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Preventative healthcare

Nagham Khanafer, Philippe Vanhems, Frédéric Barbut, Catherine Eckert, Michel Perraud, François Vandenesch, Christine Luxemburger, Clarisse Demont
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) produces a variety of clinical presentations ranging from mild diarrhea to severe infection with fulminant colitis, septic shock, and death. CDI puts a heavy burden on healthcare systems due to increased morbidity and mortality, and higher costs. We evaluated the clinical impact of CDI in terms of complications and mortality in a French university hospital compared with patients with diarrhea unrelated to CDI. A 3-year prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted in a French university hospital...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Abi Merriel, Julia Hussein, Address Malata, Arri Coomarasamy, Michael Larkin
BACKGROUND: In Malawi there are too few maternity healthcare workers to enable delivery of high quality care to women. These staff are often overworked and have low job satisfaction. Skilled maternity healthcare workers are essential to improve outcomes for mothers and babies. This study focuses on understanding the working life experience of maternity staff at district hospitals in Malawi with the aim of developing relevant low-cost solutions to improve working life. METHODS: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was undertaken in three district hospitals around Malawi's Capital city...
August 17, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Maia S Kredentser, Marcus Blouw, Nicole Marten, Jitender Sareen, O Joseph Bienvenu, Jennifer Ryu, Brooke E Beatie, Sarvesh Logsetty, Lesley A Graff, Shauna Eggertson, Sophia Sweatman, Braeden Debroni, Nina Cianflone, Rakesh C Arora, Ryan Zarychanski, Kendiss Olafson
OBJECTIVES: Critical illness can have a significant psychological impact on patients and their families. To inform the design of a larger trial, we assessed feasibility of ICU diaries and psychoeducation to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety following ICU stays. DESIGN: Four-arm pilot randomized controlled trial. SETTING: A 10-bed tertiary ICU in Winnipeg, MB, Canada. PATIENTS: Critically ill patients greater than 17 years old with predicted ICU stays greater than 72 hours and mechanical ventilation duration greater than 24 hours...
August 16, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Çiğdem Ak, Önder Ergönül, İrfan Şencan, Mehmet Ali Torunoğlu, Mehmet Gönen
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases are one of the primary healthcare problems worldwide, leading to millions of deaths annually. To develop effective control and prevention strategies, we need reliable computational tools to understand disease dynamics and to predict future cases. These computational tools can be used by policy makers to make more informed decisions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we developed a computational framework based on Gaussian processes to perform spatiotemporal prediction of infectious diseases and exploited the special structure of similarity matrices in our formulation to obtain a very efficient implementation...
August 17, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
K Boom, M Lopez, M Daheri, R Gowen, A Milbourne, P Toscano, C Carey, L Guerra, J M Carvajal, E Marin, E Baker, S Fisher-Hoch, A M Rodriguez, N Burkalter, B Cavazos, M Gasca, M M Cuellar, E Robles, E Lopez, K Schmeler
BACKGROUND: The Rio Grande Valley (RGV) and Laredo regions located along the Texas-Mexico border consist of seven counties with a population of approximately 1.5 million people and a high uninsured rate (33.5%). Cervical cancer mortality in these border counties is approximately 30% higher than the rest of Texas. The RGV and Laredo areas were studied to better understand the state of access to cervical cancer prevention services along the Texas-Mexico border. METHODS: Data on the population served and the services provided were analyzed to determine the gap between cervical cancer screenings recommended versus those received...
August 17, 2018: Perspectives in Public Health
Viswanathan Mohan, O Dale Williams, Sundarapandi Chella, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Sudha Vidyasagar, Prasanta Kumar Bhattacharya, Nayanjeet Chaudhury, Anand Krishnan, Stephanie Garcia, Cora E Lewis, Myron Gross, Rajendra Pradeepa
Background.: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs)-a term which includes diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases, and mental illness-are now the major cause of death in India and pose healthcare and economic challenges. There is an urgent need for enhanced clinical research training and capacity building for NCD prevention and control in India. Methods.: We describe a multi-pronged approach funded in part by the US National Institutes of Health Fogarty International Center, which was initiated in 2001, to train Indian present and future scientists/doctors in NCD prevention and control...
November 2017: National Medical Journal of India
Maria Espejo, Shirley Magabo, Angel Rivera-Castro, Mohammed Faiz, Leandro Ramirez, Cristabel Robles, Tarek Shabarek, Masood A Shariff, Balavenkatesh Kanna
OBJECTIVE: To study the knowledge, perception, and behaviors among hypertensive African-Americans in South Bronx, New York, to elucidate any gaps that could explain their poor blood pressure control. METHODS: Cross-sectional qualitative study on African-American participants with essential hypertension, on single or combined oral antihypertensive regimen. Three focus groups were presented with open-ended questions on topics including cardiovascular disease knowledge, perception, and behaviors...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Juthaporn Cowan, Sunita Mulpuru, Shawn Aaron, Gonzalo Alvarez, Antonio Giulivi, Vicente Corrales-Medina, Venkatesh Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Kednapa Thavorn, Ranjeeta Mallick, D William Cameron
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the airways, associated with frailty, disability, co-morbidity, and mortality. Individuals with COPD experience increased risk and rates of acute exacerbation as their lung disease worsens. Current treatments to prevent acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) are only modestly effective. New therapies are needed to improve the quality of life and clinical outcomes for individuals living with COPD and especially for those prone to frequent recurrent AECOPD...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Stephen P Robertson, Jennie Harre Hindmarsh, Sarah Berry, Vicky A Cameron, Murray P Cox, Ofa Dewes, Robert N Doughty, George Gray, Jessie C Jacobsen, Albert Laurence, Elizabeth Matisoo-Smith, Susan Morton, Andrew N Shelling, Dianne Sika-Paotonu, Anna Rolleston, Jonathan R Skinner, Russell G Snell, Andrew Sporle, Cristin Print, Tony R Merriman, Maui Hudson, Philip Wilcox
Precision medicine seeks to draw on data from both individuals and populations across disparate domains to influence and support diagnosis, management and prevention in healthcare at the level of the individual patient and their family/whānau. Central to this initiative is incorporating the effects of the inherent variation that lies within genomes and can influence health outcomes. Identifying and interpreting such variation requires an accurate, valid and representative dataset to firstly define what variants are present and then assess the potential relevance for the health of a person, their family/whānau and the wider community to which they belong...
August 17, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Mónica Morán Arribas, Antonio Rivero, Emma Fernández, Toni Poveda, Joan A Caylá
In Spain, HIV incidence has remained stable and higher than the European average since 2000 due to insuf-ficient prevention measures. An estimated 130,000-160,000 people are believed to be living with HIV in Spain, including 18% who do not know they are infected, and half are late diagnoses, with a poorer clinical course, lower quality of life and life expectancy, as well as higher costs. Late diagnosis is more common in heterosexuals, intravenous drug users, people over 50 years of age and immigrants, whereas men who have sex with men are the only group where the rate of new diagnoses is increasing...
September 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Jessica R Botfield, Christy E Newman, Melissa Kang, Anthony B Zwi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Young people are an important group to target with health promotion and preventive healthcare. This paper focuses on the engagement of migrant and refugee young people with sexual and reproductive healthcare in general practice. METHOD: Semi-structured first interviews (n = 27; 16 female, 11 male) and follow-up interviews (n = nine; six female, three male) were undertaken with migrant and refugee young people aged 16-24 years living in Sydney...
August 2018: Australian journal of general practice
David Elias Kayabu, James Samwel Ngocho, Blandina Theophil Mmbaga
BACKGROUND: Linkage to care and treatment is an important part of efforts to accelerate HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support. It offers an opportunity for PLHIV to receive information and services in a timely manner. Clients who present late for HIV care and treatment may miss out on timely initiation of prophylaxis and ART, which may accelerate disease progression and lead to an increased rate of HIV transmission within the community. The objective of this study was to determine the factors influencing effective linkages of newly diagnosed PLHIV from the point of testing to entry in care and treatment centres (CTCs) in Tanga Region, Tanzania...
2018: PloS One
Jodie B Hillen, Agnes Vitty, Gillian E Caughey
Objective: To describe medication-related quality of care (MRQOC) for Australian aged care residents. Design: Retrospective cohort using an administrative healthcare claims database. Setting: Australian residential aged care. Participants: A total of 17 672 aged care residents who were alive at 1 January 2013 and had been a permanent resident for at least 3 months. Main outcome measures: Overall, 23 evidence-based MRQOC indicators which assessed the use of appropriate medications in chronic disease, exposure to high-risk medications and access to collaborative health services...
August 3, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Flávia de Oliveira Motta Maia, Diná de Almeida Lopes Monteiro da Cruz, Gilceria Tochika Shimoda, Karina Sichieri, Luciana Inaba Senier Iida
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this project was to reduce the incidence and harm from falls that occur among patients admitted in the acute Internal Medicine Unit and Intensive Care Unit in a public teaching hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. INTRODUCTION: Falls are a challenge for health professionals and healthcare services as they may result in high-impact outcomes for patients, such as functional decline, increase in length of hospital stay, increase in the cost of healthcare services, and death...
August 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Alexandra F Dalton, Corey Lyon, Bennett Parnes, Douglas Fernald, Carmen L Lewis
PURPOSE: The purpose of this project was to: (1) develop a strategy for primary care quality measurement using an environmental scan and interviews to identify best practices and candidate measures; (2) present recommendations to facilitate successful measurement. METHODS: Following stakeholder interviews and review of existing measures, we created a three-tiered recommendation system for selecting and implementing measures. We also developed a framework for reviewing and prioritizing measures and prepared a detailed project report...
August 14, 2018: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
Annakaisa Haapasalo, Mikko Hiltunen
The international Kuopio Alzheimer Symposium was organized by the University of Eastern Finland in Kuopio, Finland on June 6-8, 2018 for the 8th time. Approximately 300 researchers in the fields of neuroscience and neurology from 12 different countries around the world gathered to Kuopio to hear and discuss about the latest insights into the mechanisms and comorbidities and novel approaches for diagnosis, prediction, prevention and therapies of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. The 2-day international program on June 7-8 included a keynote session, five oral scientific sessions and a poster session...
August 16, 2018: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
Roopa Hariprasad, Gayatri Palat, Ravi Mehrotra, Nandini Vallath
With unprecedented surge in the incidence and prevalence of cancer in India, it has become imperative to strengthen the workforce for all the domains of cancer care. A large proportion of the activity required for prevention as well as for palliation, lie outside of tertiary institutions, in the community. Palliative care (PC) as a field is expanding exponentially across the country and the service providers often engage and work actively within the local community in their region. This article describes the scope for reducing the cancer burden in the community, through capacity building of community based PC healthcare functionaries in the domains of Prevention, and Early detection of common cancers along with Palliative care - the PEP domains...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
Jennifer Mclenon, Mary A M Rogers
AIMS: To evaluate the prevalence of needle fear and summarize the characteristics of individuals who exhibit this fear. BACKGROUND: Injections are among the most common medical procedures, yet fear of needles can result in avoidance of preventive measures and treatment. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1966-2017), Embase (1947-2017), PsycINFO (1967-2017) and CINAHL (1961-2017) were searched, with no restrictions by age, gender, race, language, or country...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Zhenlang Guo, Shu Gan, Yuan Li, Chiming Gu, Songtao Xiang, Jianfu Zhou, Leiliang Gong, Franky Leung Chan, Shusheng Wang
BACKGROUND: Whether the diagnosis of prostate cancer is a contributory psychological stress that causes excess risk of suicide among affected men remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of previous studies to investigate suicide incidence and associated risk factors among men diagnosed with prostate cancer. METHODS: The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO databases were searched to identify eligible studies published before April 2018. The inverse variance method with random-effects modeling was used to calculate summary relative risks (RRs) and their associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
August 14, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
José Antonio López Trigo, Rosa López Mongil, Alberto Mariano Lázaro, Gloria Mato Chaín, Norberto Moreno Villajos, Primitivo Ramos Cordero
Influenza is a significant health problem, particularly in those persons susceptible to having associated complications, older people, children less than 2 years, patients with chronic diseases, immunocompromised patients, and pregnant women. But influenza also has a large impact on the health system, with an increase in the healthcare demand and a spectacular increase in outpatient visits, overloading the emergency and hospital services. During epidemic outbreaks, the hospital admission rates of people over 65 years are at a maximum, and the mortality notified for the 2017/2018 influenza season was 960 deaths...
August 11, 2018: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
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