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Olive oil polyphenols

Gabriele Serreli, Monica Deiana
Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenols beneficial effects have widely been debated throughout the last three decades, with greater attention to hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, which are by far the most studied. The main concern about the evaluation of EVOO phenols activities in vitro and in vivo is that the absorption and metabolism of these compounds once ingested lead to the production of different metabolites in the human body. EVOO phenols in the ingested forms are less concentrated in human tissues than their glucuronide, sulfate and methyl metabolites; on the other hand, metabolites may undergo deconjugation before entering the cells and thus act as free forms or may be reformed inside the cells so acting as conjugated forms...
November 22, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Maurizio Volpe, Dominik Wüst, Fabio Merzari, Michela Lucian, Gianni Andreottola, Andrea Kruse, Luca Fiori
An olive waste stream mixture, coming from a three phase-continuous centrifugation olive oil mill industry, with a typical wet basis mass composition of olive pulp 39 wt%, kernels 5 wt% and olive mill waste water 56 wt%, was subjected to hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) at 180, 220 and 250 °C for a 3-hour residence time in a 2-litre stainless steel electrically heated batch reactor. The raw feedstock and corresponding hydrochars were characterised in terms of proximate and ultimate analyses, higher heating values and energy properties...
October 2018: Waste Management
Javiera Navarro Soto, Silvia Satorres Martínez, Diego Martínez Gila, Juan Gómez Ortega, Javier Gámez García
The presence of minor compounds in virgin olive oils has been proven to play multiple positive roles in health protection, encouraging its production. The key factors that influence the oil quality are ripening stages and the state of health of the fruit. For this reason, at the oil mill's reception yard, fruits are visually inspected and separated according to their external appearance. In this way, the process parameters can be better adjusted to improve the quantity and/or quality of olive oil. This paper presents a proposal to automatically determine the oil quality before being produced from a previous inspection of the incoming fruits...
November 8, 2018: Sensors
Ruth Hornedo-Ortega, Ana B Cerezo, Rocío M de Pablos, Stéphanie Krisa, Tristan Richard, M Carmen García-Parrilla, Ana M Troncoso
Neuroinflammation is a pathological feature of quite a number of Central Nervous System diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson's disease among others. The hallmark of brain neuroinflammation is the activation of microglia, which are the immune resident cells in the brain and represents the first line of defense when injury or disease occur. Microglial activated cells can adopt different phenotypes to carry out its diverse functions. Thus, the shift into pro-inflammatory/neurotoxic or anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective phenotypes, depending of the brain environment, has totally changed the understanding of microglia in neurodegenerative disease...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
María Ángeles Rosillo, Catalina Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, María Luisa Castejón, Tatiana Montoya, Marta Cejudo-Guillén, Marina Sánchez-Hidalgo
The polyphenolic extract (PE) from extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has been shown to possess important anti-inflammatory and joint protective properties in murine models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was designed to evaluate the effects of PE on IL-1β-activated human synovial fibroblasts SW982 cell line. PE from EVOO treatment inhibited IL-1β-induced matrix metalloproteases (P<0·001), TNF-α and IL-6 production (P<0·001). Similarly, IL-1β-induced cyclo-oxygenase-2 and microsomal PGE synthase-1 up-regulations were down-regulated by PE (P<0·001)...
October 26, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Xiaojing Li, Yingbin Shen, Gangcheng Wu, Xiguang Qi, Hui Zhang, Li Wang, Haifeng Qian
Owing to the poor ability of cells to decompose triglycerides, most studies of edible oil have depended on animal or clinical trials. However, such trials are expensive and time-consuming, and the results are limited to considerable individual differences. This is the first study to comprehensively investigate the effect of different oils on the lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HepG2 cells by hydrolyzing oil to fatty acids with integrated fat content. In addition, the key components of fatty acid composition, phytosterol, polyphenols, and tocopherol/tocotrienol in different oils, contributing to a decrease in content of lipid accumulation, cholesterol, ROS, and malondialdehyde (MDA), were analyzed using multivariate analysis...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Giorgio Ivan Russo, Tatiana Solinas, Daniele Urzì, Salvatore Privitera, Daniele Campisi, Andrea Cocci, Marco Carini, Massimo Madonia, Sebastiano Cimino, Giuseppe Morgia
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the sixth leading cause of death from cancer worldwide. Countries following a Mediterranean-type dietary pattern, has been reported to have lower PCa incidence and mortality compared with other European regions. A population-based case-control study has been conducted from January 2015 to December 2016 in a single institution of the municipality of Catania, southern Italy. A total of 118 PCa and 238 population-based controls were collected...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Impotence Research
Sara Castro-Barquero, Rosa M Lamuela-Raventós, Mónica Doménech, Ramon Estruch
Obesity is a multifactorial and complex disease defined by excess of adipose mass and constitutes a serious health problem. Adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ secreting a wide range of inflammatory adipocytokines, which leads to systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and metabolic disorders. The traditional Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high phenolic-rich foods intake, including extra-virgin olive oil, nuts, red wine, vegetables, fruits, legumes, and whole-grain cereals. Evidence for polyphenols' effect on obesity and weight control in humans is inconsistent and the health effects of polyphenols depend on the amount consumed and their bioavailability...
October 17, 2018: Nutrients
Mauro Finicelli, Tiziana Squillaro, Francesca Di Cristo, Anna Di Salle, Mariarosa Anna Beatrice Melone, Umberto Galderisi, Gianfranco Peluso
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the co-occurrence of metabolic risk factors that includes insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and visceral obesity. The clinical significance of MetS consists of identifying a subgroup of patients sharing a common physiopathological state predisposing to chronic diseases. Clinical and scientific studies pinpoint lifestyle modification as an effective strategy aiming to reduce several features accountable for the risk of MetS onset...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Marco Mattonai, Andrea Vinci, Ilaria Degano, Erika Ribechini, Massimiliano Franceschi, Francesca Modugno
Olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) are important by-products of olive oil production. The wide availability and the forbidding economic costs of OMWs disposal have generated interest in their possible exploitation as a sustainable source of polyphenols. The development and optimisation of improved analytical methods for the detailed characterisation of polyphenol molecular profiles after production and during storage conditions are thus required. A new analytical method based on reverse-phase HPLC separation of polyphenols in OMWs on an embedded-polar group (EPG) stationary phase is proposed as an alternative to conventional C18 columns...
October 10, 2018: Natural Product Research
Francieli C G B S Alves, Aline Coqueiro, Paulo H Março, Patrícia Valderrama
Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) from Mediterranean were analyzed by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and Independent Component Analysis (ICA). The use of ICA resolution provided information over dienes (primary oxidation compound), polyphenolic compounds, tocopherol, carotenoids and chlorophylls when EVOO was evaluated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Based on these data, ICA could be used to determine the contribution of chemical compounds to the composition of EVOO produced in different regions from Mediterranean...
February 1, 2019: Food Chemistry
Jesús Calahorra, Esther Martínez-Lara, Cristina De Dios, Eva Siles
Although cancer is multifactorial, a strong correlation between this pathology and increased oxidative stress has long been stablished. Hypoxia, inherent to solid tumors, increases reactive oxygen species and should be taken into account when analyzing the response of tumor cells to antioxidants. The Mediterranean diet has been related to a lower incidence of cancer, and particularly of breast cancer. Given that hydroxytyrosol (HT) is largely responsible for the antioxidant properties of olive oil, we have performed a comprehensive and comparative study of its effect on the oxidative stress response of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 in hypoxia and normoxia...
2018: PloS One
Magdalena Mężyńska, Malgorzata M Brzóska
Recently, the growing attention of the scientific community has been focused on the threat to health created by environmental pollutants, including toxic metals such as cadmium (Cd), and on the need of finding effective ways to prevent and treat the unfavorable health effects of exposure to them. Particularly promising for Cd, and thus arousing the greatest interest, is the possibility of using various ingredients present in plants, including mainly polyphenolic compounds. As the liver is one of the target organs for this toxic metal and disturbances in the proper functioning of this organ have serious consequences for health, the aim of the present review was to discuss the possibility of using polyphenol-rich food products (e...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Mattia Di Nunzio, Gianfranco Picone, Federica Pasini, Maria Fiorenza Caboni, Andrea Gianotti, Alessandra Bordoni, Francesco Capozzi
Over the past years, researchers and food manufacturers have become increasingly interested in olive polyphenols due to the recognition of their biological properties and probable role in the prevention of various diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. Olive pomace, one of the main by-products of olive oil production, is a potential low-cost, phenol-rich ingredient for the formulation of functional food. In this study, the aqueous extract of olive pomace was characterized and used to supplement human intestinal cell in culture (Caco-2)...
November 2018: Food Research International
María Abenoza, Javier Raso, Rosa Oria, Ana C Sánchez-Gimeno
Bitterness is a positive sensorial attribute of olive oil that mainly depends on phenol concentration. However, excessive bitterness may be unpleasant for consumers. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate if partitioning polyphenols between oil and water phases could modulate the bitterness of an Empeltre olive oil containing a phenolic concentration higher than the typical content for this olive oil variety. The linear relationship observed between the percentage of oil in the extraction system and the percentage of phenols removed from the oil permitted estimating the olive oil-to-water ratio required to reduce the concentration of phenols for a given value in order to modulate Empeltre olive oil bitterness...
August 31, 2018: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Paraskevi Kouka, Georgia-Anna Chatzieffraimidi, Grigorios Raftis, Dimitrios Stagos, Apostolis Angelis, Panagiotis Stathopoulos, Nikos Xynos, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Demetrios Kouretas
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have been carried out concerning the advantageous health effects, especially the antioxidant effects, of olive oil's (OO) individual biophenolic compounds, but none until now for its total phenolic fraction (TPF). Plenty of evidence, in research about nutrition and healthiness, points out that it is the complex mixture of nutritional polyphenols, more than each compound separate, which can synergistically act towards a health result. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to examine the antioxidant properties of an extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) total polyphenolic fraction, from a Greek endemic variety of Olea europaea in cell lines...
August 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Thammarat Aree, Suchada Jongrungruangchok
Olives and olive oil, a key food type of the Mediterranean diets, are packed with various important polyphenols including oleuropein (OLE), hydroxytyrosol (HTY) and tyrosol (TYR). OLE and HTY are highly powerful antioxidants and play a prime role in the therapeutics of free radical-related diseases. Their molecular stabilities and antioxidant properties can be improved by cyclodextrin (CD) encapsulation. Here, we present a systematic investigation on the inclusion complexes of β-CD-TYR (1), β-CD-HTY (2) and β-CD-OLE (3) by combined single-crystal structure determination, DFT complete-geometry optimization and DPPH antioxidant assay...
November 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Dubravka Vitali Čepo, Kristina Radić, Sanja Jurmanović, Mario Jug, Marija Grdić Rajković, Sandra Pedisić, Tihomir Moslavac, Petra Albahari
Waste remaining after the production of olive oil (olive pomace) is known to contain significant amounts of phenolic compounds that exert different types of biological activities, primarily acting as antioxidants. In this work, a sustainable approach that combines ultrasound-assisted extraction with food-grade solvents and encapsulation with different types of cyclodextrins was used to prepare olive pomace-based polyphenol rich extracts that were tested as antioxidants in various chemical, food, and biological model systems...
August 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Nikolaos Peroulis, Vasilis P Androutsopoulos, George Notas, Stella Koinaki, Elsa Giakoumaki, Apostolos Spyros, Εfstathia Manolopoulou, Sophia Kargaki, Maria Tzardi, Eleni Moustou, Euripides G Stephanou, Efstathia Bakogeorgou, Niki Malliaraki, Maria Niniraki, Christos Lionis, Elias Castanas, Marilena Kampa
PURPOSE: Dyslipidemia and impaired glucose metabolism are the main health issues of growing prevalence and significant high healthcare cost, requiring novel prevention and/or therapeutic approaches. Epidemiological and animal studies revealed that olive oil is an important dietary constituent, inducing normolipidemia. However, no studies have specifically investigated the polyphenol-rich water extract of olives (OLWPE), generated during olive oil production. METHODS: In the present work, we initially examined the effect of OLPWE on animals' metabolic parameters...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Monica Deiana, Gessica Serra, Giulia Corona
Dietary habits have been strongly linked to the maintenance of intestinal epithelium homeostasis, whose alteration may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and cancer. Polyphenols are among those dietary components suggested to be beneficial for gut health. Within a balanced Mediterranean type diet, a good portion of ingested polyphenols comes from olives and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Most of them reach the intestine, where they may be directly absorbed or metabolized under absorption...
August 15, 2018: Food & Function
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