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Olive oil polyphenols

Giorgio Ivan Russo, Tatiana Solinas, Daniele Urzì, Salvatore Privitera, Daniele Campisi, Andrea Cocci, Marco Carini, Massimo Madonia, Sebastiano Cimino, Giuseppe Morgia
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the sixth leading cause of death from cancer worldwide. Countries following a Mediterranean-type dietary pattern, has been reported to have lower PCa incidence and mortality compared with other European regions. A population-based case-control study has been conducted from January 2015 to December 2016 in a single institution of the municipality of Catania, southern Italy. A total of 118 PCa and 238 population-based controls were collected...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Impotence Research
Sara Castro-Barquero, Rosa M Lamuela-Raventós, Mónica Doménech, Ramon Estruch
Obesity is a multifactorial and complex disease defined by excess of adipose mass and constitutes a serious health problem. Adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ secreting a wide range of inflammatory adipocytokines, which leads to systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and metabolic disorders. The traditional Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high phenolic-rich foods intake, including extra-virgin olive oil, nuts, red wine, vegetables, fruits, legumes, and whole-grain cereals. Evidence for polyphenols' effect on obesity and weight control in humans is inconsistent and the health effects of polyphenols depend on the amount consumed and their bioavailability...
October 17, 2018: Nutrients
Mauro Finicelli, Tiziana Squillaro, Francesca Di Cristo, Anna Di Salle, Mariarosa Anna Beatrice Melone, Umberto Galderisi, Gianfranco Peluso
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the co-occurrence of metabolic risk factors that includes insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and visceral obesity. The clinical significance of MetS consists of identifying a subgroup of patients sharing a common physiopathological state predisposing to chronic diseases. Clinical and scientific studies pinpoint lifestyle modification as an effective strategy aiming to reduce several features accountable for the risk of MetS onset...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Marco Mattonai, Andrea Vinci, Ilaria Degano, Erika Ribechini, Massimiliano Franceschi, Francesca Modugno
Olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) are important by-products of olive oil production. The wide availability and the forbidding economic costs of OMWs disposal have generated interest in their possible exploitation as a sustainable source of polyphenols. The development and optimisation of improved analytical methods for the detailed characterisation of polyphenol molecular profiles after production and during storage conditions are thus required. A new analytical method based on reverse-phase HPLC separation of polyphenols in OMWs on an embedded-polar group (EPG) stationary phase is proposed as an alternative to conventional C18 columns...
October 10, 2018: Natural Product Research
Francieli C G B S Alves, Aline Coqueiro, Paulo H Março, Patrícia Valderrama
Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) from Mediterranean were analyzed by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and Independent Component Analysis (ICA). The use of ICA resolution provided information over dienes (primary oxidation compound), polyphenolic compounds, tocopherol, carotenoids and chlorophylls when EVOO was evaluated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Based on these data, ICA could be used to determine the contribution of chemical compounds to the composition of EVOO produced in different regions from Mediterranean...
February 1, 2019: Food Chemistry
Jesús Calahorra, Esther Martínez-Lara, Cristina De Dios, Eva Siles
Although cancer is multifactorial, a strong correlation between this pathology and increased oxidative stress has long been stablished. Hypoxia, inherent to solid tumors, increases reactive oxygen species and should be taken into account when analyzing the response of tumor cells to antioxidants. The Mediterranean diet has been related to a lower incidence of cancer, and particularly of breast cancer. Given that hydroxytyrosol (HT) is largely responsible for the antioxidant properties of olive oil, we have performed a comprehensive and comparative study of its effect on the oxidative stress response of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 in hypoxia and normoxia...
2018: PloS One
Magdalena Mężyńska, Malgorzata M Brzóska
Recently, the growing attention of the scientific community has been focused on the threat to health created by environmental pollutants, including toxic metals such as cadmium (Cd), and on the need of finding effective ways to prevent and treat the unfavorable health effects of exposure to them. Particularly promising for Cd, and thus arousing the greatest interest, is the possibility of using various ingredients present in plants, including mainly polyphenolic compounds. As the liver is one of the target organs for this toxic metal and disturbances in the proper functioning of this organ have serious consequences for health, the aim of the present review was to discuss the possibility of using polyphenol-rich food products (e...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Mattia Di Nunzio, Gianfranco Picone, Federica Pasini, Maria Fiorenza Caboni, Andrea Gianotti, Alessandra Bordoni, Francesco Capozzi
Over the past years, researchers and food manufacturers have become increasingly interested in olive polyphenols due to the recognition of their biological properties and probable role in the prevention of various diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. Olive pomace, one of the main by-products of olive oil production, is a potential low-cost, phenol-rich ingredient for the formulation of functional food. In this study, the aqueous extract of olive pomace was characterized and used to supplement human intestinal cell in culture (Caco-2)...
November 2018: Food Research International
María Abenoza, Javier Raso, Rosa Oria, Ana C Sánchez-Gimeno
Bitterness is a positive sensorial attribute of olive oil that mainly depends on phenol concentration. However, excessive bitterness may be unpleasant for consumers. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate if partitioning polyphenols between oil and water phases could modulate the bitterness of an Empeltre olive oil containing a phenolic concentration higher than the typical content for this olive oil variety. The linear relationship observed between the percentage of oil in the extraction system and the percentage of phenols removed from the oil permitted estimating the olive oil-to-water ratio required to reduce the concentration of phenols for a given value in order to modulate Empeltre olive oil bitterness...
August 31, 2018: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Paraskevi Kouka, Georgia-Anna Chatzieffraimidi, Grigorios Raftis, Dimitrios Stagos, Apostolis Angelis, Panagiotis Stathopoulos, Nikos Xynos, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Demetrios Kouretas
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have been carried out concerning the advantageous health effects, especially the antioxidant effects, of olive oil's (OO) individual biophenolic compounds, but none until now for its total phenolic fraction (TPF). Plenty of evidence, in research about nutrition and healthiness, points out that it is the complex mixture of nutritional polyphenols, more than each compound separate, which can synergistically act towards a health result. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to examine the antioxidant properties of an extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) total polyphenolic fraction, from a Greek endemic variety of Olea europaea in cell lines...
August 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Thammarat Aree, Suchada Jongrungruangchok
Olives and olive oil, a key food type of the Mediterranean diets, are packed with various important polyphenols including oleuropein (OLE), hydroxytyrosol (HTY) and tyrosol (TYR). OLE and HTY are highly powerful antioxidants and play a prime role in the therapeutics of free radical-related diseases. Their molecular stabilities and antioxidant properties can be improved by cyclodextrin (CD) encapsulation. Here, we present a systematic investigation on the inclusion complexes of β-CD-TYR (1), β-CD-HTY (2) and β-CD-OLE (3) by combined single-crystal structure determination, DFT complete-geometry optimization and DPPH antioxidant assay...
November 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Dubravka Vitali Čepo, Kristina Radić, Sanja Jurmanović, Mario Jug, Marija Grdić Rajković, Sandra Pedisić, Tihomir Moslavac, Petra Albahari
Waste remaining after the production of olive oil (olive pomace) is known to contain significant amounts of phenolic compounds that exert different types of biological activities, primarily acting as antioxidants. In this work, a sustainable approach that combines ultrasound-assisted extraction with food-grade solvents and encapsulation with different types of cyclodextrins was used to prepare olive pomace-based polyphenol rich extracts that were tested as antioxidants in various chemical, food, and biological model systems...
August 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Nikolaos Peroulis, Vasilis P Androutsopoulos, George Notas, Stella Koinaki, Elsa Giakoumaki, Apostolos Spyros, Εfstathia Manolopoulou, Sophia Kargaki, Maria Tzardi, Eleni Moustou, Euripides G Stephanou, Efstathia Bakogeorgou, Niki Malliaraki, Maria Niniraki, Christos Lionis, Elias Castanas, Marilena Kampa
PURPOSE: Dyslipidemia and impaired glucose metabolism are the main health issues of growing prevalence and significant high healthcare cost, requiring novel prevention and/or therapeutic approaches. Epidemiological and animal studies revealed that olive oil is an important dietary constituent, inducing normolipidemia. However, no studies have specifically investigated the polyphenol-rich water extract of olives (OLWPE), generated during olive oil production. METHODS: In the present work, we initially examined the effect of OLPWE on animals' metabolic parameters...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Monica Deiana, Gessica Serra, Giulia Corona
Dietary habits have been strongly linked to the maintenance of intestinal epithelium homeostasis, whose alteration may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and cancer. Polyphenols are among those dietary components suggested to be beneficial for gut health. Within a balanced Mediterranean type diet, a good portion of ingested polyphenols comes from olives and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Most of them reach the intestine, where they may be directly absorbed or metabolized under absorption...
August 15, 2018: Food & Function
Zipora Tietel, Arnon Dag, Uri Yermiyahu, Isaac Zipori, Ian Beiersdorf, Shani Krispin, Alon Ben-Gal
BACKGROUND: Olive oil, a functional food, is increasingly produced from trees irrigated with water containing high concentrations of salts. We studied effects of irrigation-induced salinity on quality and health-related compounds in olive oil. Trees (cv Barnea) were grown in lysimeters with continuous control and monitoring of root zone salinity. Salinity in the root zone was alternatively altered by changing irrigation solution salinity or by changing the extent of leaching. Extracted oil was analyzed for quality parameters including free fatty acid content, polyphenol, tocopherol, sterol and carotenoid levels, fatty acid (FA) profile and antioxidative capacity...
July 25, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Amira Namsi, Thomas Nury, Haithem Hamdouni, Aline Yammine, Anne Vejux, Dominique Vervandier-Fasseur, Norbert Latruffe, Olfa Masmoudi-Kouki, Gérard Lizard
In the prevention of neurodegeneration associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease), neuronal differentiation is of interest. In this context, neurotrophic factors are a family of peptides capable of promoting the growth, survival, and/or differentiation of both developing and immature neurons. In contrast to these peptidyl compounds, polyphenols are not degraded in the intestinal tract and are able to cross the blood⁻brain barrier. Consequently, they could potentially be used as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative pathologies associated with neuronal loss, thus requiring the stimulation of neurogenesis...
July 22, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Hui Cao, Juanying Ou, Lei Chen, Yanbo Zhang, Tomasz Szkudelski, Dominique Delmas, Maria Daglia, Jianbo Xiao
Significant evidence from epidemiological investigations showed that dietary polyphenols might manage and prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D). This review summarizes human studies and clinical trials of polyphenols as anti-diabetic agents. Polyphenols from coffee, guava tea, whortleberry, olive oil, propolis, chocolate, red wine, grape seed, and cocoa have been reported to show anti-diabetic effects in T2D patients through increasing glucose metabolism, improving vascular function as well as reducing insulin resistance and HbA1c level...
July 11, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Mehmet Aybeke
The aim of this study is to determine in detail the genotoxic effects of Olive Oil Wastewater (OOWW) on sunflower. For this reason, different concentrations of OOWW (1/1,1/10,1/100) were applied as irrigation water to sunflowers at different times (3-day, 5-day, 10-day). In the plants taken during these times, RAPD-based genomic template stability (GTS) assays and gene expression (transcriptomic) levels of different free radical scavenging enzyme genes (SOD, CAT, SOD2, GST, GPX, APX), protein repair/chaperoning genes (HSP26, HSP70, HSP83), N metabolism gene (GS) and apoptotic genes (BAX, BCL2, BCLXL, CYT-C, XIAP) were compared to the those of the control (OOWW-free) group...
January 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Shuya Yamashita, Asami Hirashima, I-Chian Lin, Jaehoon Bae, Kanami Nakahara, Motoki Murata, Shuhei Yamada, Motofumi Kumazoe, Ren Yoshitomi, Mai Kadomatsu, Yuka Sato, Ayaka Nezu, Ai Hikida, Konatsu Fujino, Kyosuke Murata, Mari Maeda-Yamamoto, Hirofumi Tachibana
Green tea and its major polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) have suppressive effect on dietary obesity. However, it remains unsolved what type of diet on which they exhibit high or low anti-obesity effect. In the present study, we investigated whether anti-obesity effect of green tea differs depending on composition of fats or fatty acids that consist high-fat (HF) diet in mouse model. Green tea extract (GTE) intake dramatically suppressed weight gain and fat accumulation induced by olive oil-based HF diet, whereas the effects on those induced by beef tallow-based HF diet were weak...
July 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Roberto Carnevale, Cristina Nocella, Vittoria Cammisotto, Simona Bartimoccia, Roberto Monticolo, Alessandra D'Amico, Lucia Stefanini, Francesca Pagano, Daniele Pastori, Roberto Cangemi, Francesco Violi
OBJECTIVES: Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) supplementation is associated with a significant reduction in cardiovascular disease but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. METHODS: In platelets that were taken from healthy subjects (n = 5), agonist-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) production and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) activation in the presence of or without catalase, which catabolizes H2 O2 , were investigated. Platelet H2 O2 production, NOX2 activation, EVOO vitamin E, and total polyphenols as well as EVOO's ability to scavenge H2 O2 were also measured...
November 2018: Nutrition
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