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Patch augmentation

Ying Wang, Shukui Zhou, Ranxing Yang, Qingsong Zou, Kaile Zhang, Qinghua Tian, Weixin Zhao, Lijuan Zong, Qiang Fu
Cell-seeded scaffolds are a common route of cell transplantation for bladder repair and reconstruction. However, when cell suspensions are harvested, proteolytic enzymes often cause extracellular matrix damage and loss of intercellular junctions. To overcome this problem, we developed a bioengineered three-dimensional bladder patch comprising porous scaffolds and multilayered adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) sheets, and evaluated its feasibility for bladder regeneration in a rat model. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were labeled with ultrasmall super-paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles...
December 12, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Timothy J Eyes, James I Austerberry, Rebecca J Dearman, Linus O Johannissen, Ian Kimber, Noel Smith, Angela Thistlethwaite, Jeremy P Derrick
Aggregation of therapeutic proteins is a key factor in the generation of unwanted immunogenicity, and can result in reduced serum half-life, neutralization of function and adverse health effects. There is currently little information regarding how aggregates interact with B-cell receptors or cognate antibodies at the protein sequence level, or whether non-native, aggregate-induced epitopes predominate in these interactions. Using an antibody fragment (single chain antibody variable fragment; scFv) that forms aggregates readily at low temperature, anti-scFv IgG antibody responses were generated by intraperitoneal injection of BALB/c strain mice with monomer or aggregate preparations...
December 11, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Shital Sarah Ahaley
In Hedgehog (Hh) signalling, Hh ligand concentration gradient is effectively translated into a spatially distinct transcriptional program to give precisely controlled context dependent developmental outcomes. In the absence of Hh, the receptor Patched (Ptc) inhibits the signal transducer Smoothened (Smo) by maintaining low phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) levels. Binding of Hh to its receptor Ptc promotes PI(4)P production, which in turn activates Smo. Using wingdiscs of Drosophila melanogaster , this study shows that Synaptojanin (Synj), a dual phosphatase, modulates PI(4)P levels and affects Smo activation, and thereby functions as an additional regulatory step in the Hh pathway...
December 2018: Journal of Biosciences
Makoto Murata, Yoshiko Ariji, Yasufumi Ohashi, Taisuke Kawai, Motoki Fukuda, Takuma Funakoshi, Yoshitaka Kise, Michihito Nozawa, Akitoshi Katsumata, Hiroshi Fujita, Eiichiro Ariji
OBJECTIVES: To apply a deep-learning system for diagnosis of maxillary sinusitis on panoramic radiography, and to clarify its diagnostic performance. METHODS: Training data for 400 healthy and 400 inflamed maxillary sinuses were enhanced to 6000 samples in each category by data augmentation. Image patches were input into a deep-learning system, the learning process was repeated for 200 epochs, and a learning model was created. Newly-prepared testing image patches from 60 healthy and 60 inflamed sinuses were input into the learning model, and the diagnostic performance was calculated...
December 11, 2018: Oral Radiology
Jacques T Janson, Alfonso Pecoraro
Mitral valve repair can sometimes require leaflet augmentation or a patch repair of a defect in the leaflet. No ideal patch material is currently available which can grow and adapt with the mitral leaflet. We describe a new technique by using autologous saphenous vein as patch material. The saphenous vein is untreated, living tissue and remains flexible as a patch or leaflet augmentation for up to 3 years on echocardiography.
December 1, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Junnan Tang, Jinqiang Wang, Ke Huang, Yanqi Ye, Teng Su, Li Qiao, Michael Taylor Hensley, Thomas George Caranasos, Jinying Zhang, Zhen Gu, Ke Cheng
We engineered a microneedle patch integrated with cardiac stromal cells (MN-CSCs) for therapeutic heart regeneration after acute myocardial infarction (MI). To perform cell-based heart regeneration, cells are currently delivered to the heart via direct muscle injection, intravascular infusion, or transplantation of epicardial patches. The first two approaches suffer from poor cell retention, while epicardial patches integrate slowly with host myocardium. Here, we used polymeric MNs to create "channels" between host myocardium and therapeutic CSCs...
November 2018: Science Advances
Nadeem Iqbal, Omar Zia Syed, Amna Haider Bukhari, Abdul Ahad Ehsan Sheikh, Umair Syed Mahmud, Faheemullah Khan, Ijaz Hussain, Saeed Akhter
OBJECTIVE: Mitrofanoff procedure has been employed commonly as bladder draining tool in patients unable to do clean intermittent self catheterization through native urethera. Single centre experience of pediatric age group patients undergoing Mitrofanoff procedure has been presented here. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was a retrospective study of 29 children who underwent continent catheterizable conduit (CCC), from January 2009 till March 2017. Charts were reviewed for age, gender, presenting complaints, need for augmentation cystoplasty, Mitrofanoff channel source such as appendix or ileal patch, duration of surgery in minutes, hospital stay in days, per operative and postoperative complications...
November 26, 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
Lia Walcher, Clara Budde, Arina Böhm, Peter S Reinach, Priyavathi Dhandapani, Nina Ljubojevic, Markus W Schweiger, Henriette von der Waydbrink, Ilka Reimers, Josef Köhrle, Stefan Mergler
In human uveal melanoma (UM), tumor enlargement is associated with increases in aqueous humor vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) content that induce neovascularization. 3-Iodothyronamine (3-T1 AM), an endogenous thyroid hormone metabolite, activates TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8), which blunts TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) activation by capsaicin (CAP) in human corneal, conjunctival epithelial cells, and stromal cells. We compare here the effects of TRPM8 activation on VEGF-induced transactivation of TRPV1 in an UM cell line (92...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Peng Chu, Chunjuan Bo, Xin Liang, Jie Yang, Vasileios Megalooikonomou, Fan Yang, Bingyao Huang, Xinyi Li, Haibin Ling
Dental Panoramic radiography (DPR) image provides a potentially inexpensive source to evaluate bone density change through visual clue analysis on trabecular bone structure. However, dense overlapping of bone structures in DPR image and scarcity of labeled samples make learning of accurate mapping from DPR patches to osteoporosis condition challenging. In this paper, we propose a deep Octuplet Siamese Network (OSN) to learn and fuse discriminative features for osteoporosis condition prediction using multiple DRP patches...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Gemma Greenall, Andrew Carr, David Beard, Jonathan Rees, Amar Rangan, Naomi Merritt, Melina Dritsaki, Navraj S Nagra, Mathew Baldwin, Sally Hopewell, Jonathan A Cook
BACKGROUND: Shoulder pain is a common problem in the general population and is responsible for prolonged periods of disability, loss of productivity, absence from work and inability to carry out household activities. Rotator cuff problems account for up to 70% of shoulder pain problems and are the third most prevalent musculoskeletal disorder after those occurring in the lower back and neck. Rotator cuff surgery has high failure rates (25-50% within 12 months), and as a result, there is a pressing need to improve the outcome of rotator cuff surgery...
November 13, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Aria Pezeshk, Sardar Hamidian, Nicholas Petrick, Berkman Sahiner
Deep 2D convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been remarkably successful in producing record-breaking results in a variety of computer vision tasks. It is possible to extend CNNs to three dimensions using 3D kernels to make them suitable for volumetric medical imaging data such as CT or MRI, but this increases the processing time as well as the required number of training samples (due to the higher number of parameters that need to be learned). In this work, we address both of these issues for a 3D CNN implementation through the development of a two-stage computer-aided detection system for automatic detection of pulmonary nodules...
November 9, 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Zhengwang Wu, Gang Li, Li Wang, Weili Lin, John H Gilmore, Dinggang Shen
The cortical surface atlases constructed from a large representative population of neonates are highly needed in the neonatal neuroimaging studies. However, existing neonatal cortical surface atlases are typically constructed from small datasets, e.g., tens of subjects, which are inherently biased and thus are not representative to the neonatal population. In this paper, we construct neonatal cortical surface atlases based on a large-scale dataset with 764 subjects. To better characterize the dynamic cortical development during the first postnatal weeks, instead of constructing just a single atlas, we construct a set of spatiotemporal atlases at each week from 39 to 44 gestational weeks...
April 2018: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: from Nano to Macro
Hao Zhang, Toshihide Kashihara, Tsutomu Nakada, Satoshi Tanaka, Kumiko Ishida, Satoshi Fuseya, Hiroyuki Kawagishi, Kenkichi Kiyosawa, Mikito Kawamata, Mitsuhiko Yamada
An injury of the somatosensory system causes neuropathic pain, which is usually refractory to conventional analgesics, thus warranting the development of novel drugs against this kind of pain. The mechanism of neuropathic pain in rats that had undergone left L5 spinal nerve transection was analyzed. After 10 days of the surgery, these rats acquired neuropathic pain. The patch-clamp technique was used on the isolated bilateral L5 dorsal root ganglion neurons. The current-clamped neurons on the ipsilateral side exhibited significantly higher excitability than those on the contralateral side...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
(no author information available yet)
Levetiracetam (LEV) is an anti-epileptic drug with demonstrated efficacy against generalized seizures. Recent studies have found that LEV affects the release of neurotransmitters by binding to synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A). However, the details of LEV regulation of synaptic transmission remain poorly understood. Here, we used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to further characterize the effects of LEV on synaptic transmission at a large mammalian central synapse, the calyx of Held. Our results showed that two common forms of vesicle endocytosis, including slow and rapid endocytosis, were dramatically inhibited when slices were incubated in 100 μM LEV for 1 h, however, the action potential (AP), calcium influx and exocytosis were not affected...
November 1, 2018: Die Pharmazie
Saju Balakrishnan, Sergej L Mironov
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurological disorder caused by the mutation of the X-linked MECP2 gene. The neurophysiological hallmark of the RTT phenotype is the hyperexcitability of neurons made responsible for frequent epileptic attacks in the patients. Increased excitability in RTT might stem from impaired glutamate handling in RTT and its long-term consequences that has not been examined quantitatively. We recently reported (Balakrishnan and Mironov, 2018a,b) that the RTT hippocampus consistently demonstrates repetitive glutamate transients that parallel the burst firing in the CA1 neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Aleksandr Voskoboinik, Jeremy Moskovitch, George Plunkett, Jason Bloom, Geoffrey Wong, Chrishan Nalliah, Sandeep Prabhu, Hariharan Sugumar, Ramanathan Paramasweran, Alex McLellan, Liang-Han Ling, Cheng-Yee Goh, Samer Noaman, Himawan Fernando, Michael Wong, Andrew J Taylor, Jonathan M Kalman, Peter M Kistler
AIMS: Obesity is associated with higher electrical cardioversion (ECV) failure in persistent atrial fibrillation (PeAF). For ease-of-use, many centers prefer patches over paddles. We assessed the optimum modality and shock vector, as well as the safety and efficacy of the Manual Pressure Augmentation (MPA) technique. METHODS: Patients with obesity (BMI ≥ 30) and PeAF undergoing ECV using a biphasic defibrillator were randomized into one of four arms by modality (adhesive patches or handheld paddles) and shock vector (anteroposterior [AP] or anteroapical [AA])...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Benjamin J Rubinstein, Jesse D Ranney, Parastoo Khoshakhlagh, Barry Strasnick, Elaine L Horn-Ranney
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the efficacy of a photocrosslinkable gel patch for repairing tympanic membrane (TM) perforations using a minimally invasive procedure. METHODS: 38 adult male chinchillas underwent bilateral TM perforation via CO2 laser (n = 76 TMs). Eight weeks post-perforation induction, either a gel patch (n = 26) or EpiDisc (n = 12) was applied to the perforation through the ear canal. Perforation margins were not abraded prior to gel patch application in order to make the procedure minimally invasive...
December 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Lei Chen, Zhi-Lai Yang, Juan Cheng, Ping-Ping Zhang, Le-Sha Zhang, Xue-Sheng Liu, Lie-Cheng Wang
Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic that can active γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA ) receptors and generate sedative-hypnotic effects. Propofol has been widely applied clinically to achieve sedation comparable to sleep in humans. The basal forebrain (BF) is a brain region that plays an important role in sleep-wake regulation. Previous studies suggest that propofol affects the sleep-wake circuit via the BF; however, the mechanism remains elusive. In the current study we investigated the effects of propofol on the inherent properties of cholinergic neurons and their ability to convert excitatory inputs into spikes in mouse BF slices using whole-cell patch clamp recordings...
October 26, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Michael Kittl, Heidemarie Dobias, Marlena Beyreis, Tobias Kiesslich, Christian Mayr, Martin Gaisberger, Markus Ritter, Hubert H Kerschbaum, Martin Jakab
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The neutral, non-essential amino acid glycine has manifold functions and effects under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Besides its function as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, glycine also exerts immunomodulatory effects and as an osmolyte it participates in cell volume regulation. During phagocytosis, glycine contributes to (local) cell volume-dependent processes like lamellipodium formation. Similar to the expansion of the lamellipodium we assume that glycine also affects the migration of microglial cells in a cell volume-dependent manner...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ntethelelo Sibiya, Musa Mabandla
INTRODUCTION: An intensive glycaemic control with insulin injections has been shown to delay the onset and the progression of peripheral neuropathy in diabetes. However, the undesirable effects associated with current mode of insulin administration remains challenging In this study, we have investigated a pectin-insulin patch application on the development of peripheral neuropathic symptoms in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Pectin-insulin patches (20, 40, 82...
October 16, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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