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Biofilm formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933662/evidence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-deformation-proliferation-and-migration-in-canaliculi-of-live-cortical-bone-in-murine-models-of-osteomyelitis
#1
Karen L de Mesy Bentley, Ryan Trombetta, Kohei Nishitani, Sheila N Bello-Irizarry, Mark Ninomiya, Longze Zhang, Hung Li Chung, James L McGrath, John L Daiss, Hani A Awad, Stephen L Kates, Edward M Schwarz
While Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis is considered to be incurable, the major bacterial reservoir in live cortical bone has remained unknown. In addition to biofilm bacteria on necrotic tissue and implants, studies have implicated intracellular infection of osteoblasts and osteocytes as a mechanism of chronic osteomyelitis. Thus, we performed the first systematic transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies to formally define major reservoirs of S. aureus in chronically infected mouse (Balb/c J) long bone tissue...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933456/penicillin-v-acylases-from-gram-negative-bacteria-degrade-n-acylhomoserine-lactones-and-attenuate-virulence-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
Avinash Vellore Sunder, Putri Dwi Utari, Sureshkumar Ramasamy, Ronald van Merkerk, Wim Quax, Archana Pundle
Virulence pathways in gram-negative pathogenic bacteria are regulated by quorum sensing mechanisms, through the production and sensing of N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules. Enzymatic degradation of AHLs leading to attenuation of virulence (quorum quenching) could pave the way for the development of new antibacterials. Penicillin V acylases (PVAs) belong to the Ntn hydrolase superfamily, together with AHL acylases. PVAs are exploited widely in the pharmaceutical industry, but their role in the natural physiology of their native microbes is not clearly understood...
December 8, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933276/acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-lebanese-patients-phenotypes-and-genotypes-of-resistance-clonality-and-determinants-of-pathogenicity
#3
Elias Dahdouh, Micheline Hajjar, Monica Suarez, Ziad Daoud
Introduction:Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen that usually affects critically ill patients. High mortality rates have been associated with MDR A. baumannii infections. Carbapenem resistance among these isolates is increasing worldwide and is associated with certain International Clones (ICs) and oxacillinases (OXAs). Moreover, this organism possesses a wide range of virulence factors, whose expression is not yet fully understood. In this study, clinical A. baumannii isolates are characterized in terms of antibiotic resistance, mechanisms of carbapenem resistance, clonality, and virulence...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931688/antimycobacterial-mechanism-of-vanillin-involves-disruption-of-cell-surface-integrity-virulence-attributes-and-iron-homeostasis
#4
Sharda Sharma, Rahul Pal, Saif Hameed, Zeeshan Fatima
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global threat, claiming one-third of the population annually. The ever increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is the major impediment to effective anti-TB therapy. Under such circumstances, deciphering the antimycobacterial potential of natural compounds has gained considerable prominence. This study evaluated the antimycobacterial activity of vanillin (Van), a natural food-flavoring agent and preservative, along with its potential mechanisms of action...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931364/biological-fixed-film
#5
Eun-Sik Kim, Tania Datta, Jeung-Bea Kim, Goun Lee, Jeongdong Choi
The review includes literature published in the year of 2015 regarding the uses of biofilm in full-scale and lab-scale bioreactors to treat wastewater. The topics considered include biofilm formation and factors impacting biofilm formation; extracellular polymeric substance from biofilms; biofilm consortia and quorum sensing; biofilm reactors and biofilm in bioelectrochemical systems.
October 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930872/bacterial-interactions-with-immobilized-liquid-layers
#6
Yevgen Kovalenko, Irini Sotiri, Jaakko V I Timonen, Jonathan C Overton, Gareth Holmes, Joanna Aizenberg, Caitlin Howell
Bacterial interactions with surfaces are at the heart of many infection-related problems in healthcare. In this work, the interactions of clinically relevant bacteria with immobilized liquid (IL) layers on oil-infused polymers are investigated. Although oil-infused polymers reduce bacterial adhesion in all cases, complex interactions of the bacteria and liquid layer under orbital flow conditions are uncovered. The number of adherent Escherichia coli cells over multiple removal cycles increases in flow compared to static growth conditions, likely due to a disruption of the liquid layer continuity...
December 8, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930849/searching-for-a-potential-antibacterial-lead-structure-against-bacterial-biofilms-among-new-naphthoquinone-compounds
#7
Caroline S Moreira, Ana Carolina J A Silva, Juliana S Novais, Agnes Marie Sá Figueiredo, Vítor F Ferreira, David R da Rocha, Helena C Castro
AIMS: The aims of this study were design, synthesis and the evaluation of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones against gram-negative and Gram-positive strains, including MRSA and its biofilm, to probe for potential lead structures METHODS AND RESULTS: Thus, 36 new analogs were prepared with good yields using a simple, fast, operational three-procedure reaction and a thiol addition to an ο-quinone methide using microwave irradiation. All compounds were tested against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 15290, Serratia marcescens ATCC 14756, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 4352, Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 23355, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930835/effect-of-antibiotics-on-biofilm-inhibition-and-induction-measured-by-real-time-cell-analysis
#8
Maria D Ferrer, Juan C Rodriguez, Ledicia Álvarez, Alejandro Artacho, Gloria Royo, Alex Mira
AIMS: The purpose of the current work was to study the pattern and dynamics of biofilm formation in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis in the presence of 10 antibiotics with different action mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: By using impedance measurements in microtiter plates with gold electrodes we have assessed the antibiotic effect on bacterial biofilm growth in real time. The impedance measurements appear to combine both cellular growth and matrix production, representing a measurement of total biofilm mass...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930711/licheniocin-50-2-and-bacteriocins-from-lactococcus-lactis-subsp-lactis-biovar-diacetylactis-bgbu1-4-inhibit-biofilms-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-and-listeria-monocytogenes-clinical-isolates
#9
Ivana Cirkovic, Dragana D Bozic, Veselin Draganic, Jelena Lozo, Tanja Beric, Milan Kojic, Biljana Arsic, Eliana Garalejic, Slobodanka Djukic, Slavisa Stankovic
BACKGROUND: Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) and Listeria monocytogenes have important roles in pathogenesis of various genital tract infections and fatal foetomaternal infections, respectively. The aim of our study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of two novel bacteriocins on biofilms of CoNS and L. monocytogenes genital isolates. METHODS: The effects of licheniocin 50.2 from Bacillus licheniformis VPS50.2 and crude extract of bacteriocins produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930704/in-vitro-antifungal-activity-of-sertraline-and-synergistic-effects-in-combination-with-antifungal-drugs-against-planktonic-forms-and-biofilms-of-clinical-trichosporon-asahii-isolates
#10
Lin Cong, Yong Liao, Suteng Yang, Rongya Yang
Trichosporon asahii (T. asahii) is the major pathogen of invasive trichosporonosis which occurred mostly in immunocompromised patients. The biofilms formation ability of T. asahii may account for resistance to antifungal drugs and results a high mortality rate. Sertraline, a commonly prescribed antidepressant, has been demonstrated to show in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities against many kinds of pathogenic fungi, especially Cryptococcus species. In the present study, the in vitro activities of sertraline alone or combined with fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, caspofungin and amphotericin B against planktonic forms and biofilms of 21 clinical T...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930461/odontogenic-orofacial-infections
#11
Dario Bertossi, Antonio Barone, Antonio Iurlaro, Simone Marconcini, Daniele De Santis, Marco Finotti, Pasquale Procacci
Acute dental abscess is a frequent and sometimes underestimated disease of the oral cavity. The acute dental abscess usually occurs secondary to caries, trauma, or failed endodontic treatment. After the intact pulp chamber is opened, colonization of the root canals takes place with a variable set of anaerobic bacteria, which colonize the walls of the necrotic root canals forming a specialized mixed anaerobic biofilm. Asymptomatic necrosis is common. However, abscess formation occurs when these bacteria and their toxic products breach into the periapical tissues through the apical foramen and induce acute inflammation and pus formation...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929111/oxylipins-produced-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-promote-biofilm-formation-and-virulence
#12
Eriel Martínez, Javier Campos-Gómez
The oxygenation of unsaturated fatty acids by dioxygenases occurs in all kingdoms of life and produces physiologically important lipids called oxylipins. The biological roles of oxylipins have been extensively studied in animals, plants, algae and fungi, but remain largely unidentified in prokaryotes. The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa displays a diol synthase activity that transforms several monounsaturated fatty acids into mono- and di-hydroxylated derivatives. Here we show that oxylipins derived from this activity inhibit flagellum-driven motility and upregulate type IV pilus-dependent twitching motility of P...
December 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928939/developing-an-ecologically-relevant-heterogeneous-biofilm-model-for-dental-unit-waterlines
#13
Sham Lal, Mark Pearce, Undine E M Achilles-Day, John G Day, L H Glyn Morton, St John Crean, Sim K Singhrao
This study monitored the biodiversity of microbes cultured from a heterogeneous biofilm which had formed on the lumen of a section of dental waterline tubing over a period of 910 days. By day 2 bacterial counts on the outlet-water showed that contamination of the system had occurred. After 14 days, a biofilm comparable to that of clinical waterlines, consisting of bacteria, fungi and amoebae had formed. This showed that the proprietary silver coating applied to the luminal surface of the commercial waterline tubing failed to prevent biofilm formation...
December 8, 2016: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925711/evaluation-of-susceptibility-of-polymer-and-rubber-materials-intended-into-contact-with-drinking-water-on-biofilm-formation
#14
Maciej Szczotko, Agnieszka Stankiewicz, Małgorzata Jamsheer-Bratkowska
Background: Plumbing materials in water distribution networks and indoor installations are constantly evolving. The application of new, more economical solutions with plastic materials eliminates the corrosion problems, however, do not fully protect the consumer against secondary microbial contamination of water intended for human consumption caused by the presence of a biofilm on the inner surface of materials applied. National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene conducts research aimed at a comprehensive assessment of this type of materials, resulting their further marketing authorization in Poland...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925153/targeting-the-hard-to-reach-challenges-and-novel-strategies-in-the-treatment-of-intracellular-bacterial-infections
#15
REVIEW
Nor Fadhilah Kamaruzzaman, Sharon Kendall, Liam Good
Infectious diseases continue to threaten human and animal health and welfare globally, impacting millions of lives and causing substantial economic loss. The use of antibacterials has been only partially successful in reducing disease impact. Bacterial cells are inherently resilient, and the therapy challenge is increased by the development of antibacterial resistance, the formation of biofilms and the ability of certain clinically important pathogens to invade and localize within host cells. Invasion into host cells provides protection from both antibacterials and the host immune system...
November 7, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924594/adhesion-of-yeast-and-bacteria-to-oral-surfaces
#16
Richard D Cannon, Karl M Lyons, Kenneth Chong, Kathryn Newsham-West, Kyoko Niimi, Ann R Holmes
Colonization of surfaces in the human body by microorganisms is an early, essential, step in the initiation of infectious disease. We have developed in vitro assays to investigate interactions between yeast or bacterial cells and human tissues, fluids, or prostheses. Such assays can be used to identify the adhesins, ligands, and receptors involved in these interactions, for example, by determining which components of the microbe or human tissue/fluid interfere with adherence in the assay. The assays can also be applied to finding ways of preventing adhesion, and subsequent disease, by investigating the effects of different conditions and added compounds on adherence in the in vitro assays...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924027/crystal-structure-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-rsal-bound-to-promoter-dna-reaffirms-its-role-as-a-global-regulator-involved-in-quorum-sensing
#17
Huaping Kang, Jianhua Gan, Jingru Zhao, Weina Kong, Jing Zhang, Miao Zhu, Fan Li, Yaqin Song, Jin Qin, Haihua Liang
Pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses at least three well-defined quorum-sensing (QS) (las, rhl and pqs) systems that control a variety of important functions including virulence. RsaL is a QS repressor that reduces QS signal production and ensures homeostasis by functioning in opposition to LasR. However, its regulatory role in signal homeostasis remains elusive. Here, we conducted a ChIP-seq assay and revealed that RsaL bound to two new targets, the intergenic regions of PA2228/PA2229 and pqsH/cdpR, which are required for PQS synthesis...
October 18, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923605/rhodomyrtone-inhibits-lipase-production-biofilm-formation-and-disorganizes-established-biofilm-in-propionibacterium-acnes
#18
Suttiwan Wunnoo, Jongkon Saising, Supayang Piyawan Voravuthikunchai
Virulence enzymes and biofilm a play crucial role in the pathogenesis of Propionibacterium acnes, a major causative agent of acne vulgaris. In the present study, the effects of rhodomyrtone, a pure compound identified from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. leaves extract against enzyme production and biofilm formation production by 5 clinical isolates and a reference strain were evaluated. The degree of hydrolysis by both lipase and protease enzymes significantly decreased upon treatment with the compound at 0...
December 3, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923523/polysorbate-80-and-polymyxin-b-inhibit-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-biofilm
#19
Adam M Malinowski, Bryan M McClarty, Carolyn Robinson, William Spear, Maria Sanchez, Timothy C Sparkes, Joanna S Brooke
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic multiple-drug-resistant human pathogen that forms biofilms on implanted medical devices. We examined the potential inhibitory activity of polysorbate 80 and polymyxin B against S. maltophilia. A combination of subMIC polymyxin B and polysorbate 80 was the most effective inhibitor of growth and biofilm formation.
November 14, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922945/staphylococcal-biofilms-and-immune-polarization-during-prosthetic-joint-infection
#20
Casey M Gries, Tammy Kielian
Staphylococcal species are a leading cause of community- and nosocomial-acquired infections, where the placement of foreign materials increases infection risk. Indwelling medical devices and prosthetic implants are targets for staphylococcal cell adherence and biofilm formation. Biofilm products actively suppress proinflammatory microbicidal responses, as evident by macrophage polarization toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype and the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. With the rise in prosthetic hip and knee arthroplasty procedures, together with the recalcitrance of biofilm infections to antibiotic therapy, it is imperative to better understand the mechanism of crosstalk between biofilm-associated bacteria and host immune cells...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
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