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Biofilm formation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321991/atomic-layer-deposition-of-a-silver-nanolayer-on-advanced-titanium-orthopedic-implants-inhibits-bacterial-colonization-and-supports-vascularized-de-novo-bone-ingrowth
#1
Aine Devlin-Mullin, Naomi M Todd, Zahra Golrokhi, Hua Geng, Moritz A Konerding, Nigel G Ternan, John A Hunt, Richard J Potter, Chris Sutcliffe, Eric Jones, Peter D Lee, Christopher A Mitchell
Joint replacement surgery is associated with significant morbidity and mortality following infection with either methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Staphylococcus epidermidis. These organisms have strong biofilm-forming capability in deep wounds and on prosthetic surfaces, with 10(3) -10(4) microbes resulting in clinically significant infections. To inhibit biofilm formation, we developed 3D titanium structures using selective laser melting and then coated them with a silver nanolayer using atomic layer deposition...
March 21, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320039/the-role-of-peganum-harmala-ethanolic-extract-and-type-ii-toxin-antitoxin-system-in-biofilm-formation
#2
Nasrin Valizadeh, Firuzeh Valian, Nourkhoda Sadeghifard, Shahriar Karami, Iraj Pakzad, Hossein Kazemian, Sobhan Ghafourian
Toxin antitoxin system is a regulatory system that antitoxin inhibits the toxin. We aimed to determine the role of TA loci in biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae clinical and environmental isolates; also inhibition of biofilm formation by Peganum harmala. So, 40 K. pneumoniae clinical and environmental isolates were subjected for PCR to determine the frequency of mazEF, relEB, and mqsRA TA loci. Biofilm formation assay subjected for all isolates. Then, P. harmala was tested against positive biofilm formation strains...
March 20, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319869/biofilm-inhibition-formation-of-clinical-strains-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-mutans-photocatalytic-activity-of-azo-dye-and-gc-ms-analysis-of-leaves-of-lagerstroemia-speciosa
#3
V Sai Saraswathi, Neethu Kamarudheen, K V Bhaskara Rao, K Santhakumar
The investigation was conducted to analyse the bioactive compounds from the leaf extracts of L. speciosa by GC-MS. The extracts were screened for antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against potential clinical strains. The bioactive compounds from the leaves of L. speciosa were extracted by soxhlet continuous extraction method and their chemical composition was analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity was evaluated against clinical strain like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, P...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319414/preparation-and-characterization-of-zno-nanoparticles-coated-by-chitosan-linoleic-acid-fungal-growth-and-biofilm-assay
#4
S Barad, M Roudbary, A Nasrollahi Omran, M Porgham Daryasari
INTRODUCTION: This study has been carried out on reviewing the use of new synthetic component of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) coated by Chitosan-linoleic acid (CS-LA) and to assess Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nanoparticles on clinical samples and biofilm formation in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At first the synthesized ZnO NPs coated by CS-LA were identified with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis (FTIR)...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319101/a-vibrio-cholerae-autoinducer-receptor-pair-that-controls-biofilm-formation
#5
Kai Papenfort, Justin E Silpe, Kelsey R Schramma, Jian-Ping Cong, Mohammad R Seyedsayamdost, Bonnie L Bassler
Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-cell communication process that enables bacteria to track cell population density and orchestrate collective behaviors. QS relies on the production and detection of, and the response to, extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. In Vibrio cholerae, multiple QS circuits control pathogenesis and biofilm formation. Here, we identify and characterize a new QS autoinducer-receptor pair. The autoinducer is 3,5-dimethylpyrazin-2-ol (DPO). DPO is made from threonine and alanine, and its synthesis depends on threonine dehydrogenase (Tdh)...
March 20, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318391/models-of-caries-formation-around-dental-composite-restorations
#6
J L Ferracane
The main reason cited for the replacement of dental composite restorations is the recurrence of caries. Numerous models-both in vitro, with acid gels or bacterial biofilms, and in situ, with dental appliances-have been used to study caries formation around dental composites. The literature shows that many factors may affect caries formation, including marginal gap formation, gap size, the local chemical environment, the durability of the bonded interface, the extent of bacterial penetration, and the presence of mechanical loading...
April 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318117/transcriptional-regulation-of-cpsq-mfpabc-and-mfpabc-by-calr%C3%A2-in-vibrio-parahaemolyticus
#7
He Gao, Lingyu Zhang, George Osei-Adjei, Wenhui Yang, Dongsheng Zhou, Xinxiang Huang, Huiying Yang, Zhe Yin, Yiquan Zhang
The cpsQ-mfpABC locus is transcribed as two operons, i.e., cpsQ-mfpABC and mfpABC, in Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and both of them are all required for biofilm formation. CalR belongs to the LysR-type transcriptional regulator family, and was originally identified as a repressor of the swarming motility and T3SS1 genes expression in V. parahaemolyticus. In the present work, a combination of qRT-PCR, primer extension, LacZ fusion expression, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and DNase I footprinting assays were employed to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of cpsQ-mfpABC and mfpABC by CalR...
March 20, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317568/oral-bacterial-infections-diagnosis-and-management
#8
REVIEW
Glendee Reynolds-Campbell, Alison Nicholson, Camille-Ann Thoms-Rodriguez
The human oral cavity contains more than 500 different bacterial species. These organisms belong to several phyla including Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Tenericutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Euryarchaeota, Chlamydiae, and Spirochaetes. Many of these have the ability to colonize the gingival crevices and the outer surface of the tooth forming biofilms often leading to dental plaque formation. These bacteria produce acid that erode teeth causing cavities or infections. The diagnosis of these infections is often clinical and antibiotics are used empirically to treat some infections or as prophylaxis...
April 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317565/periodontal-microbiology
#9
REVIEW
John D Harvey
This article provides a review of current information about periodontal bacteria, their activities within dental plaque biofilm, their interactions with the host immune system, and the infections with which they are associated. Periodontal disease, plaque formation, and the host immune response are also discussed, as are antimicrobial measures used to control the bacteria and the disease.
April 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317023/reduction-of-thrombosis-and-bacterial-infection-via-controlled-nitric-oxide-no-release-from-s-nitroso-n-acetylpenicillamine-snap-impregnated-carbosil-intravascular-catheters
#10
Yaqi Wo, Elizabeth J Brisbois, Jianfeng Wu, Zi Li, Terry C Major, Azmath Mohammed, Xianglong Wang, Alessandro Colletta, Joseph L Bull, Adam J Matzger, Chuanwu Xi, Robert H Bartlett, Mark E Meyerhoff
Nitric oxide (NO) has many important physiological functions, including its ability to inhibit platelet activation and serve as potent antimicrobial agent. The multiple roles of NO in vivo have led to great interest in the development of biomaterials that can deliver NO for specific biomedical applications. Herein, we report a simple solvent impregnation technique to incorporate a nontoxic NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), into a more biocompatible biomedical grade polymer, CarboSil 20 80A. The resulting polymer-crystal composite material yields a very stable, long-term NO release biomaterial...
March 13, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303897/synergistic-efficacy-of-bisbenzimidazole-and-carbonyl-cyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone-combination-against-mdr-bacterial-strains
#11
Devapriya Sinha, Stuti Pandey, Raja Singh, Vinod Tiwari, Kirti Sad, Vibha Tandon
Activation of efflux systems and the formation of biofilm are majorly adapted by microbes to resist antimicrobial agents. PPEF (bisbenzimidazole) targeting topoisomerase IA is observed to be an effective bactericidal agent against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and thus can be developed as potent broad-spectrum antibiotic against MDR strains. PPEF treatment did not cause target specific mutation instead it leads to up-regulation of efflux gene in E. coli K12 as a mechanism of resistance...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303823/bacterial-and-fungal-biofilm-formation-on-contact-lenses-and-their-susceptibility-to-lens-care-solutions
#12
Siddharth Kackar, Ethel Suman, M Shashidhar Kotian
BACKGROUND: Microbial biofilm formation on contact lenses and lens storage cases may be a risk factor for contact lens-associated corneal infections. Various types of contact lens care solutions are used to reduce microbial growths on lenses. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed at comparing the growths of biofilms on the different contact lenses and lens cases. The study also aimed at determining the effect of lens care solutions and bacteriophage on these biofilms...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303818/biofilm-formation-capability-of-enterococcal-strains-causing-urinary-tract-infection-vis-a-vis-colonisation-and-correlation-with-enterococcal-surface-protein-gene
#13
Shubha Garg, Balvinder Mohan, Neelam Taneja
BACKGROUND: Data regarding differences in biofilm formation among urinary isolates of enterococci causing nosocomial infection versus asymptomatic colonisation is lacking. Conflicting data are available for the role of enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in the development of enterococcal biofilms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 (25 each of asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates were collected from admitted patients who had nosocomial acquisition of enterococci in urine culture (≥105 cfu/ml)...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303128/a-high-throughput-screening-platform-of-microbial-natural-products-for-the-discovery-of-molecules-with-antibiofilm-properties-against-salmonella
#14
Sonia Paytubi, Mercedes de La Cruz, Jose R Tormo, Jesús Martín, Ignacio González, Victor González-Menendez, Olga Genilloud, Fernando Reyes, Francisca Vicente, Cristina Madrid, Carlos Balsalobre
In this report, we describe a High-Throughput Screening (HTS) to identify compounds that inhibit biofilm formation or cause the disintegration of an already formed biofilm using the Salmonella Enteritidis 3934 strain. Initially, we developed a new methodology for growing Salmonella biofilms suitable for HTS platforms. The biomass associated with biofilm at the solid-liquid interface was quantified by staining both with resazurin and crystal violet, to detect living cells and total biofilm mass, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302951/generation-of-small-colony-variants-in-biofilms-by-escherichia-coli-harboring-a-conjugative-f-plasmid
#15
Yosuke Tashiro, Hiroaki Eida, Satoshi Ishii, Hiroyuki Futamata, Satoshi Okabe
A conjugative F plasmid induces mature biofilm formation by Escherichia coli by promoting F-pili-mediated cell-cell interactions and increasing the expression of biofilm-related genes. We herein demonstrated another function for the F plasmid in E. coli biofilms; it contributes to the emergence of genetic and phenotypic variations by spontaneous mutations. Small colony variants (SCVs) were more frequently generated in a continuous flow-cell biofilm than in the planktonic state of E. coli harboring the F plasmid...
March 8, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302780/draft-genome-sequence-of-pseudomonas-sp-bdal1-reconstructed-from-a-bakken-shale-hydraulic-fracturing-produced-water-storage-tank-metagenome
#16
Daniel Lipus, Daniel Ross, Kyle Bibby, Djuna Gulliver
We report the 5,425,832 bp draft genome of Pseudomonas sp. strain BDAL1, recovered from a Bakken shale hydraulic fracturing-produced water tank metagenome. Genome annotation revealed several key biofilm formation genes and osmotic stress response mechanisms necessary for survival in hydraulic fracturing-produced water.
March 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297746/screening-of-anti-biofilm-compounds-from-marine-derived-fungi-and-the-effects-of-secalonic-acid-d-on-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm
#17
Jie Wang, Xu-Hua Nong, Xiao-Yong Zhang, Xin-Ya Xu, Muhammad Amin, Shu-Hua Qi
Biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus is one of the mechanisms of its drug resistance. Anti-biofilm screening of 106 compounds from marine-derived fungi displayed that 12 compounds inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation by > 50% at the concentration of 100 μg/ml, and only secalonic acid D (SAD) and B inhibited by > 90% at 6.25 μg/ml without inhibiting cell growth after 24-hour incubation. Meanwhile, it was found that the double bond between C-1 and C-10 of citrinin derivatives and the C-C connection position of two chromone monomers may be important for their anti-biofilm activities...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296966/an-oral-multispecies-biofilm-model-for-high-content-screening-applications
#18
Nadine Kommerein, Sascha N Stumpp, Mathias Müsken, Nina Ehlert, Andreas Winkel, Susanne Häussler, Peter Behrens, Falk F R Buettner, Meike Stiesch
Peri-implantitis caused by multispecies biofilms is a major complication in dental implant treatment. The bacterial infection surrounding dental implants can lead to bone loss and, in turn, to implant failure. A promising strategy to prevent these common complications is the development of implant surfaces that inhibit biofilm development. A reproducible and easy-to-use biofilm model as a test system for large scale screening of new implant surfaces with putative antibacterial potency is therefore of major importance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296935/peptide-modification-results-in-the-formation-of-a-dimer-with-a-60-fold-enhanced-antimicrobial-activity
#19
Amal Thamri, Myriam Létourneau, Alex Djoboulian, David Chatenet, Eric Déziel, Annie Castonguay, Jonathan Perreault
Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) occur naturally in numerous organisms and are considered as a class of antibiotics with promising potential against multi-resistant bacteria. Herein, we report a strategy that can lead to the discovery of novel small CAMPs with greatly enhanced antimicrobial activity and retained antibiofilm potential. We geared our efforts towards i) the N-terminal cysteine functionalization of a previously reported small synthetic cationic peptide (peptide 1037, KRFRIRVRV-NH2), ii) its dimerization through a disulfide bond, and iii) a preliminary antimicrobial activity assessment of the newly prepared dimer against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia, pathogens responsible for the formation of biofilms in lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296382/human-%C3%AE-defensin-6-a-small-peptide-that-self-assembles-and-protects-the-host-by-entangling-microbes
#20
Phoom Chairatana, Elizabeth M Nolan
Human α-defensin 6 (HD6) is a 32-residue cysteine-rich peptide that contributes to innate immunity by protecting the host at mucosal sites. This peptide is produced in small intestinal Paneth cells, stored as an 81-residue precursor peptide named proHD6 in granules, and released into the lumen. One unusual feature of HD6 is that it lacks the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity observed for other human α-defensins, including the Paneth cell peptide human α-defensin 5 (HD5). HD6 exhibits unprecedented self-assembly properties, which confer an unusual host-defense function...
March 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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