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Biofilm formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221917/escherichia-coli-o157-h7-strains-isolated-from-high-event-period-beef-contamination-have-strong-biofilm-forming-ability-and-low-sanitizer-susceptibility-which-are-associated-with-high-po157-plasmid-copy-number
#1
Rong Wang, Brandon E Luedtke, Joseph M Bosilevac, John W Schmidt, Norasak Kalchayanand, Terrance M Arthur
In the meat industry, a high-event period (HEP) is defined as a time period when beef processing establishments experience an increased occurrence of product contamination by Escherichia coli O157:H7. Our previous studies suggested that bacterial biofilm formation and sanitizer resistance might contribute to HEPs. We conducted the present study to further characterize E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated during HEPs for their potential to cause contamination and to investigate the genetic basis for their strong biofilm-forming ability and high sanitizer resistance...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221135/impaired-respiration-elicits-srrab-dependent-programmed-cell-lysis-and-biofilm-formation-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#2
Ameya A Mashruwala, Adriana Van De Guchte, Jeffrey M Boyd
Biofilms are communities of microorganisms attached to a surface or each other. Biofilm associated cells are the etiologic agents of recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections. Infected human tissues are hypoxic or anoxic. S. aureus increases biofilm formation in response to hypoxia, but how this occurs is unknown. In the current study we report that oxygen influences biofilm formation in its capacity as a terminal electron acceptor for cellular respiration. Genetic, physiological, or chemical inhibition of respiratory processes elicited increased biofilm formation...
February 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221026/nanomechanics-of-ph-responsive-drug-loaded-bi-layered-polymer-grafts
#3
Prathima Chandra Nalam, Hyun-Su Lee, Nupur Bhatt, Robert W Carpick, David M Eckmann, Russell J Composto
Stimuli-responsive polymer films play an important role in the development of smart antibacterial coatings. In this study, we consider complementary architectures of polyelectrolyte films including a thin chitosan layer (CH), poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes and a bilayer structure of CH grafted to PAA brushes (CH/PAA) as possible candidates for targeted drug delivery platforms. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to study the structure-mechanical property relationship for these mono- and bi- layered polymer grafts at pH 7...
February 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219826/hot-topics-in-reactive-oxygen-therapy-antimicrobial-and-immunological-mechanisms-safety-and-clinical-applications
#4
REVIEW
Matthew Dryden, Jonathan Cooke, Rami Salib, Rebecca Holding, Sylvia Pender, Jill Brooks
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), when combined with various delivery mechanisms, has the potential to become a powerful novel therapeutic agent against difficult-to-treat infections, especially those involving biofilm. It is important in the context of the global antibiotic resistance crisis. ROS is rapidly active in vitro against all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. ROS also has antifungal and antiviral properties. ROS prevents the formation of biofilms caused by a range of bacterial species in wounds and respiratory epithelium...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218864/surgical-treatment-of-severe-peri-implantitis-using-a-round-titanium-brush-for-implant-surface-decontamination-a-case-report-with-clinical-re-entry
#5
Yinzhe An, Jae-Hong Lee, Young-Ku Heo, Jung-Seok Lee, Ui-Won Jung, Seong-Ho Choi
The most common cause of peri-implantitis is the accumulation of plaque and the formation of a biofilm on the implant surface. Terminating the development of the disease requires the biofilm to be removed from the implant surface. This paper describes two cases of severe peri-implantitis lesions treated through surgical approaches. Complete mechanical debridement with a round titanium brush was mainly performed to detoxify and modify the affected implant surface. A regenerative approach was then performed. In both cases, the surgical procedure was effective in arresting the peri-implantitis, and clinical re-entry revealed uneventful healing of the existing bone defect...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218655/taste-receptors-mediate-sinonasal-immunity-and-respiratory-disease
#6
REVIEW
Jennifer E Douglas, Noam A Cohen
The bitter taste receptor T2R38 has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), where the receptor functions to enhance upper respiratory innate immunity through a triad of beneficial immune responses. Individuals with a functional version of T2R38 are tasters for the bitter compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and exhibit an anti-microbial response in the upper airway to certain invading pathogens, while those individuals with a non-functional version of the receptor are PTC non-tasters and lack this beneficial response...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218002/biofilm-formation-of-achromobacter-xylosoxidans-on-contact-lens
#7
Neda Konstantinović, Ivana Ćirković, Slobodanka Đukić, Vesna Marić, Dragana D Božić
Achromobacter spp. may contaminate lenses, lens cases, and contact lens solutions and cause ocular infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of isolated strain of Achromobacter xylosoxidans to form biofilm on the surface of soft contact lenses (CL), to quantify the production of the formed biofilm, and compare it with the reference strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae). Bacterial strain isolated from one contact lens case was identified as A...
February 20, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217912/cold-adaptation-of-the-antarctic-haloarchaea-halohasta-litchfieldiae-and-halorubrum-lacusprofundi
#8
Timothy J Williams, Yan Liao, Jun Ye, Rhiannon P Kuchel, Anne Poljak, Mark J Raftery, Ricardo Cavicchioli
Halohasta litchfieldiae represents ∼ 44% and Halorubrum lacusprofundi ∼ 10% of the hypersaline, perennially cold (≥ -20°C) Deep Lake community in Antarctica. We used proteomics and microscopy to define physiological responses of these haloarchaea to growth at high (30°C) and low (10 and 4°C) temperatures. The proteomic data indicate that both species responded to low temperature by modifying their cell envelope including protein N-glycosylation, maintaining osmotic balance and translation initiation, and modifying RNA turnover and tRNA modification...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217816/candida-albicans-survival-growth-and-biofilm-formation-are-differently-affected-by-mouthwashes-an-in-vitro-study
#9
Simona Paulone, Giulia Malavasi, Andrea Ardizzoni, Carlotta Francesca Orsi, Samuele Peppoloni, Rachele Giovanna Neglia, Elisabetta Blasi
Candida albicans is the most common cause of oral mycoses. The aim of the present study was to investigate in vitro the susceptibility of C. albicans to mouthwashes, in terms of growth, survival and biofilm formation. Candida albicans, laboratory strain SC5314, and 7 commercial mouthwashes were employed: 3 with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate; 1 with 0.06% chlorhexidine digluconate and 250 ppm F- sodium fluoride; 3 with fluorine-containing molecules. None of the mouthwashes contained ethanol in their formulations...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217123/virulence-markers-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-escherichia-coli-strains-with-hybrid-eaec-upec-genotypes-recovered-from-sporadic-cases-of-extraintestinal-infections
#10
Flaviane B M Lara, Danielly R Nery, Pâmela M de Oliveira, Mayana L Araujo, Fabiana R Q Carvalho, Lorena C F Messias-Silva, Leonardo B Ferreira, Celio Faria-Junior, Alex L Pereira
Virulence genes from different E. coli pathotypes are blended in hybrid strains. E. coli strains with hybrid enteroaggregative/uropathogenic (EAEC/UPEC) genotypes have sporadically emerged causing outbreaks of extraintestinal infections, however their association with routine infections is yet underappreciated. We assessed 258 isolates of E. coli recovered from 86 consecutive cases of extraintestinal infections seeking EAEC and hybrid genotype (EAEC/UPEC) strains. Extensive virulence genotyping was carried out to detect 21 virulence genes, including molecular predictors of EAEC and UPEC strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216386/serotonin-disturbs-colon-epithelial-tolerance-of-commensal-e-coli-by-increasing-nox-2-derived-superoxide
#11
Suhrid Banskota, Sushil Chandra Regmi, Jaya Gautam, Pallavi Gurung, Yu-Jeong Lee, Sae Kwang Ku, Jin-Hyung Lee, Jintae Lee, Hyeun Wook Chang, Sang Joon Park, Jung-Ae Kim
Adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression are increased in the gut of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. However, the underlying mechanism of such changes has not been determined. In the current study, it was examined whether gut serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) can induce adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and increase TLR expression. In a co-culture system, commensal E. coli strain (BW25113, BW) adhered minimally to colon epithelial cells, but this was significantly enhanced by 5-HT to the level of a pathogenic strain (EDL933)...
February 16, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215046/genome-resolved-metagenomics-of-a-bioremediation-system-for-degradation-of-thiocyanate-in-mine-water-containing-suspended-solid-tailings
#12
Sumayah F Rahman, Rose S Kantor, Robert Huddy, Brian C Thomas, Andries W van Zyl, Susan T L Harrison, Jillian F Banfield
Thiocyanate (SCN(-) ) is a toxic compound that forms when cyanide (CN(-) ), used to recover gold, reacts with sulfur species. SCN(-) -degrading microbial communities have been studied, using bioreactors fed synthetic wastewater. The inclusion of suspended solids in the form of mineral tailings, during the development of the acclimatized microbial consortium, led to the selection of an active planktonic microbial community. Preliminary analysis of the community composition revealed reduced microbial diversity relative to the laboratory-based reactors operated without suspended solids...
February 19, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214735/rna-based-control-mechanisms-of-clostridium-difficile
#13
REVIEW
Olga Soutourina
Clostridium difficile (CD)-associated diarrhoea is currently the most prevalent nosocomial diarrhoea worldwide. Many characteristics of CD pathogenicity remain poorly understood. Recent data strongly indicate the importance of an RNA network for the control of gene expression in CD. More than 200 regulatory RNAs have been identified by deep sequencing and targeted approaches, including Hfq-dependent trans riboregulators, cis-antisense RNAs, CRISPR RNAs, and c-di-GMP-responsive riboswitches. These regulatory RNAs are involved in the control of major processes in the CD infection cycle, for example motility, biofilm formation, adhesion, sporulation, stress response, and defence against bacteriophages...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214733/flexible-camphor-diamond-like-carbon-coating-on-polyurethane-to-prevent-candida-albicans-biofilm-growth
#14
Thaisa B Santos, Angela A Vieira, Luciana O Paula, Everton D Santos, Polyana A Radi, Sônia Khouri, Homero S Maciel, Rodrigo S Pessoa, Lucia Vieira
Camphor was incorporated in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films to prevent the Candida albicans yeasts fouling on polyurethane substrates, which is a material commonly used for catheter manufacturing. The camphor:DLC and DLC film for this investigation was produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), using an apparatus based on the flash evaporation of organic liquid (hexane) containing diluted camphor for camphor:DLC and hexane/methane, mixture for DLC films. The film was deposited at a low temperature of less than 25°C...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214190/biofilm-formation-by-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-a-dental-clinic-in-konya-turkey
#15
Emrah Torlak, Emre Korkut, Ali T Uncu, Yağmur Şener
The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to form biofilm is considered to be a major virulence factor influencing its survival and persistence in both the environment and the host. Biofilm formation in S. aureus is most frequently associated with production of polysaccharide intercellular adhesion by ica operon-encoded enzymes. The present work aimed at evaluating the in vitro biofilm production and presence of the icaA and icaD genes in S. aureus isolates from a dental clinic in Konya, Turkey. The surfaces of inanimate objects were sampled over a period of six months...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213335/transformation-products-of-clindamycin-in-moving-bed-biofilm-reactor-mbbr
#16
Gordon T H Ooi, Monica Escola Casas, Henrik R Andersen, Kai Bester
Clindamycin is widely prescribed for its ability to treat a number of common bacterial infections. Thus, clindamycin enters wastewater via human excretion or disposal of unused medication and widespread detection of pharmaceuticals in rivers proves the insufficiency of conventional wastewater treatment plants in removing clindamycin. Recently, it has been discovered that attached biofilm reactors, e.g., moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) obtain a higher removal of pharmaceuticals than conventional sludge wastewater treatment plants...
February 2, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213285/mechanical-and-chemical-studies-on-eps-from-sulfobacillus-thermosulfidooxidans-from-planktonic-to-biofilm-cells
#17
Qian Li, Wolfgang Sand
Bacteria attach to minerals and form biofilms, which can initiate and enhance bioleaching. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play a crucial role during the whole process. Little is known how the cell surface/EPS mechanically and chemically respond to transformation from planktonic to biofilm cells. In this study the attachment and biofilm formation by Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans were followed during pyrite leaching. Adhesiveness and stiffness of the cell/biofilm and the pyrite surface were checked by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in force mapping mode under real living conditions...
February 10, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213018/pathogen-biofilm-formation-on-cantaloupe-surface-and-its-impact-on-the-antibacterial-effect-of-lauroyl-arginate-ethyl
#18
Yezhi Fu, Amanda J Deering, Arun K Bhunia, Yuan Yao
Pathogen biofilm at fruit surface may pose a particular risk to food safety. In this study, the biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes V7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 13311 on cantaloupe fruit surface were visualized, and the resistance of biofilms against lauroyl arginate ethyl (LAE, an antibacterial compound) was evaluated. Each bacterium was inoculated on isolated cantaloupe rind surfaces at 10(5)-10(6) CFU/cm(2) and after incubation for 2, 12, 24, and 48 h, the surfaces were imaged using cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM)...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212980/biofilm-formation-and-release-of-fluoride-from-dental-restorative-materials-in-relation-to-their-surface-properties
#19
Sebastian Hahnel, Andrei C Ionescu, Gloria Cazzaniga, Marco Ottobelli, Eugenio Brambilla
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the impact of surface properties and the release of fluoride from different glass ionomer cements on biofilm formation. METHODS: Standardized specimens manufactured from various classes of glass ionomer cements (GICs), a resin-based composite (RBC), and human enamel were subjected to surface analyses. Subsequent to simulation of salivary pellicle formation, Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation was initiated using a drip flow reactor for 48h and 96h...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212615/molecular-pathways-underlying-inhibitory-effect-of-antimicrobial-peptide-nal-p-113-on-bacteria-biofilms-formation-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis-w83-by-dna-microarray
#20
Hong-Yan Wang, Li Lin, Li-Si Tan, Hui-Yuan Yu, Jya-Wei Cheng, Ya-Ping Pan
BACKGROUND: Wound-related infection remains a major challenge for health professionals. One disadvantage in conventional antibiotics is their inability to penetrate biofilms, the main protective strategy for bacteria to evade irradiation. Previously, we have shown that synthetic antimicrobial peptides could inhibit bacterial biofilms formation. RESULTS: In this study, we first delineated how Nal-P-113, a novel antimicrobial peptide, exerted its inhibitory effects on Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 biofilms formation at a low concentration...
February 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
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