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separation science

Amanda Bolderston, Julia Watson, Sophia Thom, Kim Meeking
INTRODUCTION: The medical radiation sciences' (MRS) MedRadJournalClub attracts a global group of participants to monthly sessions to discuss selected journal articles. The September 2017 session explored the experiences of MRS professionals working with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients. The aim of the chat was to establish staff educational preparation, how participants' organizations approached the issue, and what participants would do differently at work or at home in relation to this patient population after the chat...
December 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
Jaclyn E Tetenbaum-Novatt, John M Lonie, David E Elkowitz, Kathleen M Frey
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This project investigates the use of pharmacy student metacognitive learning in a laboratory-based science research advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: We describe a five-week research APPE. This course is separated into two parts which run simultaneously. In part 1, students read and discuss papers from primary literature to learn the context of the project and the theory behind each laboratory procedure...
November 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Victoria Bell, Jorge Ferrão, Lígia Pimentel, Manuela Pintado, Tito Fernandes
Changes in present-day society such as diets with more sugar, salt, and saturated fat, bad habits and unhealthy lifestyles contribute to the likelihood of the involvement of the microbiota in inflammatory diseases, which contribute to global epidemics of obesity, depression, and mental health concerns. The microbiota is presently one of the hottest areas of scientific and medical research, and exerts a marked influence on the host during homeostasis and disease. Fermented foods and beverages are generally defined as products made by microbial organisms and enzymatic conversions of major and minor food components...
December 3, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Weihong Zhang, Lee-Fay Low, Josephine Diana Gwynn, Lindy Clemson
OBJECTIVES: To review intervention programs that measure gait to investigate what features of the intervention may contribute to improving gait in older adults with cognitive impairment or dementia. DESIGN: Systematic review using Medline, Cinahl, Scopus, PsychInfo, Amed, Embase, Web of Science, and PubMed for original research published in English between January 1, 2000, and July 23, 2018, to identify interventional controlled trials. Narrative synthesis was undertaken...
December 2, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Stella Fahrni, Olivier Delémont, Lorenzo Campana, Silke Grabherr
3D surface scanning is a technique brought forward for wound documentation and analysis in order to identify injury-causing tools in legal medicine and forensic science. Although many case reports have been published, little is known about the methodology employed by the authors. The study reported here is exploratory in nature, and its main purpose was to get a first evaluation of the ability of an operator, by means of 3D surface scanning and following a simple methodology, to correctly exclude or associate an incriminated tool as the source of a mock wound...
December 1, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Esra Neufeld, Bryn Lloyd, Beatrice Schneider, Wolfgang Kainz, Niels Kuster
The advent of detailed computational anatomical models has opened new avenues for computational life sciences (CLS). To date, static models representing the anatomical environment have been used in many applications but are insufficient when the dynamics of the body prevents separation of anatomical geometrical variability from physics and physiology. Obvious examples include the assessment of thermal risks in magnetic resonance imaging and planning for radiofrequency and acoustic cancer treatment, where posture and physiology-related changes in shape (e...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
F Galeotti, M Pisco, A Cusano
Self-assembly offers a unique resource for the preparation of discrete structures at the nano- and microscale, which are either not accessible by other fabrication techniques or require highly expensive and technologically demanding processes. The possibility of obtaining spontaneous organization of separated components, whether they are molecules, polymers, nano- or micro-objects, into a larger functional unit, enables the development of ready-to-use plug and play devices and components at lower costs. Expanding the applicability of self-assembly approaches at the nanoscale to non-conventional substrates would open up new avenues towards multifunctional platforms customized for specific applications...
November 30, 2018: Nanoscale
Kayla Thornhill, Karen Charlton, Yasmine Probst, Elizabeth Neale
Changes in added sugar intake have been associated with corresponding changes in body weight. Potential mechanisms, particularly the impact of added sugar intake on appetite, warrant exploration. A systematic literature review of randomised controlled trials investigated the association between added sugar consumption and appetite in overweight and obese adults. A systematic search of Medline, Cochrane CENTRAL, Web of Science and CINAHL included studies that examined the relationship between added sugar intake and appetite markers, in comparison with a group with lower added sugar intake...
November 29, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Tomas Drevinskas, Audrius Maruska, Laimutis Telksnys, Stellan Hjerten, Manatas Stankevičius, Raimundas Lelešius, Rūta Mickienė, Agneta Karpovaite, Algirdas Salomskas, Nicola Tiso, Ona Ragazinskiene
The methodology described in this paper will significantly reduce the time required for understanding the relations between chromatographic data and bio-activity assays. The methodology is a hybrid of hypothesis based and data-driven scientific approaches. In this work, a novel chromatographic data segmentation method is proposed, which demonstrates the capability of finding what volatile substances are responsible for antiviral and cytotoxic effects in the medicinal plant extracts. Up to now the full potential of the separation methods has not been exploited in the life sciences...
November 29, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Suzanne Forsyth Herling, Ingrid E Greve, Eduard E Vasilevskis, Ingrid Egerod, Camilla Bekker Mortensen, Ann Merete Møller, Helle Svenningsen, Thordis Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Delirium is defined as a disturbance in attention, awareness and cognition with reduced ability to direct, focus, sustain and shift attention, and reduced orientation to the environment. Critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) frequently develop ICU delirium. It can profoundly affect both them and their families because it is associated with increased mortality, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, longer hospital and ICU stay and long-term cognitive impairment...
November 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Victoria Jane Hume, Benson A Mulemi, Musa Sadock
In this article, we discuss the challenges facing humanities researchers approaching studies in clinical and community health settings. This crossing of disciplines has arguably been less often explored in the countries we discuss-Kenya, Tanzania and South Africa-but our experiences also speak to broader trouble with disciplinary 'ethnocentrism' that hampers the development of knowledge. After a brief contextualising overview of the structures within our universities that separate or link the humanities, medicine and social science, we use case studies of our experiences as an arts researcher, an anthropologist and a historian to draw attention to the methodological clashes that can hobble research between one disciplinary area and another, whether this manifests in the process of applying for ethical clearance or a professional wariness between healthcare practitioners and humanities scholars in health spaces...
December 2018: Medical Humanities
Mariana Bobeica, Sohichiroh Aogaki, Theodor Asavei, Mihail O Cernaianu, Petru Ghenuche, Dan Stutman
One of the specific properties of laser-driven radiation is a broadband energy spectrum, which is also a feature of the space radiation fields. This property can be used in materials science studies or radiobiology experiments to simulate the energy spectrum of space radiation exposures in a ground-based laboratory. However, the differences in effects between the higher dose rates of laser generated radiation and the lower dose rates of space radiation have to be investigated in separate, prior studies. A design for a high-throughput irradiation experiment and the associated Monte Carlo dose calculations for a broadband energy proton beam depositing energy in a cell monolayer is presented...
November 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Areti Makrgeorgou, Jo Leonardi-Bee, Fiona J Bath-Hextall, Dedee F Murrell, Mimi Lk Tang, Amanda Roberts, Robert J Boyle
BACKGROUND: Eczema is a common chronic skin condition. Probiotics have been proposed as an effective treatment for eczema; their use is increasing, as numerous clinical trials are under way. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2008, which suggested that probiotics may not be an effective treatment for eczema but identified areas in which evidence was lacking. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of probiotics for treating patients of all ages with eczema...
November 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Smita Pattanaik, Ravimohan S Mavuduru, Arabind Panda, Joseph L Mathew, Mayank M Agarwal, Eu Chang Hwang, Jennifer A Lyon, Shrawan K Singh, Arup K Mandal
BACKGROUND: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) refers to non-malignant enlargement of the prostate gland that may cause bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Alpha-blockers (ABs) and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) are the mainstay of medical treatment. Recently, phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEIs) that so far have been used mainly to treat erectile dysfunction were introduced to treat male LUTS. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of PDEIs compared to placebo and other standard of care drugs (ABs and 5-ARIs) in men with LUTS consistent with BPH...
November 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Osaid H Alser, Ioannis Goutos
Introduction: Autologous platelet-based concentrates represent increasingly popular adjuncts to a variety of medical, surgical and aesthetic interventions. Their beneficial potential rests on the ability to deliver a high concentration of growth factors to the target tissues. There are currently no reports in the literature appraising the evidence behind the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in scar management. Methods: A detailed English literature review was conducted using PubMed Medline, Embase and Web of Science; the manuscripts were appraised and classified according to the Joanna Briggs Institute Levels of evidence...
January 2018: Scars, burns & healing
Adem Ozcelik, Joseph Rufo, Feng Guo, Yuyang Gu, Peng Li, James Lata, Tony Jun Huang
Acoustic tweezers are a versatile set of tools that use sound waves to manipulate bioparticles ranging from nanometer-sized extracellular vesicles to millimeter-sized multicellular organisms. Over the past several decades, the capabilities of acoustic tweezers have expanded from simplistic particle trapping to precise rotation and translation of cells and organisms in three dimensions. Recent advances have led to reconfigured acoustic tweezers that are capable of separating, enriching, and patterning bioparticles in complex solutions...
November 26, 2018: Nature Methods
Yasuo Seto, Mieko Kanamori-Kataoka, Asuka Komano, Tomoki Nagoya, Ryoichi Sasano, Shunsuke Matsuo
A sensitive method for determination of fluoridated phosphonates produced by fluoride-mediated regeneration of nerve agent adduct in human serum was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) with large-volume injection. The GC injection was administered using stomach-type spiral injector (LVI, AiSTI SCIENCE) enabling introduction of only target compounds from 50 μL ethyl acetate extract after purging the solvent. For GCMS analysis of sarin (GB), 670 times higher sensitivity, based on limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3, on extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) at m/z 99), was achieved using this injection (50 μL) compared to that achieved using 1 μL split injection (ratio 20:1)...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Hatice Mutlu, Ezgi Berfin Ceper, Xiaohui Li, Jingmei Yang, Wenyuan Dong, Mehmet Murat Ozmen, Patrick Theato
Sulfur and its functional groups are major players in an area of exciting research taking place in modern polymer and materials science, both in academia and industry. In fact, manifold sulfur-based reactions that are both exceptionally versatile as well as tremendously useful have been implemented, and further utilized for the design and preparation of polymeric materials that lead to a plethora of applications ranging from medicine to optics and nanotechnology to separation science. Hence, within this review, an overview of strategies and developments used over the last 5 years to reinforce the importance of the sulfur functional group in modern polymer and materials science is presented...
November 23, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Joshua T Smith, Benjamin H Wunsch, Navneet Dogra, Mehmet E Ahsen, Kayla Lee, Kamlesh K Yadav, Rachel Weil, Michael A Pereira, Jyotica V Patel, Elizabeth A Duch, John M Papalia, Michael F Lofaro, Mantu Gupta, Ashutosh K Tewari, Carlos Cordon-Cardo, Gustavo Stolovitzky, Stacey M Gifford
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) offer many opportunities in early-stage disease diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and precision therapy owing to their high abundance in bodily fluids, accessibility from liquid biopsy, and presence of nucleic acid and protein cargo from their cell of origin. Despite their growing promise, isolation of EVs for analysis remains a labor-intensive and time-consuming challenge given their nanoscale dimensions (30-200 nm) and low buoyant density. Here, we report a simple, size-based EV separation technology that integrates 1024 nanoscale deterministic lateral displacement (nanoDLD) arrays on a single chip capable of parallel processing sample fluids at rates of up to 900 μL h-1...
November 23, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Rachel R Kelz, Morgan M Sellers, Ryan Merkow, Rajesh Aggarwal, Clifford Y Ko
OBJECTIVE: There is growing awareness of the need to provide surgical residents with training in quality and safety. Previous studies have revealed a need for a formal curriculum, but the content and structure of such a curriculum has not been defined. Our objective was to develop a surgery resident curriculum using a consensus, team-building approach. DESIGN: This study consisted of moderated, structured focus groups using a nominal group technique to guide discussion...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
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