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Biofilm formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778067/succession-of-bacterial-and-fungal-communities-within-biofilms-of-a-chlorinated-drinking-water-distribution-system
#1
I Douterelo, K E Fish, J B Boxall
Understanding the temporal dynamics of multi-species biofilms in Drinking Water Distribution Systems (DWDS) is essential to ensure safe, high quality water reaches consumers after it passes through these high surface area reactors. This research studied the succession characteristics of fungal and bacterial communities under controlled environmental conditions fully representative of operational DWDS. Microbial communities were observed to increase in complexity after one month of biofilm development but they did not reach stability after three months...
May 3, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776929/antibacterial-effects-of-phage-lysin-lysgh15-on-planktonic-cells-and-biofilms-of-diverse-staphylococci
#2
Yufeng Zhang, Mengjun Cheng, Hao Zhang, Jiaxin Dai, Zhimin Guo, Xinwei Li, Yalu Ji, Ruopeng Cai, Hengyu Xi, Xinwu Wang, Yibing Xue, Changjiang Sun, Xin Feng, Liancheng Lei, Wenyu Han, Jingmin Gu
Treatment of infections caused by staphylococci has become more difficult because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains as well as biofilm formation. In this study, we observed the ability of the phage lysin LysGH15 to eliminate staphylococcal planktonic cells and biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus hominis All these strains were sensitive to LysGH15, showing reductions in bacterial counts of approximately 4 log units within 30 min after treatment with 20 μg/mL LysGH15, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 8 μg/mL to 32 μg/mL...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776924/tools-for-rapid-genetic-engineering-of-vibrio-fischeri
#3
Karen L Visick, Kelsey M Hodge-Hanson, Alice H Tischler, Allison K Bennett, Vincent Mastrodomenico
Vibrio fischeri is used as a model for number of processes, including symbiosis, quorum sensing, bioluminescence, and biofilm formation. Many of these studies depend on generating deletion mutants and complementing them. Engineering such strains, however, is a time-consuming, multi-step process that relies on cloning and subcloning. Here, we describe a set of tools that can be used to rapidly engineer deletions and insertions in the V. fischeri chromosome without cloning. We developed a uniform approach for generating deletions using PCR SOEing (Splicing by Overlap Extension) with antibiotic cassettes flanked by standardized linker sequences...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776923/environmental-adaptability-for-quorum-sensing-regulating-iron-uptake-during-biofilm-formation-in-paracoccus-denitrificans
#4
Yang Zhang, Jie Gao, Lushan Wang, Shuangjiang Liu, Zhihui Bai, Xuliang Zhuang, Guoqiang Zhuang
Paracoccus denitrificans is a valuable model organism due to its versatile respiration capability and bioenergetic flexibility, both of which are critical to its survival in different environments. Quorum sensing (QS) plays a crucial role in the regulation of many cell functions; however, whether QS systems play a role in P. denitrificans is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that iron uptake systems in P. denitrificans were directly regulated by a newly identified QS system. Genes coding for TonB-dependent systems, which transport chelated iron, were transcribed at higher levels in the QS-defective mutants...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776416/rapid-urease-test-rut-for-evaluation-of-urease-activity-in-oral-bacteria-in-vitro-and-in-supragingival-dental-plaque-ex-vivo
#5
Gunnar Dahlén, Haidar Hassan, Susanne Blomqvist, Anette Carlén
BACKGROUND: Urease is an enzyme produced by plaque bacteria hydrolysing urea from saliva and gingival exudate into ammonia in order to regulate the pH in the dental biofilm. The aim of this study was to assess the urease activity among oral bacterial species by using the rapid urease test (RUT) in a micro-plate format and to examine whether this test could be used for measuring the urease activity in site-specific supragingival dental plaque samples ex vivo. METHODS: The RUT test is based on 2% urea in peptone broth solution and with phenol red at pH 6...
May 18, 2018: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776183/slowdown-of-surface-diffusion-during-early-stages-of-bacterial-colonization
#6
T Vourc'h, H Peerhossaini, J Léopoldès, A Méjean, F Chauvat, C Cassier-Chauvat
We study the surface diffusion of the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 during the incipient stages of cell contact with a glass surface in the dilute regime. We observe a twitching motility with alternating immobile tumble and mobile run periods, resulting in a normal diffusion described by a continuous-time random walk with a coefficient of diffusion D. Surprisingly, D is found to decrease with time down to a plateau. This is observed only when the cyanobacterial cells are able to produce released extracellular polysaccharides, as shown by a comparative study between the wild-type strain and various polysaccharides-depleted mutants...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775283/magnetic-glycol-chitin-based-hydrogel-nanocomposite-for-combined-thermal-and-d-amino-acid-assisted-biofilm-disruption
#7
Eric C Abenojar, Sameera Wickramasinghe, Minseon Ju, Sarika Uppaluri, Alison Klika, Jaiben George, Wael Barsoum, Salvatore J Frangiamore, Carlos A Higuera-Rueda, Anna Cristina S Samia
Bacterial biofilms are highly antibiotic resistant microbial cell associations that lead to chronic infections. Unlike free-floating planktonic bacterial cells, the biofilms are encapsulated in a hardly penetrable extracellular polymeric matrix and, thus, demand innovative approaches for treatment. Recent advancements on the development of gel-nanocomposite systems with tailored therapeutic properties provide promising routes to develop novel antimicrobial agents that can be designed to disrupt and completely eradicate preformed biofilms...
May 18, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775211/proanthocyanidins-will-they-effectively-restrain-conspicuous-bacterial-strains-devolving-on-urinary-tract-infection
#8
REVIEW
Venkataseshan Jagannathan, Pragasam Viswanathan
Struvite or infection stones are one of the major clinical burdens among urinary tract infection, which occur due to the interaction between microbes and urine mineral components. Numerous urinary tract infection (UTI) causing microbes regulate through biofilm formation for survival from host defense, it is often found difficult in its eradication with simple anti-microbial agents and also the chance of recurrence and resistance development is significantly high. Cranberry consumption and maintenance of urinary tract health have been supported by clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic studies...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774013/dynamics-of-aspen-roots-colonization-by-pseudomonads-reveals-strain-specific-and-mycorrhizal-specific-patterns-of-biofilm-formation
#9
Marie-Francoise Noirot-Gros, Shalaka Shinde, Peter E Larsen, Sarah Zerbs, Peter J Korajczyk, Kenneth M Kemner, Philippe H Noirot
Rhizosphere-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens are known plant growth promoting (PGP) and mycorrhizal helper bacteria (MHB) of many plants and ectomycorrhizal fungi. We investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of colonization of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Aspen seedlings roots by the P. fluorescens strains SBW25, WH6, Pf0-1, and the P. protegens strain Pf-5. Seedlings were grown in laboratory vertical plates systems, inoculated with a fluorescently labeled Pseudomonas strain, and root colonization was monitored over a period of 5 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773924/mercury-in-the-diatoms-of-various-ecological-formations
#10
Magdalena Bełdowska, Aleksandra Zgrundo, Justyna Kobos
Mercury is a neurotoxin, its main source in the human organism being fish and seafood. The first level in the marine food web is formed of planktonic and benthic photosynthetic microorganisms, which form a biofilm on the surface of the hard bottom (epilithon) or plants (epiphyton). They are carriers of nutritional as well as toxic substances and pass these on to subsequent levels of the trophic web. Their biomass is often dominated by diatoms. This was the basis for the presented study into Hg accumulation in epilithic, epiphytic and planktonic diatoms, which was carried out in 2012-2013 in the coastal zone of the Puck Lagoon and the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic)...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772525/vaginal-microbiota-dysmicrobism-and-role-of-biofilm-forming-bacteria
#11
Giuseppina Campisciano, Nunzia Zanotta, Vincenzo Petix, Lucia Corich, Francesco De Seta, Manola Comar
Bacterial vaginosis involves the presence of a polymicrobial biofilm on the vaginal epithelium, guaranteeing immune escape and spread of antibiotic resistance. To spot known biofilm-forming bacteria, we profiled the vaginal microbiome of sixty-four symptomatic women suffering from a different grade of vaginal disorders and sixty asymptomatic healthy women. Specific microbial profiles distinguished symptomatic from asymptomatic women and characterized the grade of dysmicrobism within the symptomatic group. Lactobacillus crispatus and iners predominated on the healthy vaginal mucosa, while Lactobacillus gasseri predominated in the intermediate dysmicrobism...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771975/development-and-characterization-of-an-oral-multispecies-biofilm-implant-flow-chamber-model
#12
Nadine Kommerein, Katharina Doll, Nico S Stumpp, Meike Stiesch
Peri-implant infections are the most common cause of implant failure in modern dental implantology. These are caused by the formation of biofilms on the implant surface and consist of oral commensal and pathogenic bacteria, which harm adjacent soft and hard tissues and may ultimately lead to implant loss. In order to improve the clinical situation, there has to be a better understanding of biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. Therefore, we successfully developed a system to cultivate an oral multispecies biofilm model in a flow chamber system, optimized for the evaluation of biofilm formation on solid materials by direct microscopic investigation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771915/inactivation-of-bpsl1039-1040-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-reduces-intracellular-survival-in-macrophages-biofilm-formation-and-virulence-in-the-murine-model-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-infection
#13
Peechanika Pinweha, Pornpan Pumirat, Jon Cuccui, Niramol Jitprasutwit, Veerachat Muangsombut, Varintip Srinon, Usa Boonyuen, Parameth Thiennimitr, Paiboon Vattanaviboon, Felipe Cia, Sam Willcocks, Gregory J Bancroft, Brendan W Wren, Sunee Korbsrisate
Burkholderia pseudomallei, a gram-negative intracellular bacillus, is the causative agent of a tropical infectious disease called melioidosis. Bacterial ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters import and export a variety of molecules across bacterial cell membranes. At present, their significance in B. pseudomallei pathogenesis is poorly understood. We report here characterization of the BPSL1039-1040 ABC transporter. B. pseudomallei cultured in M9 medium supplemented with nitrate, demonstrated that BPSL1039-1040 is involved in nitrate transport for B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771309/identification-of-a-specific-domain-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis-hgp44-responsible-for-adhesion-to-treponema-denticola
#14
Kouki Yoshikawa, Yuichiro Kikuchi, Eitoyo Kokubu, Kentaro Imamura, Atsushi Saito, Kazuyuki Ishihara
Interaction between two periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola, contributes to plaque biofilm formation. P. gingivalis forms aggregates with T. denticola through its adhesion/hemagglutinin domain (Hgp44). In this study, we investigated the specific domain of P. gingivalis Hgp44 responsible for adhesion to T. denticola using expression vectors harboring P. gingivalis Hgp44 DNA sequences encoding amino acid residues 1-419. Six plasmids harboring fragments in this region were generated by PCR amplification and self-ligation, and recombinant proteins r-Hgp44 (residues 1-419), r-Hgp441 (residues 1-124), r-Hgp442 (1-199), r-Hgp443 (1-316), r-Hgp444 (199-419), r-Hgp445 (124-198), and r-Hgp446 (199-316) were produced, as confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting...
May 16, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769381/tosr-mediated-regulation-of-adhesins-and-biofilm-formation-in-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#15
Courtney L Luterbach, Valerie S Forsyth, Michael D Engstrom, Harry L T Mobley
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains utilize a variety of adherence factors that assist in colonization of the host urinary tract. TosA (<u>t</u>ype <u>o</u>ne <u>s</u>ecretion <u>A</u>) is a nonfimbrial adhesin that is predominately expressed during murine urinary tract infection (UTI), binds to kidney epithelial cells, and promotes survival during invasive infections. The tosRCBDAEF operon encodes the secretory machinery necessary for TosA localization to the E...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767954/development-of-molecularly-imprinted-polymers-to-block-quorum-sensing-and-inhibit-bacterial-biofilm-formation
#16
Luyao Ma, Shaolong Feng, Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez, Robert E W Hancock, Xiaonan Lu
Bacterial biofilms are responsible for most clinical infections and show increased antimicrobial resistance. In this study, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were developed to specifically capture prototypical quorum sensing autoinducers [i.e., N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12AHL)], interrupt quorum sensing, and subsequently inhibit biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important human nosocomial pathogen. The synthesis of MIPs was optimized by considering the amount and type of the functional monomers itaconic acid (IA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767946/highly-stable-graphene-based-nanocomposite-go-pei-ag-with-broad-spectrum-long-term-antimicrobial-activity-and-antibiofilm-effects
#17
Rongtao Zhao, Wen Kong, Mingxuan Sun, Yi Yang, Wanying Liu, Min Lv, Shiping Song, Lihua Wang, Hongbin Song, Rongzhang Hao
Various silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-decorated graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites (GO-Ag) have received increasing attention owing to their antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility; however, their aggregation in physiological solutions and the generally complex synthesis methods warrant improvement. This study aimed to synthesize a polyethyleneimine (PEI)-modified and AgNP-decorated GO nanocomposite (GO-PEI-Ag) through a facile approach through microwave irradiation without any extra reductants and surfactants; its antimicrobial activity was investigated on Gram-negative/-positive bacteria (including drug-resistant bacteria) and fungi...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765621/biofilm-inhibition-and-pathogenicity-attenuation-in-bacteria-by-proteus-mirabilis
#18
Shichen Yu, Xiaoshan Zhu, Jin Zhou, Zhonghua Cai
Biofilms play an important role in the antibiotic resistance of encased bacteria, and biofilm formation is regulated by quorum sensing (QS). Inhibiting the QS system may, therefore, degrade the integrity of a biofilm and expose the bacterial pathogens within it to the deleterious effects of molecules such as antibiotics. Moreover, the use of QS inhibitors (QSIs) may provide a novel approach for treating bacterial infections of aquacultures. In the present study, the bacterium Proteus mirabilis was identified as a potential producer of QSIs...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765086/fabrication-and-characterization-of-a-scalable-surface-textured-with-pico-liter-oil-drops-for-mechanistic-studies-of-bacteria-oil-interactions
#19
Maryam Jalali, Andrew R White, James Marti, Jian Sheng
Texturing a large surface with oily micro-drops with controlled size, shape and volume provides an unprecedented capability in investigating complex interactions of bacteria, cells and interfaces. It has particular implications in understanding key microbial processes involved in remediation of environmental disasters, such as Deepwater Horizon oil spill. This work presents a development of scalable micro-transfer molding to functionalize a substrate with oily drop array to generate a microcosm mimicking bacteria encountering a rising droplet cloud...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763755/salmonella-enterica-growth-and-biofilm-formation-in-flesh-and-peel-cantaloupe-extracts-on-four-food-contact-surfaces
#20
Piumi De Abrew Abeysundara, Nitin Dhowlaghar, Ramakrishna Nannapaneni, Mark W Schilling, Barakat Mahmoud, Chander S Sharma, Din-Pow Ma
Salmonella enterica is responsible for the highest number of foodborne disease outbreaks pertaining to cantaloupe industry. The objective of this study was to examine the growth and biofilm formation by outbreak strains of S. enterica ser. Poona (S. Poona), S. enterica ser. Stanley (S. Stanley) and S. enterica ser. Montevideo (S. Montevideo) on different food-contact processing surfaces in cantaloupe flesh and peel extracts at 22 °C and 10 °C. The generation time of all S. enterica strains tested was shorter in the high concentration (50 mg/ml) of cantaloupe extract and high temperature...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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