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Neuropsychological Examination

Han-Yu Zhou, Zhi Li, Dong-Jie Xie, Ting Xu, Eric E F Cheung, Huanhuan Li, Raymond C K Chan
Impairments in spatial working memory (SWM) and set-shifting abilities have both been consistently observed in individuals with schizophrenia and are considered to be potential endophenotypes of this illness. However, an endophenotype needs to fulfill a set of stringent criteria, including heritability. This study examined the heritability of these two functions in a healthy Chinese twin sample. Forty-five pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins and 35 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins completed the SWM task and the Intra-Extra Dimensional Set-Shifting (IED) task of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)...
August 16, 2018: PsyCh Journal
Yana Suchy, Emilie I Franchow, Madison A Niermeyer, Rosemary E Ziemnik, Paula G Williams, Nicholas N Pennington
OBJECTIVE: The ability to detect covert markers of incipient cognitive decline among older adults before cognitive decline becomes overtly evident on traditional cognitive tests represents an important topic of research. Exaggerated reactions to novelty, reflected in novelty-induced increases in action planning latencies ("novelty effect"; NE) and low openness to experience (openness), have been previously associated with incipient cognitive decline among older adults who appeared cognitively normal at baseline...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Jose Gutierrez, Desiree Byrd, Michael T Yin, Susan Morgello
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) individuals have higher rates of cognitive impairment and cerebrovascular disease compared with uninfected populations. We hypothesize that cerebrovascular disease, specifically brain large artery disease, may play a role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Methods: Participants (N = 94) in the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank study were followed on average 32 ± 33 months with repeated neuropsychological examinations until death...
August 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Simon Agerskov, Per Hellström, Kerstin Andrén, Lena Kollén, Carsten Wikkelsö, Mats Tullberg
INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephlaus (iNPH) is, despite a vastly improved knowledge of the disorder since its first description still underdiagnosed and undertreated. Because of this, there is a need for further large studies describing the typical symptomatology and reversibility of symptoms in iNPH, which was the aim of this study. METHODS: In all, 429 patients (mean age 71 years) were included. Detailed pre- and postoperative examinations of symptoms and signs were analyzed...
August 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Gargi Banerjee, Mary Summers, Edgar Chan, Duncan Wilson, Andreas Charidimou, Lisa Cipolotti, David J Werring
Cognitive deficits after spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) are common and result in functional impairment, but few studies have examined deficits across cognitive domains in the subacute phase. This study aims to describe the cognitive profile following acute ICH and explore how cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) may impact performance. We retrospectively reviewed 187 consecutive patients with ICH (mean age 58.9 years, 55.6% male) with available imaging and neuropsychological data (median 12 days after stroke)...
August 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Daniel T Smith, Neil Archibald
The neural and cognitive mechanisms of spatial working memory are tightly coupled with the systems that control eye-movements but the precise nature of this coupling is not well understood. In particular, there are very few neuropsychological studies that explicitly examine how deficits of oculomotor control affect visuospatial working memory. Here, we examined the link between spatial working memory and the oculomotor system in a sample of patients with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, a degenerative neurological disease characterised by defective vertical eye-movements but relatively preserved horizontal eye-movements...
July 25, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
E Kozora, C M Filley, D Erkan, A M Uluğ, A Vo, G Ramon, A Burleson, R D Zimmerman, M D Lockshin
Objective This pilot study aimed to examine longitudinal changes in brain structure and function in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neuropsychological testing. Methods Fifteen female SLE patients with no history of major neuropsychiatric (NP) manifestations had brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with DTI at baseline and approximately 1.5 years later. At the same time points, a standardized battery of cognitive tests yielding a global cognitive impairment index (CII) was administered...
August 13, 2018: Lupus
Nienke M E Scheltens, Betty M Tijms, Martijn W Heymans, Gil D Rabinovici, Brendan I Cohn-Sheehy, Bruce L Miller, Joel H Kramer, Steffen Wolfsgruber, Michael Wagner, Johannes Kornhuber, Oliver Peters, Philip Scheltens, Wiesje M van der Flier
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a heterogeneous disorder. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether cognitive AD subtypes are associated with different rates of disease progression. METHODS: We included 1,066 probable AD patients from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (n = 290), Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 268), Dementia Competence Network (n = 226), and University of California, San Francisco (n = 282) with available follow-up data...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
David M Glassmire, Mary Elizabeth Wood, Minhdan T Ta, Dominique I Kinney, Stephen R Nitch
Recent research (Erdodi et al., 2017) indicated that certain Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV) Processing Speed Index (PSI)-based indices may have some utility as embedded validity indicators (EVIs) among a diagnostically diverse sample of neuropsychology referrals. Individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) are often evaluated in forensic contexts in which there is incentive to exaggerate deficits. Because individuals with SSD often have limitations in processing speed associated with their disorders, the current study sought to evaluate the false-positive (FP) rates of cutoffs identified by Erdodi et al...
August 13, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Daniel B Charek, Gregory J Meyer, Joni L Mihura, Emily T O'Gorman
We examined associations among cognitive processing measures that varied on a continuum from maximum to typical performance tasks in the context of an ego depletion study. Our intent was to replicate and extend the findings of Charek, Meyer, and Mihura, which showed that ego depletion had an expected effect on selected scores from the Rorschach inkblot task. We hypothesized that Rorschach variables indicative of cognitive sophistication would correlate with neuropsychological measures of cognitive ability and that Rorschach variables theoretically unassociated with cognitive processing would not correlate with those criterion measures...
August 12, 2018: Assessment
Vishal Samboju, Carissa L Philippi, Phillip Chan, Yann Cobigo, James L K Fletcher, Merlin Robb, Joanna Hellmuth, Khunthalee Benjapornpong, Netsiri Dumrongpisutikul, Mantana Pothisri, Robert Paul, Jintanat Ananworanich, Serena Spudich, Victor Valcour
Background: HIV RNA is identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within eight days of estimated viral exposure. Neurological findings and impaired neuropsychological testing performance are documented in a subset of individuals with acute HIV infection (AHI). The purpose of this study was to determine whether microstructural white matter and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) are disrupted in AHI. Methods: We examined 49 AHI (100% male; mean age = 30 ± SD 9...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Kathleen T Watson, Tonita E Wroolie, Gabby Tong, Lara C Foland-Ross, Sophia Frangou, Manpreet Singh, Roger McIntyre, Siena Roat-Shumway, Alison Myoraku, Allan L Reiss, Natalie L Rasgon
Insulin resistance (IR) is a metabolic state preceding development of type 2 diabetes (DM2), cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP) agonist, is an insulin-sensitizing agent with neuroprotective properties, as shown in animal studies. The purpose of this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was to examine the neural effects of administration of liraglutide in cognitively normal late middle-aged individuals with subjective cognitive complaints (half of subjects had family history of AD)...
August 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Paul A Wetzel, Anne S Lindblad, Hardik Raizada, Nathan James, Caroline Mulatya, Mary A Kannan, Zoe Villamar, George T Gitchel, Lindell K Weaver
Purpose: Standard physical, neurologic, and neuropsychologic examinations may not detect abnormalities after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). An analysis of eye movements may be more sensitive to neurologic dysfunction. Methods: We performed eye tracking assessments in 71 active duty and veteran military personnel with persistent postconcussive symptoms (3 months to 5 years after mTBI) and 75 volunteers with no history of brain injury. Both eyes were sampled at 500 Hz and analyzed for various eye measurement parameters during visual tasks involving the saccadic and smooth systems...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Jessica C Hodgson, John M Hudson
A relationship between motor control and speech lateralization has long been postulated by researchers and clinicians with an interest in the functional organization of the human brain. Exactly how motor control might be related to speech representation, however, is rarely examined. This chapter examines current issues relating to the organization, development, and measurement of motor control and speech representation. We further consider from neuropsychological, developmental, neurological, and genetic perspectives that speech and fine motor control involve planning and sequencing processes, which are mediated by an integrated neural network localized to the left hemisphere...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
Jun T Park, Guadalupe Fernandez Baca Vaca, Rachel Tangen, Jonathan Miller
Resection of the hippocampus ipsilateral to the verbal memory-dominant hemisphere frequently results in severe memory deficits. In adults with epilepsy, multiple hippocampal transections (MHTs) have resulted in excellent seizure outcome with preservation of verbal memory. The authors report the first detailed case of a child undergoing MHTs for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. A 13-year-old right-handed boy had intractable seizures characterized by epigastric discomfort evolving to unresponsiveness and chewing automatisms, lasting 1 minute and occurring 2-3 times weekly, sometimes ending in a generalized tonic-clonic seizure...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Jessica A Vanderlinden, Amanda Ross-White, Rachel Holden, M Khaled Shamseddin, Andrew Day, J Gordon Boyd
IMPORTANCE: Cognitive dysfunction is reportedly highly prevalent among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. A variety of screening tools and neuropsychiatric batteries are utilized to quantify the magnitude and nature of this dysfunction in CKD patients. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the neurocognitive testing used and determine what degree cognitive dysfunction is reported in CKD patients. METHODS: Articles published in English containing consenting age of majority participants who were either: pre-dialysis patients, hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, or renal transplant recipients were considered...
August 10, 2018: Nephrology
Anna M Bardone-Cone, Rowan A Hunt, Hunna J Watson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review delineates issues in the conceptualization and operationalization of eating disorder recovery, highlights recent findings about recovery (since 2016), and proposes future directions. RECENT FINDINGS: A longstanding problem in the field is that there are almost as many different definitions of recovery in eating disorders as there are studies on the topic. Yet, there has been a general shift to accepting that psychological/cognitive symptoms are important to recovery in addition to physical and behavioral indices...
August 9, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Mattias Göthlin, Marie Eckerström, Sindre Rolstad, Petronella Kettunen, Anders Wallin
Introduction: Age and years of education influence the risk of dementia and may impact the prognostic accuracy of mild cognitive impairment subtypes. Methods: Memory clinic patients without dementia (N = 358, age 64.0 ± 7.9) were stratified into four groups based on years of age (≤64 and ≥65) and education (≤12 and ≥13), examined with a neuropsychological test battery at baseline and followed up after 2 years. Results: The prognostic accuracy of amnestic multi-domain mild cognitive impairment for dementia was highest in younger patients with more years of education and lowest in older patients with fewer years of education...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
João Durães, Miguel Tábuas-Pereira, Rui Araújo, Diana Duro, Inês Baldeiras, Beatriz Santiago, Isabel Santana
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The head turning sign (HTS) is frequently noticed in clinical practice, but few studies have investigated its etiological and neuropsychological correlates. METHODS: The presence and frequency of the HTS was operationalized and prospectively evaluated in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for AD biomarkers were collected...
August 9, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
H D Rosas, P Wilkens, D H Salat, N D Mercaldo, M Vangel, A Y Yendiki, S M Hersch
Although much prior work has focused on the basal ganglia and cortical pathology that defines Huntington's disease (HD), recent studies have also begun to characterize cerebral white matter damage (Rosas et al., 2006; Dumas et al., 2012; Poudel et al., 2014). In this study, we investigated differences in the large fascicular bundles of the cerebral white matter of gene-positive HD carriers, including pre-manifest individuals and early symptomatic patients, using recently developed diffusion tractography procedures...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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