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Preventative healthcare

Sae Hwang Han, Kyungmin Kim, Jeffrey A Burr
Background and Study Objectives: Intimate partners and close friends represent two major sources of social support that are central to one's health and health behaviors in later life. The aim of this study was to examine dyadic linkages between perceived social support (from spouses and friends) and preventive healthcare behaviors among coupled-individuals. Design and Methods: Prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study (2010, 2012) were used to analyze a sample of coupled-individuals (dyad N = 1,902)...
December 5, 2018: Gerontologist
Gustavo Rosa Gameiro, Viktor Sinkunas, Gabriel Romero Liguori, José Otavio Costa Auler-Júnior
Health care has changed since the decline in mortality caused by infectious diseases as well as chronic and non-contagious diseases, with a direct impact on the cost of public health and individual health care. We must now transition from traditional reactive medicine based on symptoms, diagnosis and treatment to a system that targets the disease before it occurs and, if it cannot be avoided, treats the disease in a personalized manner. Precision Medicine is that new way of thinking about medicine. In this paper, we performed a thorough review of the literature to present an updated review on the subject, discussing the impact of the use of genetics and genomics in the care process as well as medical education, clinical research and ethical issues...
December 3, 2018: Clinics
Harold C Slavkin
In anticipation of a major transformation in healthcare, this review provides highlights that anticipate the near future for oral public health (and beyond). Personalized or precision healthcare reflects the expectation that advances in genomics, imaging, and other domains will extend our risk assessment, diagnostic, and prognostic capabilities, and enables more effective prevention and therapeutic options for all Americans. Meanwhile, the current healthcare system does not meet cost, access, or quality criteria for all Americans...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
Carl J Palad, Siddharth Yarlagadda, Fatima Cody Stanford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to evaluate current research findings relevant to weight stigmatization, to acknowledge the deleterious impact it has on the health of the paediatric population and to provide insight to optimize future guidelines for the treatment of individuals with overweight and obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity prevalence continues to rise in the USA with estimates in children from ages 2-19 years of 18.5%, an all-time high. With the increase in obesity, there has been a concomitant increase in weight stigma, which affects both youth and general population across varied levels of socioeconomic status and body sizes...
December 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
N Jincharadze, N Kazakhashvili, I Sakvarelidze
The purpose of the above work is to study the trends of mothers' health condition according to the implementation of antenatal monitoring of primary healthcare programs in 1996 - 2016 in Georgia. The methodology basis of the research is the qualitative investigation, so called Desk Research: collecting statistical data, description, systematization, comparison, analyses and interpretation. Data about mothers' health indicators were derived from National Center for Disease Control and Social Health and National Service of Georgian Statistics...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Mohammad Reza Abdolsalehi, Hamid Eshaghi, Setareh Mamishi
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are an important group at increased risk for exposure to various infectious agents including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Unfortunately, there is very limited data on the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among HCWs in Iran. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of LTBI among HCW's of Children Medical Center (CMC), an Iranian referral hospital, and to compare the feasibility of using tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB gold in tube test (QFT-GIT) to screen the LTBI among this population...
December 5, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
Racheal L Wood, Laurie A Migliore, Sandra J Nasshan, Sara R Mirghani, Annette C Contasti
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is considered a condition in which a portion of hospital admissions are preventable if timely and appropriate outpatient care management occurs. Facility readmission rates for HF are reportable and subject to penalty. Both military and civilian healthcare systems have fiscal responsibility and are accountable for successful disease management. Therefore, best practices and evidence-based strategies to reduce readmissions are in critical demand. However, translating best evidence into practice can be challenging due to the complexities of the healthcare system...
December 5, 2018: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
Alec Hope, Bridget Haire
OBJECTIVE: HIV prevention tools such as pre-exposure prophylaxis require equitable access and uptake to protect all at-risk populations. This project assessed the perceived barriers to accessible HIV prevention for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander gay and bisexual men (GBM) and evaluated the presence of health promotion for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for this population from the perspective of service providers. METHODS: Eighteen semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers, researchers and AIDS Council employees were qualitatively analysed for themes and concepts related to PrEP-specific health promotion...
December 5, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Sangah Shin, Subeen Kim, Hyojee Joung
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRIs), a set of reference intake values, have served as a basis for guiding a balanced diet that promotes health and prevents disease in the general Korean population. In the process of developing DRIs, a systematic review has played an important role in helping the DRI committees make evidence-based and transparent decisions for updating the next DRIs. Thus, the 2015 KDRI steering committee applied the systematic review framework to the revision process of the KDRIs...
December 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
Dan-Hua Mao, Jing-Kun Miao, Xian Zou, Na Chen, Lin-Chao Yu, Xin Lai, Meng-Yuan Qiao, Qi-Xiong Chen
Background: Neonatal bacterial meningitis is a severe infection with high mortality and morbidity. It is necessary to identify factors associated with a high risk of a poor prognosis so that we can prevent them with more appropriate treatments. This study was performed to summarize the prognostic factors known to predict adverse outcomes in neonatal bacterial meningitis. Methods: The Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase databases were searched for studies of prognostic risk factors in neonates with bacterial meningitis...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Lloyd Steele, James Palmer, Amelia Lloyd, James Fotheringham, Javaid Iqbal, Ever D Grech
BACKGROUND: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with worse outcomes after acute myocardial infarction. Data for survival after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) by SES in the current era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is more limited. METHODS: Data was collected for all patients with acute STEMI undergoing primary PCI at The South Yorkshire Cardiothoracic Centre, UK between 2009 and 2014. A Cox regression analysis was used to assess differences in survival by SES quartile (using an area-level measure)...
November 23, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Ting Xia, Alex Collie
Objective Health and social care workers have a significantly higher rate of work-related injury and illness than workers in other industries. The objective of this study was to examine the rate and distribution of work-related injury and illness in the Victorian health and social care sector by demographic, occupation and injury characteristics. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted of population-level workers' compensation claim records, including 43910 claims from the Victorian health and social care over a 10-year period from 2006 to 2015...
December 5, 2018: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
Bryan Borg, Ivor S Douglas, Madelyne Hull, Angela Keniston, Marc Moss, Brendan J Clark
PURPOSE: Patients with alcohol misuse are less likely to receive preventive health services but more likely to utilize emergency health services. However, the association between alcohol misuse and outpatient follow-up after hospitalization is unknown and may depend on whether a patient experiences a critical illness. We sought to determine whether alcohol misuse was associated with lower rates of outpatient follow-up after hospital discharge and whether the magnitude of this association differed in patients who experienced a critical illness...
December 4, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Ben Bowers, Richella Ryan, Isla Kuhn, Stephen Barclay
BACKGROUND: The anticipatory prescribing of injectable medications to provide end-of-life symptom relief is an established community practice in a number of countries. The evidence base to support this practice is unclear. AIM: To review the published evidence concerning anticipatory prescribing of injectable medications for adults at the end of life in the community. DESIGN: Systematic review and narrative synthesis. Registered in PROSPERO: CRD42016052108, on 15 December 2016 ( https://www...
December 4, 2018: Palliative Medicine
Matthew Fifolt, Emma V Richardson, Elizabeth Barstow, Robert W Motl
BACKGROUND: Bandura has identified knowledge and four core determinants (e.g., self-efficacy, outcomes expectations, goals, and facilitators/impediments) along with a threefold stepwise implementation model for guiding health promotion and disease prevention interventions. AIMS: This research explored the exercise behaviors of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) through the articulated lens of social cognitive theory. METHODS: We conducted secondary analysis of qualitative data from 50 people with MS using deductive, thematic analysis...
December 4, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Laura Bogusaite, Ilona Razlevice, Laura Lukosiene, Andrius Macas
BACKGROUND Adequate preoperative information for pediatric patients and their families can prevent preoperative anxiety and improve postoperative outcome. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey to determine the preoperative information needs of children and their parents before anesthesia for elective surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two healthcare centers enrolled children from 10 to 17 years of age who had planned elective surgery under general or regional anesthesia, and their parents and anesthesiologists...
December 4, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Patrick T LaBreck, Gregory K Rice, Adrian C Paskey, Emad M Elassal, Regina Z Cer, Natasha N Law, Carey D Schlett, Jason W Bennett, Eugene V Millar, Michael W Ellis, Theron Hamilton, Kimberly A Bishop-Lilly, D Scott Merrell
Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Some S. aureus strains harbor plasmids that carry genes that affect resistance to biocides. Among these genes, qacA encodes the QacA Multidrug Efflux Pump that imparts decreased susceptibility to chlorhexidine, a biocide used ubiquitously in healthcare facilities. Furthermore, chlorhexidine has been considered as a S. aureus decolonization strategy in community settings. We previously conducted a chlorhexidine-based SSTI prevention trial among Ft...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rana Shibli, Shmuel Rishpon, Michal Cohen-Dar, Yael Kandlik
BACKGROUND: Pediatric healthcare providers (HCPs) are a major resource which helps parents make decisions about their children's vaccinations. It is important to assess their behavior to encourage the receipt of routine vaccines. OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the knowledge level of and attitudes towards routine childhood vaccinations among pediatric HCPs; (2) To assess their behavior to encourage the receipt of routine vaccinations and associated predictors; (3) To examine their willingness to receive immunization training and to improve their skills to cope with vaccine-hesitant parents...
November 30, 2018: Vaccine
Amrita Rao, Sheree Schwartz, Keith Sabin, Tisha Wheeler, Jinkou Zhao, James Hargreaves, Stefan Baral
BACKGROUND: Key populations who bear a disproportionate burden of HIV, including female sex workers, men who have sex with men, people who use drugs, transgender people, and incarcerated populations, have been understudied, especially in the context of broadly generalized HIV epidemics. Program and investment planning documents often do not take into account the data that do exist. Prior systematic reviews have been comprehensive, but lack sustainability and relevance over time. This review aims to synthesize all available data for key populations and present the data through an accessible, updatable user-friendly graphic interface...
December 3, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Francesca Wuytack, Annelie Gutke, Britt Stuge, Siv Mørkved, Christina Olsson, Hilde Stendal Robinson, Nina K Vøllestad, Birgitta Öberg, Lena Nilsson Wikmar, Juan Jose Saldaña Mena, Valerie Smith
BACKGROUND: Pelvic Girdle Pain (PGP) is an important cause of disability and economic cost worldwide. There is a need for effective preventative and management strategies. Emerging studies measure a variety of outcomes rendering synthesis and translation to clinical practice difficult. A Core Outcome Set (COS) can address this problem by ensuring that data are relevant, useful and usable for making well-informed healthcare choices. The aim of this study is to develop a consensus-based PGP-COS, including agreement on methods (e...
December 3, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
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