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Long Chen, Wen Tang, Nigel W John, Tao Ruan Wan, Jian Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) offers considerable benefits to patients, it also imposes big challenges on a surgeon's performance due to well-known issues and restrictions associated with the field of view (FOV), hand-eye misalignment and disorientation, as well as the lack of stereoscopic depth perception in monocular endoscopy. Augmented Reality (AR) technology can help to overcome these limitations by augmenting the real scene with annotations, labels, tumour measurements or even a 3D reconstruction of anatomy structures at the target surgical locations...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Masafumi Taniwaki, Mihoko Yoshida, Yosuke Matsumoto, Kazuho Shimura, Junya Kuroda, Hiroto Kaneko
Elotuzumab, targeting signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family 7 (SLAMF7), has been approved in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (ELd) for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM) based on the findings of the phase III randomized trial ELOQUENT-2 (NCT01239797). Four-year follow-up analyses of ELOQUENT-2 have demonstrated that progression-free survival was 21% in ELd versus 14% in Ld. Elotuzumab binds a unique epitope on the membrane IgC2 domain of SLAMF7, exhibiting a dual mechanism of action: natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and enhancement of NK cell activity...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Jorien van Hoorn, Ethan M McCormick, Eva H Telzer
Adolescence is a time of increased social-affective sensitivity, which is often related to heightened health-risk behaviors. However, moderate levels of social sensitivity, relative to either low (social vacuum) or high levels (exceptionally attuned), may confer benefits as it facilitates effective navigation of the social world. The present fMRI study tested a curvilinear relationship between social sensitivity and adaptive decision-making. Participants (ages 12-16; N = 35) played the Social Analogue Risk Task (SART), which measures participants' willingness to knock on doors in order to earn points...
February 24, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Akihiko Sugimoto, Tatsuki R Kataoka, Chiyuki Ueshima, Yusuke Takei, Kyohei Kitamura, Masahiro Hirata, Takashi Nomura, Hironori Haga
The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 8 (SLAMF8)/CD353 is a member of the CD2 family of proteins. Its ligand has not been identified. SLAMF8 is expressed by macrophages and suppresses cellular functions. No study has yet explored SLAMF8 expression or function in human mastocytosis, which features oncogenic KIT-mediated proliferation of human mast cells. SLAMF8 protein was expressed in human mastocytosis cells, immunohistochemically. SLAMF8 expression was also evident in the human mast cell lines, HMC1...
March 2, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Susana Lagüela, Iago Dorado, Manuel Gesto, Pedro Arias, Diego González-Aguilera, Henrique Lorenzo
This paper presents a Wearable Prototype for indoor mapping developed by the University of Vigo. The system is based on a Velodyne LiDAR, acquiring points with 16 rays for a simplistic or low-density 3D representation of reality. With this, a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (3D-SLAM) method is developed for the mapping and generation of 3D point clouds of scenarios deprived from GNSS signal. The quality of the system presented is validated through the comparison with a commercial indoor mapping system, Zeb-Revo, from the company GeoSLAM and with a terrestrial LiDAR, Faro Focus3D X330...
March 2, 2018: Sensors
Miguel Ángel Muñoz-Alía, Claude P Muller, Stephen J Russell
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive, lethal complication of measles caused by particular mutants of measles virus (MeV) that persist in the brain despite high levels of neutralizing antibodies. We addressed the hypothesis that antigenic drift is involved in the pathogenetic mechanism of SSPE by analyzing antigenic alterations in the MeV envelope hemagglutinin protein (MeV-H) found in patients with SSPE in relation to major circulating MeV genotypes. To this aim, we obtained cDNA for the MeV-H gene from tissue taken at brain autopsy from 3 deceased persons with SSPE who had short (3-4 months, SMa79), average (3...
2018: PloS One
Gil Katz, Kelsey Voss, Toria F Yan, Yong Chan Kim, Robert L Kortum, David W Scott, Andrew L Snow
Restimulation-induced cell death (RICD) is an apoptotic program that regulates effector T cell expansion, triggered by repeated stimulation through the T cell receptor (TCR) in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Although CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) consume IL-2 and experience frequent TCR stimulation, they are highly resistant to RICD. Resistance in Tregs is dependent on the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) transcription factor, although the mechanism remains unclear. T cells from patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP-1), that lack the adaptor molecule SLAM-associated protein (SAP), are also resistant to RICD...
February 12, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Laura Ruotsalainen, Martti Kirkko-Jaakkola, Jesperi Rantanen, Maija Mäkelä
The long-term objective of our research is to develop a method for infrastructure-free simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) and context recognition for tactical situational awareness. Localization will be realized by propagating motion measurements obtained using a monocular camera, a foot-mounted Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), sonar, and a barometer. Due to the size and weight requirements set by tactical applications, Micro-Electro-Mechanical (MEMS) sensors will be used. However, MEMS sensors suffer from biases and drift errors that may substantially decrease the position accuracy...
February 14, 2018: Sensors
Tyrone Sherwin, Mikala Easte, Andrew Tzer-Yeu Chen, Kevin I-Kai Wang, Wenbin Dai
Location-aware services are one of the key elements of modern intelligent applications. Numerous real-world applications such as factory automation, indoor delivery, and even search and rescue scenarios require autonomous robots to have the ability to navigate in an unknown environment and reach mobile targets with minimal or no prior infrastructure deployment. This research investigates and proposes a novel approach of dynamic target localisation using a single RF emitter, which will be used as the basis of allowing autonomous robots to navigate towards and reach a target...
February 14, 2018: Sensors
Xufu Mu, Jing Chen, Zixiang Zhou, Zhen Leng, Lei Fan
The fusion of monocular visual and inertial cues has become popular in robotics, unmanned vehicles and augmented reality fields. Recent results have shown that optimization-based fusion strategies outperform filtering strategies. Robust state estimation is the core capability for optimization-based visual-inertial Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) systems. As a result of the nonlinearity of visual-inertial systems, the performance heavily relies on the accuracy of initial values (visual scale, gravity, velocity and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) biases)...
February 8, 2018: Sensors
Hila Naaman, Tatiana Rabinski, Avi Yizhak, Solly Mizrahi, Yonat Shemer Avni, Ran Taube, Bracha Rager, Yacov Weinstein, Glenn Rall, Jacob Gopas, Rivka Ofir
In this study, we found that the measles virus (MV) can infect human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Wild-type MV strains generally use human signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM; CD150) as a cellular receptor, while vaccine strains such as the Edmonston strain can use both CD150 and CD46 as receptors. It is not yet known how early in the embryonal differentiation stages these receptors are expressed. We established two hiPSCs (BGU-iPSCs and EMF-iPSCs) which express CD46 and CD150. Both cell types can be infected by MV to form persistent, noncytopathic cell lines that release infectious MV particles...
February 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
Ingrid Bakker, Leon Knoops
In response to the apparent rise in chemsex in the Netherlands Mainline Foundation interviewed 27 MSM about their crystal meth use and/or experience with injecting in a sexual context. These men were interviewed about their motivation for methamphetamine use, their sexual risk-taking behaviour, methods and context of their drug use, and their information- and care needs. In 2015 this resulted in the status report Tina and Slamming: MSM, Crystal Meth Use and Intravenous Drug Use in a Sexual Context. Following the publication of this report Mainline foundation has been offering harm-reduction intervention for MSM and promoting the development of a continuum of care by building networks, training professionals and investing in advocacy...
February 6, 2018: Sexual Health
Anastasios Koulaouzidis, Dimitris K Iakovidis, Diana E Yung, Evangelos Mazomenos, Federico Bianchi, Alexandros Karagyris, George Dimas, Danail Stoyanov, Henrik Thorlacius, Ervin Toth, Gastone Ciuti
Background and study aims : Capsule endoscopy (CE) is invaluable for minimally invasive endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract; however, several technological limitations remain including lack of reliable lesion localization. We present an approach to 3D reconstruction and localization using visual information from 2D CE images. Patients and methods : Colored thumbtacks were secured in rows to the internal wall of a LifeLike bowel model. A PillCam SB3 was calibrated and navigated linearly through the lumen by a high-precision robotic arm...
February 2018: Endoscopy International Open
Sudipta Samanta, Sanchita Mukherjee
The first hydration shell of a protein exhibits heterogeneous behavior owing to several attributes, majorly local polarity and structural flexibility as revealed by solvation dynamics of secondary structural elements. We attempt to recognize the change in complex water counteraction generated due to substantial alteration in flexibility during protein complex formation. The investigation is carried out with the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors, expressed by an array of immune cells, and interacting with SLAM-associated protein (SAP), composed of one SH2 domain...
January 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Nomi Werbeloff, David P J Osborn, Rashmi Patel, Matthew Taylor, Robert Stewart, Matthew Broadbent, Joseph F Hayes
BACKGROUND: Electronic health records (EHRs) are widely used in mental health services. Case registers using EHRs from secondary mental healthcare have the potential to deliver large-scale projects evaluating mental health outcomes in real-world clinical populations. METHODS: We describe the Camden and Islington NHS Foundation Trust (C&I) Research Database which uses the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) tool to extract and de-identify routinely collected clinical information from a large UK provider of secondary mental healthcare, and demonstrate its capabilities to answer a clinical research question regarding time to diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder...
2018: PloS One
Thomas T Y Wang, Quynhchi Pham, Young S Kim
Modulation of the immune system by cancer protective food bioactives has preventive and therapeutic importance in prostate cancer, but the mechanisms remain largely unclear. The current study tests the hypothesis that the diet-derived cancer protective compounds, indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), affect the tumor microenvironment by regulation of inflammatory responses in monocytes and macrophages. We also ask whether I3C and DIM act through the aryl hydrocarbon (AHR)-dependent pathway or the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family protein CD84-mediated pathway...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Michael C Fu, Todd S Ellenbecker, Per A Renstrom, Gary S Windler, David M Dines
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent literature regarding the epidemiology of tennis injuries at all levels of play, and to discuss recent findings in injury surveillance by the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP). RECENT FINDINGS: Following the release of a consensus statement in 2009 calling for standardized documentation and analysis of tennis-related injuries, multiple studies have been published describing longitudinal injury incidences at Grand Slam tournaments and the Davis Cup...
January 16, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Marianne Burbage, Francesca Gasparrini, Shweta Aggarwal, Mauro Gaya, Johan Arnold, Usha Nair, Michael Way, Andreas Bruckbauer, Facundo D Batista
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an immune pathology associated with mutations in WAS protein (WASp) or in WASp interacting protein (WIP). Together with the small GTPase Cdc42 and other effectors, these proteins participate in the remodelling of the actin network downstream of BCR engagement. Here we show that mice lacking the adaptor protein ITSN2, a G-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Cdc42 that also interacts with WASp and WIP, exhibited increased mortality during primary infection, incomplete protection after Flu vaccination, reduced germinal centre formation and impaired antibody responses to vaccination...
January 16, 2018: ELife
Sankhajit Bhattacharjee, Pramod Kumar Yadava
Measles is a highly transmissible disease caused by measles virus and remains a major cause of child mortality in developing countries. Measles virus nucleoprotein (N) encapsidates the RNA genome of the virus for providing protection from host cell endonucleases and for specific recognition of viral RNA as template for transcription and replication. This protein is over-expressed at the time of viral replication. The C-terminal of N protein is intrinsically disordered, which enables this protein to interact with several host cell proteins...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Jill M Comeau, Katherine Kelly, Gary W Jean
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy and safety, cost, and place in therapy of elotuzumab for treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM) are reviewed. SUMMARY: Elotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) protein SLAMF7 and facilitates an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity interaction between myeloma cells and natural killer cells. Elotuzumab has U.S...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
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