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Neuropsychological Examination

Daniel L Schacter
In this article I discuss some of the major questions, findings, and ideas that have driven my research program, which has examined various aspects of human memory using a combination of cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging approaches. I do so from a career perspective that describes important scientific influences that have shaped my approach to the study of memory and discusses considerations that led to choosing specific research paths. After acknowledging key early influences, I briefly summarize a few of the main takeaways from research on implicit memory during the 1980s and 1990s and then move on to consider more recent ideas and findings concerning constructive memory, future imagining, and mental simulation that have motivated my approach for the past 2 decades...
December 5, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Chao Chai, Huiying Wang, Zhiqiang Chu, Jinping Li, Tianyi Qian, E Mark Haacke, Shuang Xia, Wen Shen
The purpose of this study was to noninvasively evaluate the changes of regional cerebral venous oxygen saturation (rSvO2 ) in hemodialysis patients using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and investigate the relationship with clinical risk factors and neuropsychological testing. Fifty four (54) hemodialysis patients and 54 age, gender and education matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited in this prospective study. QSM data were reconstructed from the original phase data of susceptibility weighted imaging to measure the susceptibility of cerebral regional major veins in all subjects and calculate their rSvO2 ...
December 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Victoria Sanborn, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, John Updegraff, Lisa M Manderino, John Gunstad
Cognitive decline is common in older adults and more than 5 million Americans suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of physiological processes including systemic inflammation, excess adiposity, and impaired glucoregulation arise from a combination of genetic and behavioral factors and increase risk for developing AD or other forms of dementia. Recent research suggests that the gut microbiome may moderate these pathological processes and possibly influence cognitive outcomes. This paper reviews the methodology for a double-blind, randomized clinical trial examining the influence of Lactobacillus GG (LGG) probiotic supplementation on mood and cognitive functioning in middle-aged and older adults...
December 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Nancy D Chiaravalloti, Erica Weber, Glenn Wylie, Trevor Dyson-Hudson, Jill M Wecht
CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits can impact as many as 60% of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). In an effort to identify the nature of cognitive deficits in SCI, we examined neuropsychological test performance in individuals with SCI, age matched healthy controls and older healthy controls. DESIGN: Participants completed a motor-free neuropsychological test battery assessing attention, working memory, information processing speed, new learning /memory and executive control...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Sonja Schönecker, Franz Hell, Kai Bötzel, Elisabeth Wlasich, Nibal Ackl, Christine Süßmair, Markus Otto, Sarah Anderl-Straub, Albert Ludolph, Jan Kassubek, Hans-Jürgen Huppertz, Janine Diehl-Schmid, Lina Riedl, Carola Roßmeier, Klaus Fassbender, Epameinondas Lyros, Johannes Kornhuber, Timo Jan Oberstein, Klaus Fliessbach, Anja Schneider, Matthias L Schroeter, Johannes Prudlo, Martin Lauer, Holger Jahn, Johannes Levin, Adrian Danek
The applause sign, i.e., the inability to execute the same amount of claps as performed by the examiner, was originally reported as a sign specific for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Recent research, however, has provided evidence for the occurrence of the applause sign in various conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the applause sign and correlate its presence with neuropsychological and MRI volumetry findings in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and related conditions...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Subir Dey, J Keshav Kumar, Dhaval Shukla, Dhananjaya Bhat
Background: There is a paucity of information about which impairments, cognitive or neurological, determine the functional outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The present study aims to determine the relative contributions of each of the above impairments for determining the functional outcome after SAH. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observational study including patients with aneurysmal SAH. Patients underwent assessment at 6 months after discharge for neurological deficits, cognitive impairment, and functional outcome using the National Institute of Health and Social Sciences (NIHSS) score, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) Neuropsychology Test Battery, and Glasgow Outcome Scale - Extended (GOSE), respectively...
November 2018: Neurology India
Sabrina Guzzetti, Francesca Mancini, Alessandra Caporali, Luigi Manfredi, Roberta Daini
INTRODUCTION: The cognitive reserve (CR) theory has been proposed to account for the mismatch between the degree of neuropathological changes and clinical outcome in dementias. Recently, it has also been applied to Parkinson's disease (PD) with promising results, but mostly just focusing on separate proxy measures of CR, such as education, working and leisure time activities, instead of adopting a more comprehensive approach. Using the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq), this study examined the association of CR with motor functions and cognition in patients with medium-low (1-9 years) and medium-high (>9 years) PD duration...
November 28, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Susanna Vestberg, Erik Blennow Nordström, Maria Landqvist Waldö, Karin Nilsson, Alexander Frizell Santillo, Christer Nilsson
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Hayling test (HT-S) and its clinical utility in a group of patients with different frontotemporal dementia (FTD) syndromes. Early diagnosis of FTD is a challenge and requires a broad arsenal of assessment methods, neuropsychological tests not the least. The Hayling test assesses executive functions including initiation, efficiency and response inhibition. METHODS: Seventy-six healthy controls were included as well as patients with the behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD; n = 17), semantic dementia (SD, n = 6), and progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 12)...
December 3, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Xinyu Fang, Yan Chen, Yewei Wang, Chen Zhang
Patients with schizophrenia have a high risk for suicide, and therefore, identification of risk factors for suicidal ideation (SI) may be helpful to reduce suicide rate. This study aimed to detect which clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters were most strongly associated with SI. A total of 174 patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in our study. Patients were evaluated by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Scale of Assessment Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) for psychiatric and depressive symptoms, and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) for cognitive function...
November 22, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Samantha N Hoffman, Matthew S Herbert, Laura D Crocker, Nicole E DeFord, Amber V Keller, Sarah M Jurick, Mark Sanderson-Cimino, Amy J Jak
OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of pain catastrophizing (PC) in neuropsychological functioning in veterans with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-nine Iraq and Afghanistan combat veterans evaluated in the post-acute phase following mild TBI. METHODS: Participants underwent psychiatric and TBI clinical interviews, neuropsychological tests, and self-report assessments of PC, pain intensity, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Christopher Abeare, Isabelle Messa, Cameron Whitfield, Brandon Zuccato, Joseph Casey, Nicholas Rykulski, Laszlo Erdodi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of invalid performance on baseline neurocognitive testing using embedded measures within computerized tests and individually administered neuropsychological measures, and to examine the influence of incentive status and performance validity on neuropsychological test scores. SETTING: Sport-related concussion management program at a regionally accredited university. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 83 collegiate football athletes completing their preseason baseline assessment within the University's concussion management program and a control group of 140 nonathlete students...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
N D Selezneva, I F Roshchina, G I Korovaitseva, S I Gavrilova
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of course neurotrophic therapy with cerebrolysin in a group of first-degree relatives of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients who had minimal cognitive dysfunction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-seven relatives (mean age 57.6±14.2 y.o.) received cerebrolysin in the dose of 20 ml/day in intravenous drips in 100 ml isotonic saline. The duration of treatment was 1 month. RESULTS: The positive effect of course treatment on the CGI was established in 77...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
V V Shprakh, U S Kostina
AIM: To study and compare the frequency and types of clinical course of different forms of early neurosyphilis (NS) in patients with HIV infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The results of clinical, laboratory and neuropsychological examinations of two groups of patients: with early NS in combination with HIV infection (n=62) and with early NS without HIV (n=62) were analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The variants (regressive, stationary, slowly progressive, rapidly progressive) and types (favorable, unfavorable) of clinical course of different forms of early NS were identified in these groups...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
N N Shipilova, N V Titova, Z G Kokaeva, A S Fedosova, E A Klimov, E A Katunina
AIM: To evaluate the frequency and spectrum of impulsive-compulsive disorders (ICDs) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) without dopaminergic medication and among patients receiving dopaminergic replacement therapy, depending on personality type, genetic factors, and to determine the influence of ICDs on the development of other non-motor manifestations of the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three hundred and eighty-six consecutive patients with idiopathic PD, including untreated patients with PD (de novo) and patients receiving dopaminergic replacement therapy during one year, were examined...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Á Romero-Martínez, M Lila, S Vitoria-Estruch, L Moya-Albiol
Intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators commonly exhibit deficits in a wide range of cognitive domains, such as attention, memory, and executive functions. Executive dysfunctions tend to be related to a preference for disadvantageous decisions, which could be explained by a pattern of focusing on positive outcomes (gains) while disregarding negative ones. Nonetheless, it is less clear whether risk-taking and decision-making problems should be attributed to motivational and/or emotional causes or to cognitive deficits in attention and/or working memory...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Lisa Molines, Simon Nusinovici, Marie Moreau, Mathilde Remy, Pascale May-Panloup, Cyril Flamant, Jean-Christophe Roze, Patrick Van Bogaert, Pierre-Emmanuel Bouet, Géraldine Gascoin
STUDY QUESTION: Is assisted conception associated with neonatal morbidity and mortality and with neurodevelopmental impairment at 2 years of corrected age in preterm infants born before 34 weeks of gestational age? SUMMARY ANSWER: Assisted conception is not associated with an increase in neonatal morbidity and mortality and is even significantly associated with a better 2-year neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Assisted conception appears to increase the rate of preterm births, though few studies have analysed outcomes for these preterm infants...
November 29, 2018: Human Reproduction
Daniela Pinter, Christian Enzinger, Thomas Gattringer, Sebastian Eppinger, Kurt Niederkorn, Susanna Horner, Simon Fandler, Markus Kneihsl, Kathrin Krenn, Gerhard Bachmaier, Franz Fazekas
BACKGROUND: Information on the prevalence and course of post-stroke cognitive impairment in young stroke patients is limited. We aimed to assess a consecutive sample of acute young ischemic stroke patients (18 to 55 years) for the presence and development of neuropsychological deficits. METHODS: Patients prospectively underwent a comprehensive clinical and cognitive assessment, examining general cognitive function, processing speed, attention, flexibility/executive function and word fluency within the first three weeks after hospital admission (median assessment at day six) and at a three months follow-up (FU)...
November 29, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Nozomu Matsuda, Shunsuke Kobayashi, Yoshikazu Ugawa
We report a 77-year-old man who suffered from Parkinson's disease for 12 years. Four years after the disease onset, he started to show excessive hobbyism of painting. His painting skills improved along with escalating enthusiasm. He even held a personal exhibition of his paintings. Dopaminergic treatment was increased as he developed wearing-off phenomenon. Six years after the disease onset, he developed dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS). In the same year, he underwent surgery for subthalamic deep brain stimulation...
November 29, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Kathleen Van Dyk, Catherine M Crespi, Julienne E Bower, Steven A Castellon, Laura Petersen, Patricia A Ganz
BACKGROUND: After treatment of primary breast cancer, endocrine therapy (ET) is prescribed for patients with hormone receptor-positive cancers. Despite ET recommendations of 5 to 10 years of treatment, to the authors' knowledge there is little prospective study of its impact on cognitive function over an extended period of time. ET has known pharmacologic effects on the brain. Cognitive side effects are a concern for many women, with mixed findings reported in various studies. The current prospective longitudinal study examined the neuropsychological effects of ET over time, up to 6 years after treatment...
November 28, 2018: Cancer
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEHow the brain supports intermediate-term preservation of memory in patients who have undergone unilateral medial temporal lobe resection (MTLR) has not yet been demonstrated. To understand the neural basis of episodic memory in the intermediate term after surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the authors investigated the relationship between the activation of the hippocampus (HIP) during successful memory encoding and individual memory capacity in patients who had undergone MTLR. They also compared hippocampal activation with other parameters, including structural volumes of the HIP, duration of illness, and age at seizure onset...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
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