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separation science

Adam J Clancy, Mustafa K Bayazit, Stephen A Hodge, Neal T Skipper, Christopher A Howard, Milo S P Shaffer
Since the discovery of buckminsterfullerene over 30 years ago, sp2 -hybridised carbon nanomaterials (including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene) have stimulated new science and technology across a huge range of fields. Despite the impressive intrinsic properties, challenges in processing and chemical modification continue to hinder applications. Charged carbon nanomaterials (CCNs), formed via the reduction or oxidation of these carbon nanomaterials, facilitate dissolution, purification, separation, chemical modification, and assembly...
August 15, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Sarah Z Wennmacker, Mark P Lamberts, Marcello Di Martino, Joost Ph Drenth, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy, Cornelis Jhm van Laarhoven
BACKGROUND: Approximately 0.6% to 4% of cholecystectomies are performed because of gallbladder polyps. The decision to perform cholecystectomy is based on presence of gallbladder polyp(s) on transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), or both. These polyps are currently considered for surgery if they grow more than 1 cm. However, non-neoplastic polyps (pseudo polyps) do not need surgery, even when they are larger than 1 cm. True polyps are neoplastic, either benign (adenomas) or (pre)malignant (dysplastic polyps/carcinomas)...
August 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Cassandra De Gasperis-Brigante, Sukhbir S Singh, George Vilos, Sari Kives, Ally Murji
OBJECTIVE: To determine pregnancy and fetal outcomes following treatment with ulipristal acetate (UPA) for symptomatic uterine fibroids. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and case series. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Register from inception to February 2017. From January 2014 to July 2017, we carried out a multi-centre retrospective chart review. All human studies that reported at least one pregnancy following UPA treatment were included...
August 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Vander Freitas Melo, Josiane M L Mazzetto, Jeferson Dieckow, Eloana J Bonfleur
Organic soils are generally located in fluvial settings such as river floodplains that are commonly used for the disposal of bodies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide a protocol for the analysis of small amounts of organic soils for forensic purposes. The protocol was applied in five representative sites within the Curitiba metropolitan region (Brazil), with each site supplying four composite samples separated from one another by 3m. The soil samples were collected at a depth of 0 to 5cm. One gram of soil sample was used to determine the total elemental content and perform physical fractionation of the soil (>53μm and <53μm)...
August 7, 2018: Forensic Science International
P Daca-Roszak, M Swierniak, R Jaksik, T Tyszkiewicz, M Oczko-Wojciechowska, J Zebracka-Gala, B Jarzab, M Witt, E Zietkiewicz
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated significant differences in the expression level across continental human populations. Most of published results were performed on B-cell lines materials examined under specific laboratory conditions, without further validation in a primary biological material. The goal of our study was to identify mRNA markers characterized by a significant and stable difference in the gene expression profile in Caucasian and Chinese populations, both in the commercially available B-lymphocyte cell lines and in the primary samples of the peripheral blood...
August 7, 2018: BMC Genetics
Arunika Das, Michael A Lampson
Parental genomes are initially separate in the zygote following fertilization. A recent study in Science by Reichmann et al. (2018) reveals that dual spindles assemble around the two pronuclei in mouse embryos to maintain separation of the two parental genomes through the first zygotic division.
August 6, 2018: Developmental Cell
Ruben Zakine, Jean-Baptiste Fournier, Frédéric van Wijland
Systems of independent active particles embedded into a fluctuating environment are relevant to many areas of soft-matter science. We use a minimal model of noninteracting spin-carrying Brownian particles in a Gaussian field and show that activity-driven spin dynamics leads to patterned order. We find that the competition between mediated interactions and active noise alone can yield such diverse behaviors as phase transitions and microphase separation, from lamellar up to hexagonal ordering of clusters of opposite magnetization...
July 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Evelien M Overtoom, Tim Horeman, Frank-Willem Jansen, Jenny Dankelman, Henk W R Schreuder
OBJECTIVES: To provide a systematic overview of the literature assessing the value of haptic and force feedback in current simulators teaching laparoscopic surgical skills. DATA SOURCES: The databases of Pubmed, Cochrane, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched to retrieve relevant studies published until January 31st, 2017. The search included laparoscopic surgery, simulation, and haptic or force feedback and all relevant synonyms. METHODS: Duplicates were removed, and titles and abstracts screened...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
H Edmund Pigott, Rex Cannon, Mark Trullinger
BACKGROUND: Sham-controlled neurofeedback (NFB) trials consistently find no separation on ADHD outcome measures leading many to conclude that NFB's beneficial effects are due to placebo. METHOD: We deconstruct the NFB training methodology and findings of six sham-controlled trials that assessed for evidence of learning. RESULTS: All six studies found no evidence NFB subjects learned to self-modulate the targeted electroencephalogram (EEG)...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Russell A Banta, Timothy W Collins, Rickey A Curley, Paul W Young, Justin D Holmes, Eoin J Flynn
Greater sustainability in mass manufacturing is essential to alleviating anthropogenic climate change. High surface-area, micro- and nano-patterned films have become a fundamental tool in materials science, however these technologies are subject to a dwindling petrochemical supply, increasing costs and disposability concerns. This paper describes the production of patterned biopolymer films utilizing controlled phase separation of biopolymeric thin films into nanopatterns using easily transferable variables and methods...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Abass Alhassan, Saeed Majeed
There is a drastic shift in medical curriculum from the traditional medical curriculum where various basic science disciplines are taught separately in the preclinical years to integrated problem-based learning (PBL) in many medical schools across the world. In the integrated PBL, the time for classical anatomy dissection is significantly reduced. There are varying views across the world about the perception of medical students to cadaveric dissection. There is however no research on student's perception of cadaveric dissection in Ghana...
2018: Anatomy Research International
Arturo J Rios-Diaz, Guillaume Chevrollier, Hunter Witmer, Christine Schleider, Scott Cowan, Michael J Pucci, Francesco Palazzo
BACKGROUND: Recommendations of the Joint Commission discourage the use of surgical skull caps in favor of bouffant or helmet headwear; however, data supporting such recommendations are limited and have been questioned in recent studies, as well as by our departmental and hospital leadership. At the end of December 2015, surgical caps were removed from our institution with the theoretic goal of decreasing surgical site infections. We aimed to assess the impact of this intervention on surgical site infection occurrence at our institution...
July 30, 2018: Surgery
W David Lohr, Liza Creel, Yana Feygin, Michelle Stevenson, Michael J Smith, John Myers, Charles Woods, Gil Liu, Deborah Winders Davis
BACKGROUND: The rates of mental health diagnoses in children have increased. Children in poverty have the highest rates. The use of psychotropic medication for children has been increasing, which is concerning because of the unknown long-term effects and the increased burden on the health care system. The state of Kentucky ranks among the highest in the United States for children with mental health problems, children living in poverty, and children receiving psychotropic medication. OBJECTIVE: To examine recent trends and determinants of interclass psychotropic polypharmacy (PP) use for children and youth receiving Medicaid to inform intervention development...
August 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Lode Godderis, Emma Boonen, Ana L Cabrera Martimbianco, Ellen Delvaux, Ivan D Ivanov, Marie-Claire Lambrechts, Carolina O C Latorraca, Nancy Leppink, Frank Pega, Annette M Prüss-Ustün, Rachel Riera, Yuka Ujita, Daniela V Pachito
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing a joint methodology for estimating the national and global work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO joint methodology), with contributions from a large network of experts. In this paper, we present the protocol for two systematic reviews of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder attributable to exposure to long working hours, to inform the development of the WHO/ILO joint methodology...
July 25, 2018: Environment International
Elizabeth A Lynch, Taryn M Jones, Dawn B Simpson, Natalie A Fini, Suzanne S Kuys, Karen Borschmann, Sharon Kramer, Liam Johnson, Michele L Callisaya, Niruthikha Mahendran, Heidi Janssen, Coralie English
BACKGROUND: Stroke is the third leading cause of disability worldwide. Physical activity is important for secondary stroke prevention and for promoting functional recovery. However, people with stroke are more inactive than healthy age-matched controls. Therefore, interventions to increase activity after stroke are vital to reduce stroke-related disability. OBJECTIVES: To summarise the available evidence regarding the effectiveness of commercially available, wearable activity monitors and smartphone applications for increasing physical activity levels in people with stroke...
July 27, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Massimo Pagani, Roberto Sala, Mara Malacarne, Daniela Lucini
Since the seminal studies by Sayers (Ergonomics 16:17-32, 1973) and Akselrod et al. (Science 213:220-222, 1981) a few decades ago, it became clear that beat-by-beat oscillations in RR interval length (i.e. heart-rate variability [HRV]) contain information on underlying neural-control mechanisms based on the instantaneous balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. Over the years, the number of studies addressing HRV has increased markedly and now outnumbers 23,000. Despite such a large interest, there is still a continuing debate about interpretation of indices produced by computer analysis of HRV...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Whitney D Fosco, Dustin E Sarver, Michael J Kofler, Paula A Aduen
Parental cognitive functioning is thought to play a key role in parenting behavior and may inform response to behavioral intervention. This open-label pilot study examined the extent to which parent and child cognition impacted response to behavioral parent training for children with ADHD. Fifty-four participants (27 parent-child dyads; Mages  = 10.6 and 45.2 for children and parents, respectively) completed tasks assessing visuospatial and phonological working memory, inhibitory control, and choice-reaction speed at pre-treatment...
July 26, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Tahereh Gholipur-Shahraki, Awat Feizi, Mojgan Mortazavi, Shirinsadat Badri
Protein energy malnutrition is a common problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Scattered reports indicate that supplementation of Carnitine may improve patients' clinical symptoms, with significant improvement in nutritional parameters. This systematic review was done to document the evidences of Carnitine effects in nutritional status of CKD patients. Peer-reviewed RCTs on Carnitine administration at any dose in CKD patients with at least four weeks of follow-up were including in the meta-analysis...
April 2018: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
Leila Mohammadinia, Ali Ardalan, Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh, Abbas Ebadi, Hossein Malekafzali, Mojtaba Fazel
Resilience has received increased attention among both practitioners and scholars in recent years. Child resilience has received notable attention in disaster risk reduction (DRR) during the creation of the Sendai Framework 2015-2030 to improve child protection in the event of disasters. As resilience is a subjective concept with a variety of definitions, this study evaluates its different factors and determinates in the existing research to clarify the path for the near future and objective research. A systematic literature review was conducted by searching and selecting the peer-reviewed papers published in four main international electronic databases including PubMed, SCOPUS, WEB OF SCIENCE, and PsycINFO to answer the research question: "What are the criteria, factors or indicators for child resilience in the context of a natural disaster?" The process was based on PRISMA guidelines...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Youdong Cheng, Yunpan Ying, Susilo Japip, Shu-Dong Jiang, Tai-Shung Chung, Sui Zhang, Dan Zhao
Membrane technology has gained great interest in industrial separation processing over the past few decades owing to its high energy efficiency, small capital investment, environmentally benign characteristics, and the continuous operation process. Among various types of membranes, mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) combining the merits of the polymer matrix and inorganic/organic fillers have been extensively investigated. With the rapid development of chemistry and materials science, recent studies have shifted toward the design and application of advanced porous materials as promising fillers to boost the separation performance of MMMs...
July 26, 2018: Advanced Materials
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