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Patch augmentation

Ntethelelo Sibiya, Musa Mabandla
INTRODUCTION: An intensive glycaemic control with insulin injections has been shown to delay the onset and the progression of peripheral neuropathy in diabetes. However, the undesirable effects associated with current mode of insulin administration remains challenging In this study, we have investigated a pectin-insulin patch application on the development of peripheral neuropathic symptoms in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Pectin-insulin patches (20, 40, 82...
October 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Dennis Michael Bergau, Cong Liu, Richard L Magin, Hui Lu
A marked delay in the electrical repolarization of heart ventricles is characterized by prolongation of the Q-T wave (QT) interval on a surface electrocardiogram. Such a delay can lead to potentially life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia (torsades de pointes). Such prolongation is also a widely accepted cardiac safety biomarker in drug development. Current preclinical drug-safety assays include patch clamp analysis to evaluate drug-related blockade of cardiac repolarizing ion currents. Recently reported patch clamp assay results have shown predictive sensitivities and specificities in the ranges of 64%-82% and 75%-88%, respectively...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Markus Liebrich, Vladimir Voth, Nicolas Doll, Wolfgang Hemmer
A major limitation of the more widespread application of aortic valve reconstruction is the lack of a common framework for valve assessment that could  be used to guide a standardized approach to aortic valve repair, similar to that used in reconstructive mitral valve surgery. Most patients with a regurgitant aortic valve are young and possess a specific subtype of a bicuspid aortic valve according to the Sievers classifications system. This video tutorial presents the technical aspects of a standardized approach for reconstruction of the regurgitant bicuspid aortic valve (Sievers type 1, L/R), which was developed during the past decade...
September 26, 2018: Multimedia Manual of Cardiothoracic Surgery: MMCTS
Jiann W Yeoh, Morgan H James, Cameron D Adams, Jaideep S Bains, Takeshi Sakurai, Gary Aston-Jones, Brett A Graham, Christopher V Dayas
The perifornical/lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) orexin (hypocretin) system is involved in drug-seeking behavior elicited by drug-associated stimuli. Cocaine exposure is associated with presynaptic plasticity at LHA orexin cells such that excitatory input to orexin cells is enhanced acutely and into withdrawal. These changes may augment orexin cell reactivity to drug-related cues during abstinence and contribute to relapse-like behavior. Studies in hypothalamic slices from drug-naïve animals indicate that agonism of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) reduces presynaptic glutamate release onto orexin cells...
September 22, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Mingchen Chen, Xingcheng Lin, Wei Lu, Nicholas P Schafer, José N Onuchic, Peter G Wolynes
When good structural templates can be identified, template-based modeling is the most reliable way to predict the tertiary structure of proteins. In this study, we combine template-based modeling with a realistic coarse-grained force field, AWSEM, that has been optimized using the principles of energy landscape theory. The Associative memory, Water mediated, Structure and Energy Model (AWSEM) is a coarse-grained force field having both transferable tertiary interactions and knowledge-based local-in-sequence interaction terms...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Nicholas D Andersen, Michele J Borisuk, David M Hoganson, Rahul H Rathod, Christopher W Baird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 3, 2018: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Andrew Butler, Yihong Zhang, Alan G Stuart, Christopher E Dempsey, Jules C Hancox
The hERG potassium channel is critical to normal repolarization of cardiac action potentials (APs) and loss- and gain-of-function hERG mutations are associated, respectively, with long and short QT syndromes, pathological conditions that can lead to arrhythmias and sudden death. hERG current (Ih ERG ) exhibits uniquely fast inactivation involving conformational changes to the channel pore. The S631A hERG pore mutation was originally engineered to interrogate hERG channel inactivation, but has very recently been found in a family with short QT syndrome (SQTS)...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Shane Anderson, Scott Trenhaile
Irreparable rotator cuff tears are a complicated problem, and current treatment options include nonoperative rehabilitation, debridement with or without a biceps tenotomy, tuberoplasty, partial rotator cuff repair, patch augmentation, biodegradable spacers, tendon transfer, and reverse shoulder arthroplasty. Arthroscopic superior capsular reconstruction is a more recent technique that is gaining popularity for use in irreparable rotator cuff tears. However, this surgery can be technically complicated. The purpose of this technique is to increase reproducibility and simplify a complicated procedure by addressing the current challenges of previous techniques...
August 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Domen Močnik, Bulat Ibragimov, Lei Xing, Primož Strojan, Boštjan Likar, Franjo Pernuš, Tomaž Vrtovec
PURPOSE: To develop an automatic multimodal method for segmentation of parotid glands (PGs) from pre-registered computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images and compare its results to the results of an existing state-of-the-art algorithm that segments PGs from CT images only. METHODS: Magnetic resonance images of head and neck were registered to the accompanying CT images using two different state-of-the-art registration procedures. The reference domains of registered image pairs were divided on the complementary PG regions and backgrounds according to the manual delineation of PGs on CT images, provided by a physician...
August 2018: Physica Medica: PM
H R Wang, W Y Zhang, X H Liu, H Hu, X P Zhang, K X Xu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical effect and safety of biological patch applied in elderly patients with invasive bladder cancer who underwent massive partial cystectomy with augmentation cystoplasty. METHODS: The clinical data of 2 patients with invasive bladder cancer from October 2016 to March 2017, who underwent the massive partial cystectomy with augmentation cystoplasty were retrospectively reviewed. Case one was an 87-year-old man, with tumor located on the bladder anterior wall, ranging from 5...
August 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Eilon Ram, Leonid Sternik, Alexander Lipey, Sagit Ben Zekry, Ronny Ben-Avi, Yaron Moshkovitz, Ehud Raanani
BACKGROUND: Unicuspid and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) are congenital cardiac anomalies associated with valvular dysfunction and aortopathies occurring at a young age. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate our experience with aortic valve repair (AVr) in patients with bicuspid or unicuspid aortic valves. METHODS: Eighty patients with BAV or unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) underwent AVr. Mean patient age was 42 ± 14 years and 94% were male. Surgical technique included: aortic root replacement with or without cusp repair in 43 patients (53%), replacement of the ascending aorta at the height of the sino-tubular junction with or without cusp repair in 15 patients (19%), and isolated cusp repair in 22 patients (28%)...
July 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Sagar S Bachhav, Vikas D Dighe, Padma V Devarajan
Uptake of nanoparticles through Peyer's Patches following oral administration could enable translocation through lymph to lymphatic organs like the lungs. An important consideration, however, is nanosize and particle hydrophobicity. Furthermore, as delivering the nanoparticles to the intestine where the Peyer's Patches are localized is important, their intact and rapid transit through the stomach into the intestine is highly desirable. We report hydrophobization of mucoadhesive Rifampicin-GantrezAN-119 nanoparticles (GzNP) using a hydrophobic polymer, ethyl cellulose (EC), with the objectives of augmenting Peyer's Patch uptake due to enhanced hydrophobicity and increased intestinal localization as a result of decreased mucoadhesion...
August 28, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Johannes Brockhaus, Miriam Schreitmüller, Daniele Repetto, Oliver Klatt, Carsten Reissner, Keith Elmslie, Martin Heine, Markus Missler
Action potential-evoked neurotransmitter release is impaired in knockout neurons lacking synaptic cell-adhesion molecules α-neurexins (αNrxns), the extracellularly longer variants of the three vertebrate Nrxn genes. Ca2+ influx through presynaptic high-voltage gated calcium channels like the ubiquitous P/Q-type (CaV 2.1) triggers release of fusion-ready vesicles at many boutons. α2δ auxiliary subunits regulate trafficking and kinetic properties of CaV 2.1 pore-forming subunits but it has remained unclear if this involves αNrxns...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Lili Hou, Min Zhang, Xingyi Zhang, Zhenwei Liu, Pengyu Zhang, Dongying Qiu, Lei Zhu, Xin Zhou
The airway vagal preganglionic neurons (AVPNs) providing projections to intrinsic tracheobronchial ganglia are considered to be crucial to modulation of airway resistance in physiological and pathological states. AVPNs classified into inspiratory-activated AVPNs (IA-AVPNs) and inspiratory-inhibited AVPNs (II-AVPNs) are regulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-containing terminals. TRH causes a direct excitatory current and attenuates the phasic inspiratory glycinergic inputs in II-AVPNs, however, whether and how TRH influences IA-AVPNs remains unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Roni M Jacobsen, Michael E Mitchell, Ronald K Woods, Rohit S Loomba, James S Tweddell
BACKGROUND: Norwood palliation typically requires patch augmentation of the ascending aorta and aortic arch. Patients having undergone Norwood palliation are at risk of recurrent arch obstruction, the risk of which may be impacted by the type of patch material used at the time of Norwood palliation. We sought to determine the freedom from neo-aortic arch re-intervention and overall survival in patients who underwent Norwood palliation utilizing porcine small intestinal submucosa (PSIS) as the patch material...
July 25, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Kevin D He, George N Rymarczuk, Shannon W Clark, John L Gillick, Payman Vahedi, Ashwini D Sharan
BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid-pleural fistulas (SPFs) are rare but significant complications of transthoracic spinal surgery. Whether noted intraoperatively or in the postoperative period, SPF requires implementation of aggressive management, with consideration given to direct surgical repair. Additionally, the physical constraints of the thoracic cavity often hinder direct SPF repair. OBJECTIVE: To present a novel operative technique that can be used to easily and quickly address incidental durotomy incurred during transthoracic spinal surgery while working within the confines of the thorax...
July 21, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
E Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco use is related to augmented morbidity and mortality. People who smoke heavily before orthopedic surgery may have more nonmedical complications than nonsmokers. Therefore, all orthopedic surgery patients should be screened for tobacco use. AIM: To investigate the musculoskeletal effects of perioperative smoking. METHODS: A narrative review of the literature on the topic was performed. RESULTS: Orthopedic perioperative complications of smoking include impaired wound healing, augmented infection, delayed and/or impaired fracture union and arthrodesis, and worst total knee and hip arthroplasty results...
October 2018: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
Hisayuki Hongu, Masaaki Yamagishi, Takako Miyazaki, Yoshinobu Maeda, Satoshi Taniguchi, Satoshi Asada, Shuhei Fujita, Hitoshi Yaku
BACKGROUND: Conventional Rastelli, Lecompte, and Nikaidoh operations are accepted as standard techniques for complete transposition of the great arteries (TGA) with left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. These operations show serious drawbacks, however, including postoperative obstruction of both ventricular outflow tracts. We developed the half-turned truncal switch operation (HTTSO) to address these problems. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2017, 14 patients underwent HTTSO...
July 19, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Zeinab A Ibrahim, Ghada F Hassan, Hoda Y Elgendy, Hanan A Al-Shenawy
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is a common pigmentary disorder affecting about 1% of the general population. There are numerous medical and surgical treatments. Microneedling is an evolving treatment technique for an expanding number of dermatologic conditions. It is used also to augment transdermal drug delivery through pores created in the stratum corneum. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of microneedling with tacrolimus versus its efficacy with calcipotriol plus betamethasone in vitiligo treatment...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Brandon K Zimmerman, Gerard A Ateshian
This study formulates a finite element algorithm for frictional contact of solid materials, accommodating finite deformation and sliding. The algorithm uses a penalty method regularized with an augmented Lagrangian scheme to enforce contact constraints in a nonmortar surface-to-surface approach. Use of a novel kinematical approach to contact detection and enforcement of frictional constraints allows solution of complex problems previously requiring mortar methods or contact smoothing algorithms. Patch tests are satisfied to a high degree of accuracy with a single-pass penalty method, ensuring formulation errors do not affect the solution...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
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