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Olive oil polyphenols

Nikolaos Peroulis, Vasilis P Androutsopoulos, George Notas, Stella Koinaki, Elsa Giakoumaki, Apostolos Spyros, Εfstathia Manolopoulou, Sophia Kargaki, Maria Tzardi, Eleni Moustou, Euripides G Stephanou, Efstathia Bakogeorgou, Niki Malliaraki, Maria Niniraki, Christos Lionis, Elias Castanas, Marilena Kampa
PURPOSE: Dyslipidemia and impaired glucose metabolism are the main health issues of growing prevalence and significant high healthcare cost, requiring novel prevention and/or therapeutic approaches. Epidemiological and animal studies revealed that olive oil is an important dietary constituent, inducing normolipidemia. However, no studies have specifically investigated the polyphenol-rich water extract of olives (OLWPE), generated during olive oil production. METHODS: In the present work, we initially examined the effect of OLPWE on animals' metabolic parameters...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Monica Deiana, Gessica Serra, Giulia Corona
Dietary habits have been strongly linked to the maintenance of intestinal epithelium homeostasis, whose alteration may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and cancer. Polyphenols are among those dietary components suggested to be beneficial for gut health. Within a balanced Mediterranean type diet, a good portion of ingested polyphenols comes from olives and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Most of them reach the intestine, where they may be directly absorbed or metabolized under absorption...
August 7, 2018: Food & Function
Zipora Tietel, Arnon Dag, Uri Yermiyahu, Isaac Zipori, Ian Beiersdorf, Shani Krispin, Alon Ben-Gal
BACKGROUND: Olive oil, a functional food, is increasingly produced from trees irrigated with water containing high concentrations of salts. We studied effects of irrigation-induced salinity on quality and health-related compounds in olive oil. Trees (cv Barnea) were grown in lysimeters with continuous control and monitoring of root zone salinity. Salinity in the root zone was alternatively altered by changing irrigation solution salinity or by changing the extent of leaching. Extracted oil was analyzed for quality parameters including free fatty acid content, polyphenol, tocopherol, sterol and carotenoid levels, fatty acid (FA) profile and antioxidative capacity...
July 25, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Amira Namsi, Thomas Nury, Haithem Hamdouni, Aline Yammine, Anne Vejux, Dominique Vervandier-Fasseur, Norbert Latruffe, Olfa Masmoudi-Kouki, Gérard Lizard
In the prevention of neurodegeneration associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease), neuronal differentiation is of interest. In this context, neurotrophic factors are a family of peptides capable of promoting the growth, survival, and/or differentiation of both developing and immature neurons. In contrast to these peptidyl compounds, polyphenols are not degraded in the intestinal tract and are able to cross the blood⁻brain barrier. Consequently, they could potentially be used as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative pathologies associated with neuronal loss, thus requiring the stimulation of neurogenesis...
July 22, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Hui Cao, Juanying Ou, Lei Chen, Yanbo Zhang, Tomasz Szkudelski, Dominique Delmas, Maria Daglia, Jianbo Xiao
Significant evidence from epidemiological investigations showed that dietary polyphenols might manage and prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D). This review summarizes human studies and clinical trials of polyphenols as anti-diabetic agents. Polyphenols from coffee, guava tea, whortleberry, olive oil, propolis, chocolate, red wine, grape seed, and cocoa have been reported to show anti-diabetic effects in T2D patients through increasing glucose metabolism, improving vascular function as well as reducing insulin resistance and HbA1c level...
July 11, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Mehmet Aybeke
The aim of this study is to determine in detail the genotoxic effects of Olive Oil Wastewater (OOWW) on sunflower. For this reason, different concentrations of OOWW (1/1,1/10,1/100) were applied as irrigation water to sunflowers at different times (3-day, 5-day, 10-day). In the plants taken during these times, RAPD-based genomic template stability (GTS) assays and gene expression (transcriptomic) levels of different free radical scavenging enzyme genes (SOD, CAT, SOD2, GST, GPX, APX), protein repair/chaperoning genes (HSP26, HSP70, HSP83), N metabolism gene (GS) and apoptotic genes (BAX, BCL2, BCLXL, CYT-C, XIAP) were compared to the those of the control (OOWW-free) group...
January 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Shuya Yamashita, Asami Hirashima, I-Chian Lin, Jaehoon Bae, Kanami Nakahara, Motoki Murata, Shuhei Yamada, Motofumi Kumazoe, Ren Yoshitomi, Mai Kadomatsu, Yuka Sato, Ayaka Nezu, Ai Hikida, Konatsu Fujino, Kyosuke Murata, Mari Maeda-Yamamoto, Hirofumi Tachibana
Green tea and its major polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) have suppressive effect on dietary obesity. However, it remains unsolved what type of diet on which they exhibit high or low anti-obesity effect. In the present study, we investigated whether anti-obesity effect of green tea differs depending on composition of fats or fatty acids that consist high-fat (HF) diet in mouse model. Green tea extract (GTE) intake dramatically suppressed weight gain and fat accumulation induced by olive oil-based HF diet, whereas the effects on those induced by beef tallow-based HF diet were weak...
July 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Roberto Carnevale, Cristina Nocella, Vittoria Cammisotto, Simona Bartimoccia, Roberto Monticolo, Alessandra D'Amico, Lucia Stefanini, Francesca Pagano, Daniele Pastori, Roberto Cangemi, Francesco Violi
OBJECTIVES: Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) supplementation is associated with a significant reduction in cardiovascular disease but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. METHODS: In platelets that were taken from healthy subjects (n = 5), agonist-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) production and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) activation in the presence of or without catalase, which catabolizes H2 O2 , were investigated. Platelet H2 O2 production, NOX2 activation, EVOO vitamin E, and total polyphenols as well as EVOO's ability to scavenge H2 O2 were also measured...
March 29, 2018: Nutrition
Alberto Alfano, Luisana Corsuto, Rosario Finamore, Maria Savarese, Filomena Ferrara, Salvatore Falco, Giuseppe Santabarbara, Mario De Rosa, Chiara Schiraldi
Olive oil boasts numerous health benefits due to the high content of the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and functional bioactives including tocopherols, carotenoids, phospholipids, and polyphenolics with multiple biological activities. Polyphenolic components present antioxidant properties by scavenging free radicals and eliminating metabolic byproducts of metabolism. The objective of this research project was to recover the biologically active components rich in polyphenols, which include treatment of olive oil mills wastewater, and, at the same time, to remove the pollutant waste component resulting from the olive oil manufacturing processes...
May 23, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Luana Palazzi, Elena Bruzzone, Giovanni Bisello, Manuela Leri, Massimo Stefani, Monica Bucciantini, Patrizia Polverino de Laureto
α-synuclein plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD); its deposits are found as amyloid fibrils in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, the histopathological hallmarks of PD. Amyloid fibrillation is a progressive polymerization path starting from peptide/protein misfolding and proceeding through the transient growth of oligomeric intermediates widely considered as the most toxic species. Consequently, a promising approach of intervention against PD might be preventing α-synuclein build-up, misfolding and aggregation...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ghazaleh Kheiri, Mahsa Dolatshahi, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
A myriad of environmental and genetic factors, as well as the physiologic process of aging, contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Neuroinflammation is and has been a focus of interest, as a common gateway for initiation of many of the underlying pathologies of AD. Amyloid beta (Aβ) toxicity, increasing RAGE expression, tau hyperphosphorylation, induction of apoptosis, and deregulated autophagy are among other mechanisms, partly entangled and being explained by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK signaling...
May 28, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Nicola Cicero, Ambrogina Albergamo, Andrea Salvo, Giuseppe Daniel Bua, Giovanni Bartolomeo, Valentina Mangano, Archimede Rotondo, Vita Di Stefano, Giuseppa Di Bella, Giacomo Dugo
Different specialty extra virgin oils, produced by cold-pressing fruits/nuts (olive, pequi, palm, avocado, coconut, macadamia and Brazil nut) and seeds (grapeseed and canola), and retailed in the Brazilian region of Minas Gerais, were chemically characterized. Specifically, for each type of oil, the fatty acid composition was elucidated by GC-FID, the contents of selected polyphenols and squalene were determined respectively by UHPLC-MS and UHPLC-PDA, whereas minerals were explored by means of ICP-MS. Olive oil was confirmed to have the highest MUFA content due to a valuable level of oleic acid, while oils from grapeseed, Brazil nut and canola were marked by nutritionally important PUFA levels...
July 2018: Food Research International
Gessica Serra, Alessandra Incani, Gabriele Serreli, Laura Porru, M Paola Melis, Carlo I G Tuberoso, Daniela Rossin, Fiorella Biasi, Monica Deiana
Dietary habits may strongly influence intestinal homeostasis. Oxysterols, the oxidized products of cholesterol present in cholesterol-containing foodstuffs, have been shown to exert pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory effects, altering intestinal epithelial layer and thus contributing to the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel diseases and colon cancer. Extra virgin olive oil polyphenols possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and concentrate in the intestinal lumen, where may help in preventing intestinal diseases...
July 2018: Redox Biology
Roberto Carnevale, Daniele Pastori, Cristina Nocella, Vittoria Cammisotto, Simona Bartimoccia, Marta Novo, Maria Del Ben, Alessio Farcomeni, Francesco Angelico, Francesco Violi
PURPOSE: Post-prandial phase is characterized by enhanced oxidative stress but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We investigated if gut-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is implicated in this phenomenon and the effect of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). METHODS: This is a randomized cross-over interventional study including 30 IFG patients, to receive a lunch with or without 10 g of EVOO. Serum LPS, Apo-B48, markers of oxidative stress such as oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and soluble Nox2-derived peptide (sNox2-dp), a marker of nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate oxidase isoform Nox2 activation, and plasma polyphenols were determined before, 60 and 120 min after lunch...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Caterina Miceli, Yohan Santin, Nicola Manzella, Raffaele Coppini, Andrea Berti, Massimo Stefani, Angelo Parini, Jeanne Mialet-Perez, Chiara Nediani
Age-associated diseases such as neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders are characterized by increased oxidative stress associated with autophagy dysfunction. Oleuropein aglycone (OA), the main polyphenol found in olive oil, was recently characterized as an autophagy inducer and a promising agent against neurodegeneration. It is presently unknown whether OA can have beneficial effects in a model of cardiac stress characterized by autophagy dysfunction. Here, we explored the effects of OA in cardiomyocytes with overexpression of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A)...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Ningning Wang, Yang Liu, Yanan Ma, Deliang Wen
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a principal organelle responsible for energy and nutrient management. Its dysfunction has been viewed in the context of obesity and related glucolipid metabolic disorders. However, therapeutic approaches to improve ER adaptation and systemic energy balance in obesity are limited. Thus, we examined whether hydroxytyrosol (HT), an important polyphenolic compound found in virgin olive oil, could correct the metabolic impairments in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. Here, we found that HT gavage for 10 weeks significantly ameliorated glucose homeostasis and chronic inflammation and decreased hepatic steatosis in DIO mice...
July 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Vanessa Danthiir, Diane E Hosking, Ted Nettelbeck, Andrew D Vincent, Carlene Wilson, Nathan O'Callaghan, Eva Calvaresi, Peter Clifton, Gary A Wittert
Background: Fish oil trials in cognitively healthy older adults have yielded inconsistent results. Supplementation may differentially affect the domains that underpin cognitive performance, and effects may differ across sex or genotype. Objective: The aim of this study was to test whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich fish oil slows 18-mo cognitive decline in cognitively healthy elders. Design: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, cognitively healthy Australian community-dwelling adults (aged 65-90 y) consumed either 1720 mg DHA and 600 mg eicosapentaenoic acid or low-polyphenolic olive oil daily, as capsules, for 18 mo...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Saad Al Fazazi, Rafael A Casuso, Jerónimo Aragón-Vela, Cristina Casals, Jesús R Huertas
Background: Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a polyphenol found in olive oil that is known for its antioxidant effects. Here, we aimed to describe the effects of a low and high HT dose on the physical running capacity and redox state in both sedentary and exercised rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were allocated into 6 groups: sedentary (SED; n  = 10); SED consuming 20 mg/kg/d HT (SED20; n  = 7); SED consuming 300 mg/kg/d HT (SED300; n = 7); exercised (EXE; n = 10); EXE consuming 20 mg/kg/d HT (EXE20; n = 10) and EXE consuming 300 mg/kg/d HT (EXE300; n = 10)...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Yun-Dong Xie, Zi-Zhang Chen, Na Li, Wen-Fang Lu, Yan-Hong Xu, Yuan-Yuan Lin, Li-Hua Shao, Qiu-Tang Wang, Li-Ying Guo, Yu-Qiong Gao, Guang-De Yang, Yi-Ping Li, Xiao-Li Bian
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a natural polyphenol antioxidant that exists in olive oil. In the study of multifunctional hypolipidemic of nicotinic derivatives, we found that hydroxytyrosol nicotinate (HT-N) incorporation of niacin with HT displayed ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities in vitro, such as yeast ?-glucosidase (IC50 ?=?117.72??M) and rat intestinal ?-glucosidases maltase (IC50 ?=?31.86??M) and sucrase (IC50 ?=?22.99??M), and had a good control of postprandial blood glucose (PBG). HT-N shown significantly hypoglycemic action by 16...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Elena S George, Skye Marshall, Hannah L Mayr, Gina L Trakman, Oana A Tatucu-Babet, Annie-Claude M Lassemillante, Andrea Bramley, Anjana J Reddy, Adrienne Forsyth, Audrey C Tierney, Colleen J Thomas, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Wolfgang Marx
The polyphenol fraction of extra-virgin olive oil may be partly responsible for its cardioprotective effects. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of high versus low polyphenol olive oil on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in clinical trials. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, CINAHL, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for relevant studies. Randomized controlled trials that investigated markers of CVD risk (e.g. outcomes related to cholesterol, inflammation, oxidative stress) were included...
April 30, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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