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Viral zoonoses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939125/how-myeloid-cells-contribute-to-the-pathogenesis-of-prominent-emerging-zoonotic-diseases
#1
Aroon Supramaniam, Hayman Lui, Bernadette M Bellette, Penny A Rudd, Lara J Herrero
Up to 75 % of emerging human diseases are zoonoses, spread from animals to humans. Although bacteria, fungi and parasites can be causative agents, the majority of zoonotic infections are caused by viral pathogens. During the past 20 years many factors have converged to cause a dramatic resurgence or emergence of zoonotic diseases. Some of these factors include demographics, social changes, urban sprawl, changes in agricultural practices and global climate changes. In the period between 2014-2017 zoonotic viruses including ebola virus (EBOV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), dengue virus (DENV) and zika virus (ZIKV), caused prominent outbreaks resulting in significant public health and economic burdens, especially in developing areas where these diseases are most prevalent...
June 25, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931738/baited-vaccines-a-strategy-to-mitigate-rodent-borne-viral-zoonoses-in-humans
#2
Emelissa J Mendoza, Bryce Warner, Gary Kobinger, Nicholas H Ogden, David Safronetz
Rodents serve as the natural reservoir and vector for a variety of pathogens, some of which are responsible for severe and life-threatening disease in humans. Despite the significant impact in humans many of these viruses, including Old and New World hantaviruses as well as Arenaviruses, most have no specific vaccine or therapeutic to treat or prevent human infection. The recent success of wildlife vaccines to mitigate rabies in animal populations offers interesting insight into the use of similar strategies for other zoonotic agents of human disease...
June 21, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796719/emerging-rodent-borne-viral-zoonoses-in-trento-italy
#3
Valentina Tagliapietra, Roberto Rosà, Chiara Rossi, Fausta Rosso, Heidi Christine Hauffe, Michele Tommasini, Walter Versini, Attilio Fabio Cristallo, Annapaola Rizzoli
Rodent-borne hanta- and arenaviruses are an emerging public health threat in Europe; however, their circulation in human populations is usually underestimated since most infections are asymptomatic. Compared to other European countries, Italy is considered 'low risk' for these viruses, yet in the Province of Trento, two pathogenic hantaviruses (Puumala and Dobrava-Belgrade virus) and one arenavirus (Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus) are known to circulate in rodent reservoirs. In this paper, we performed a follow-up serological screening in humans to detect variation in the prevalence of these three viruses compared to previous analyses carried out in 2002...
May 23, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791951/nervous-system-infections-and-the-global-traveler
#4
Savina Reid, Haley Thompson, Kiran T Thakur
Neurological complications of infectious diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. It is imperative that neurologists be up-to-date on current developments including typical and atypical presentations of neurological infections in travelers, diagnostic and treatment recommendations, and emerging pathogen resistance patterns to avoid fatal outcomes and long-term sequelae. This article will address concepts of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, and will provide updates on the neurological manifestations of select emerging and reemerging infections, including Ebola virus, bacterial meningitis, enterovirus 71, Zika virus, cerebral malaria, and Japanese encephalitis...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780018/overview-of-zoonotic-diseases-in-turkey-the-one-health-concept-and-future-threats
#5
Abdullah İnci, Mehmet Doğanay, Aykut Özdarendeli, Önder Düzlü, Alparslan Yıldırım
Zoonotic infections are globally important diseases and lead to huge economic losses in both low- and middle-income and high-income countries. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes, illegal movement of animals and humans, regional civil wars, and poverty are predisposing factors for the emergence of zoonotic infections and their distribution worldwide; they are also a big threat for the future. In addition, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance are immense serious threats and dangers to prevent and control zoonotic infections...
March 2018: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715287/multisectoral-prioritization-of-zoonotic-diseases-in-uganda-2017-a-one-health-perspective
#6
Musa Sekamatte, Vikram Krishnasamy, Lilian Bulage, Christine Kihembo, Noelina Nantima, Fred Monje, Deo Ndumu, Juliet Sentumbwe, Betty Mbolanyi, Robert Aruho, Winyi Kaboyo, David Mutonga, Colin Basler, Sarah Paige, Casey Barton Behravesh
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic diseases continue to be a public health burden globally. Uganda is especially vulnerable due to its location, biodiversity, and population. Given these concerns, the Ugandan government in collaboration with the Global Health Security Agenda conducted a One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization Workshop to identify zoonotic diseases of greatest national concern to the Ugandan government. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool, a semi-quantitative tool developed by the U...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460207/bird-feathers-as-potential-sources-of-pathogenic-microorganisms-a-new-look-at-old-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Andrzej Miskiewicz, Paweł Kowalczyk, Sanaa Mahdi Oraibi, Krystyna Cybulska, Anna Misiewicz
This article describes methods of treatment for avian zoonoses, modern antibiotic therapy and drug resistance of selected pathogens, which pose a threat to the population's health. A tabular form has been used to present the current data from the European Union from 2011 to 2017 regarding human morbidity and mortality and the costs incurred by national health systems for the treatment of zoonoses occurring in humans and animals. Moreover, the paper includes descriptions of selected diseases, which indirectly affect birds...
February 19, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454844/the-epidemiology-of-febrile-illness-in-sub-saharan-africa-implications-for-diagnosis-and-management
#8
REVIEW
M J Maze, Q Bassat, N A Feasey, I Mandomando, P Musicha, J A Crump
BACKGROUND: Fever is among the most common symptoms of people living in Africa, and clinicians are challenged by the similar clinical features of a wide spectrum of potential aetiologies. AIM: To summarize recent studies of fever aetiology in sub-Saharan Africa focusing on causes other than malaria. SOURCES: A narrative literature review by searching the MEDLINE database, and recent conference abstracts. CONTENT: Studies of multiple potential causes of fever are scarce, and for many participants the infecting organism remains unidentified, or multiple co-infecting microorganisms are identified, and establishing causation is challenging...
August 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300777/internal-genes-of-a-highly-pathogenic-h5n1-influenza-virus-determine-high-viral-replication-in-myeloid-cells-and-severe-outcome-of-infection-in-mice
#9
Hui Li, Konrad C Bradley, Jason S Long, Rebecca Frise, Jonathan W Ashcroft, Lorian C Hartgroves, Holly Shelton, Spyridon Makris, Cecilia Johansson, Bin Cao, Wendy S Barclay
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 influenza virus has been a public health concern for more than a decade because of its frequent zoonoses and the high case fatality rate associated with human infections. Severe disease following H5N1 influenza infection is often associated with dysregulated host innate immune response also known as cytokine storm but the virological and cellular basis of these responses has not been clearly described. We rescued a series of 6:2 reassortant viruses that combined a PR8 HA/NA pairing with the internal gene segments from human adapted H1N1, H3N2, or avian H5N1 viruses and found that mice infected with the virus with H5N1 internal genes suffered severe weight loss associated with increased lung cytokines but not high viral load...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212937/experimental-adaptive-evolution-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-sivcpz-to-pandemic-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-by-using-a-humanized-mouse-model
#10
Kei Sato, Naoko Misawa, Junko S Takeuchi, Tomoko Kobayashi, Taisuke Izumi, Hirofumi Aso, Shumpei Nagaoka, Keisuke Yamamoto, Izumi Kimura, Yoriyuki Konno, Yusuke Nakano, Yoshio Koyanagi
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of AIDS, originated from simian immunodeficiency virus from chimpanzees (SIVcpz), the precursor of the human virus, approximately 100 years ago. This indicates that HIV-1 has emerged through the cross-species transmission of SIVcpz from chimpanzees to humans. However, it remains unclear how SIVcpz has evolved into pandemic HIV-1 in humans. To address this question, we inoculated three SIVcpz strains (MB897, EK505, and MT145), four pandemic HIV-1 strains (NL4-3, NLCSFV3, JRCSF, and AD8), and two nonpandemic HIV-1 strains (YBF30 and DJO0131)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043164/the-viral-aetiology-of-influenza-like-illnesses-in-kampala-and-entebbe-uganda-2008
#11
Stephen Balinandi, Barnabas Bakamutumaho, John T Kayiwa, Juliette Ongus, Joseph Oundo, Anna C Awor, Julius J Lutwama
BACKGROUND: As the threat of zoonoses and the emergence of pandemic-prone respiratory viruses increases, there is a need to establish baseline information on the incidence of endemic pathogens in countries worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence of viruses associated with influenza-like illnesses (ILI) in Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected from patients diagnosed with ILI in Kampala and Entebbe between 14 August 2008 - 15 December 2008...
2013: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933680/prevalence-of-antibodies-against-hepatitis-e-virus-in-veterinarians-in-estonia
#12
Brian Lassen, Marilin Janson, Kädi Neare, Tatjana Tallo, Irina Reshetnjak, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Arvo Viltrop, Irina Golovljova, Pikka Jokelainen
In this cross-sectional study, we investigated veterinarians in Estonia for evidence of exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV). In 2012, we collected sera from 158 persons attending a veterinary conference, of whom 156 completed a questionnaire covering their background information. Altogether 115 persons reported they had obtained a veterinary degree and were included in this study. The sera were tested for presence of antibodies against HEV using a commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and a commercial immunoblot assay in series...
November 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931021/zoonotic-infection-of-brazilian-primate-workers-with-new-world-simian-foamy-virus
#13
Cláudia P Muniz, Liliane T F Cavalcante, Hongwei Jia, HaoQiang Zheng, Shaohua Tang, Anderson M Augusto, Alcides Pissinatti, Luiz P Fedullo, André F Santos, Marcelo A Soares, William M Switzer
Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are retroviruses present in nearly all nonhuman primates (NHPs), including Old World primates (OWP) and New World primates (NWP). While all confirmed human infections with SFV are from zoonotic transmissions originating from OWP, little is known about the zoonotic transmission potential of NWP SFV. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective study of 56 workers occupationally exposed to NWP in Brazil. Plasma from these workers was tested using Western blot (WB) assays containing NWP SFV antigens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915240/improved-reliability-of-serological-tools-for-the-diagnosis-of-west-nile-fever-in-horses-within-europe
#14
Cécile Beck, Steeve Lowenski, Benoit Durand, Céline Bahuon, Stéphan Zientara, Sylvie Lecollinet
West Nile Fever is a zoonotic disease caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus, WNV. By its clinical sensitivity to the disease, the horse is a useful sentinel of infection. Because of the virus' low-level, short-term viraemia in horses, the primary tools used to diagnose WNV are serological tests. Inter-laboratory proficiency tests (ILPTs) were held in 2010 and 2013 to evaluate WNV serological diagnostic tools suited for the European network of National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for equine diseases. These ILPTs were designed to evaluate the laboratories' and methods' performances in detecting WNV infection in horses through serology...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902913/identification-of-diverse-viruses-in-upper-respiratory-samples-in-dromedary-camels-from-united-arab-emirates
#15
Yan Li, Abdelmalik Ibrahim Khalafalla, Clinton R Paden, Mohammed F Yusof, Yassir M Eltahir, Zulaikha M Al Hammadi, Ying Tao, Krista Queen, Farida Al Hosani, Susan I Gerber, Aron J Hall, Salama Al Muhairi, Suxiang Tong
Camels are known carriers for many viral pathogens, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). It is likely that there are additional, as yet unidentified viruses in camels with the potential to cause disease in humans. In this study, we performed metagenomic sequencing analysis on nasopharyngeal swab samples from 108 MERS-CoV-positive dromedary camels from a live animal market in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. We obtained a total of 846.72 million high-quality reads from these nasopharyngeal swab samples, of which 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873024/serological-survey-of-zoonotic-viruses-in-invasive-and-native-commensal-rodents-in-senegal-west-africa
#16
Christophe A Diagne, Nathalie Charbonnel, Heikki Henttonen, Tarja Sironen, Carine Brouat
Increasing studies on rodent-borne diseases still highlight the major role of rodents as reservoirs of numerous zoonoses of which the frequency is likely to increase worldwide as a result of accelerated anthropogenic changes, including biological invasions. Such a situation makes pathogen detection in rodent populations important, especially in the context of developing countries characterized by high infectious disease burden. Here, we used indirect fluorescent antibody tests to describe the circulation of potentially zoonotic viruses in both invasive (Mus musculus domesticus and Rattus rattus) and native (Mastomys erythroleucus and Mastomys natalensis) murine rodent populations in Senegal (West Africa)...
October 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863277/insights-into-genetic-diversity-and-biological-propensities-of-potentially-zoonotic-avian-influenza-h9n2-viruses-circulating-in-egypt
#17
Mahmoud M Naguib, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Rokshana Parvin, Martin Beer, Thomas Vahlenkamp, Timm C Harder
Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses have established endemic status in Egyptian poultry populations since 2012. Recently, four cases of human H9N2 virus infections in Egypt demonstrated the zoonotic potential of these viruses. Egyptian H9N2 viruses obtained from 2011 to 2014 phylogenetically grouped into three clusters (1-3) within subclade B of the G1 lineage. Antigenically, a close clustering of the Egyptian H9N2 viruses with other recent G1-B like H9N2 strains and a significant antigenic distance from viruses outside the G1-B lineage was evident...
November 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863180/a-non-invasive-specimen-collection-method-and-a-novel-simian-foamy-virus-sfv-dna-quantification-assay-in-new-world-primates-reveal-aspects-of-tissue-tropism-and-improved-sfv-detection
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Cláudia P Muniz, HaoQiang Zheng, Hongwei Jia, Liliane T F Cavalcante, Anderson M Augusto, Luiz P Fedullo, Alcides Pissinatti, Marcelo A Soares, William M Switzer, André F Santos
Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) co-evolved with a wide range of Old World and New World primates (OWPs and NWPs, respectively) and occasionally transmit to humans. Previous studies of OWPs showed that the predominant site of SFV replication is the oral mucosa. However, very little is known about SFV viral loads (VLs) in the oral mucosa or blood of NWPs. NWPs have smaller body sizes, limiting collection of sufficient whole blood volumes to molecularly detect and quantify SFV. Our study evaluated the use of noninvasively collected buccal swabs to detect NWP SFV compared with detection in blood using a new NWP SFV quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836897/genomic-characterization-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-in-hyalomma-tick-from-spain-2014
#19
Maria N B Cajimat, Sergio E Rodriguez, Isolde U E Schuster, Daniele M Swetnam, Thomas G Ksiazek, Miguel A Habela, Ana Isabel Negredo, Agustín Estrada-Peña, Alan D T Barrett, Dennis A Bente
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a severe tick-borne disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV). Ticks in the genus Hyalomma are the main vectors and reservoirs of CCHFV. In Spain, CCHFV was first detected in Hyalomma ticks from Cáceres in 2010. Subsequently, two autochthonous CCHF cases were reported in August 2016. In this study, we describe the characterization of the CCHFV genome directly from Hyalomma lusitanicum collected in Cáceres in 2014. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a close relationship with clade III strains from West Africa, with an estimated divergence time of 50 years...
October 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814512/zoonotic-risk-pathogenesis-and-transmission-of-avian-origin-h3n2-canine-influenza-virus
#20
Hailiang Sun, Sherry Blackmon, Guohua Yang, Kaitlyn Waters, Tao Li, Ratanaporn Tangwangvivat, Yifei Xu, Daniel Shyu, Feng Wen, Jim Cooley, Lucy Senter, Xiaoxu Lin, Richard Jarman, Larry Hanson, Richard Webby, Xiu-Feng Wan
Two subtypes of influenza A virus (IAV), avian-origin canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 (CIV-H3N2) and equine-origin CIV H3N8 (CIV-H3N8), are enzootic in the canine population. Dogs have been demonstrated to seroconvert in response to diverse IAVs, and naturally occurring reassortants of CIV-H3N2 and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus (pdmH1N1) have been isolated. We conducted a thorough phenotypic evaluation of CIV-H3N2 in order to assess its threat to human health. Using ferret-generated antiserum, we determined that CIV-H3N2 is antigenically distinct from contemporary human H3N2 IAVs, suggesting that there may be minimal herd immunity in humans...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
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