investigated whether the caudal hindbrain of the adult lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus and Ichthyomyzon unicuspis) has the ability to generate the swimming rhythm. The hindbrain-spinal cord transition zone of the lamprey contains a bilateral column of somatic motoneurons that project via the spino-occipital (S-O) nerves to several muscles of the head...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314454/neurophysiological-comparison-among-tonic-high-frequency-and-burst-spinal-cord-stimulation-novel-insights-into-spinal-and-brain-mechanisms-of-action
#18
Tommaso Bocci, Giuliano De Carolis, Mery Paroli, Davide Barloscio, Laura Parenti, Lara Tollapi, Massimiliano Valeriani, Ferdinando Sartucci
RATIONALE: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an effective option for neuropathic pain treatment. New technological developments, as high-frequency (HF) and theta burst stimulation (TBS), have shown promising results, although putative mechanisms of action still remain debated. METHODS: thirty patients with lower back pain were enrolled and underwent LF, HF, and TBS. Laser evoked potentials (LEPs) were recorded by using a Nd:YAG laser. Amplitudes and latencies of the main two components (N1, N2/P2) were compared among different experimental sessions...
January 4, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249191/burst-and-high-frequency-stimulation-underlying-mechanism-of-action
#19
REVIEW
Shaheen Ahmed, Thomas Yearwood, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste
Paresthesia-free spinal cord stimulation (SCS) techniques, such as burst and high-frequency (HF) SCS, have been developed and demonstrated to be successful for treating chronic pain, albeit via different mechanisms of action. The goal of this review is to discuss the mechanisms of action for pain suppression at both the cellular and systems levels for burst and HF SCS. In addition, we also discuss the neuromodulation devices that mimic these paradigms. Areas covered: The authors performed a literature review to unravel the mechanisms of action for burst and HF SCS coupled with booklets and user manuals from neuromodulation companies to understand the programmable parameters and operating ranges...
January 2018: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225569/elimination-of-left-right-reciprocal-coupling-in-the-adult-lamprey-spinal-cord-abolishes-the-generation-of-locomotor-activity
#20
J A Messina, Alison St Paul, Sarah Hargis, Wengora E Thompson, Andrew D McClellan
The contribution of left-right reciprocal coupling between spinal locomotor networks to the generation of locomotor activity was tested in adult lampreys. Muscle recordings were made from normal animals as well as from experimental animals with rostral midline (ML) spinal lesions (~13%→35% body length, BL), before and after spinal transections (T) at 35% BL. Importantly, in the present study actual locomotor movements and muscle burst activity, as well as other motor activity, were initiated in whole animals by descending brain-spinal pathways in response to sensory stimulation of the anterior head...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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