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Haruka Takei, Mie Shiraishi, Masayo Matsuzaki, Megumi Haruna
INTRODUCTION: Vegetable intake (VI) is important for both fetal and maternal health. However, VI is insufficient among many pregnant Japanese women. This study aimed to identify the factors related to VI during pregnancy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014, at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Dietary intake was assessed using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Demographic, physical, and psychological characteristics, dietary habits, and health-related behaviors were investigated using another questionnaire...
August 10, 2018: Appetite
Chaiyasit Sittiwet, Piia Simonen, Markku J Nissinen, Helena Gylling, Timo E Strandberg
Cerebral cholesterol metabolism is perturbed in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), but whether also the extracerebral cholesterol metabolism is perturbed is not known. Thus, we studied whole-body cholesterol synthesis and absorption with serum noncholesterol sterols in men without AD (n = 114) or with (n = 18) "pure" AD (no concomitant atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease) in a long-term cohort (the Helsinki Businessmen Study) of home-dwelling older men without lipid-lowering drugs and on their habitual home diet...
July 26, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Marion Strupf, Britta Fraunberger, Karl Messlinger, Barbara Namer
Introduction Migraine is characterized by cycling phases (interictal, preictal, ictal and postictal) with differing symptoms, while in chronic tension type headache pain phases are fluctuating. The question we asked is whether these phases are associated with changes in parameters of somatosensation and axon-reflex erythema. Methods Patients with episodic migraine and chronic tension type headache were examined psychophysically in the interictal, preictal and ictal phase and healthy subjects on five different test days...
August 12, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Lakshmy Ayyar, Fidaa Shaib, Kalpalatha Guntupalli
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in pregnancy can present as snoring and/or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and the prevalence is increasing due to the increase in maternal obesity. Pregnant women often present with fatigue and daytime sleepiness rather than the classic symptoms. Habitual snoring, older age, chronic hypertension, and high prepregnancy body mass index are reliable indicators of increased risk for SDB and should trigger further testing. The gold standard for diagnosis of OSA is an overnight laboratory polysomnography...
September 2018: Sleep Medicine Clinics
Stephanie Braun, Michael Kavšek
Previous studies observed that responsiveness to horizontal disparity as such emerges at approximately 2 months of age. Moreover, 3- to 4-month-old infants utilize stereoscopic information to perceive object variations in depth. The present study investigated infants' ability to respond to crossed horizontal disparity information that defines two-dimensional shape. Infants 4 and 5 months of age were habituated to either a cross or the outline of a square. During the posthabituation period, they were presented with both shapes...
August 8, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Bao-Zhen Tang, E Meng, Hua-Jian Zhang, Xiao-Mei Zhang, Sassan Asgari, Ya-Ping Lin, Yun-Ying Lin, Zheng-Qiang Peng, Ting Qiao, Xia-Fang Zhang, You-Ming Hou
The venom apparatus is a conserved organ in parasitoids that shows adaptations correlated with life-style diversification. Combining transcriptomics and label-free quantitative proteomics, here we explored the venom apparatus components of the endoparasitoid Tetrastichus brontispae (Eulophidae), and provide a comparison of the venom apparatus proteomes between its two closely related strains, T. brontispae-Octodonta nipae (Tb-On) and T. brontispae-Brontispa longissima (Tb-Bl). Tb-Bl targets the B. longissima pupa as its habitual host...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Liang Hu, Ce Shi, Hong Jiang, Yingying Shi, Zubin Sethi, Jianhua Wang
Purpose: To investigate the factors affecting microvascular responses in the bulbar conjunctiva of habitual contact lens (HCL) wearers. Methods: A functional slit-lamp biomicroscope (FSLB) was used to image the temporal bulbar conjunctiva of habitual contact lens (HCL) wearers and non-contact lens (NCL) wearers. The vessel diameters and blood flow velocities (BFVs) were measured. Fractal analysis using Dbox as vessel density and D0 as vessel complexity were used to quantitatively analyze the microvascular network...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Tatiana A Shnitko, Steven W Gonzales, Kathleen A Grant
Chronic alcohol abuse is frequently considered a habitual or inflexible behavior; however, measures of pre-existing cognitive flexibility prior to initiation of alcohol use are usually not available. This study used rhesus monkeys and an attentional set-shifting task to investigate whether pre-existing cognitive flexibility would predict increased risk for heavy alcohol drinking. As previously reported, monkeys were given 30 daily set-shifting sessions prior to alcohol access. These sessions consisted of the same sequence of eight unique visual discriminations (sets) of two objects that varied on two dimensions (shapes and colors)...
April 25, 2018: Alcohol
Dionisios Youlatos, Dimitra Moussa, Nikolaos-Evangelos Karantanis, Leszek Rychlik
Debates on early euprimate evolution are related to the understanding of the ecological context that promoted their unique adaptations. Currently, these discussions mainly revolve around the habitual use of the small-branch niche or the frequent utilization of wider, and probably, strongly inclined substrates by euprimate ancestors. The current fossil evidence implies a diversity of arboreal quadrupedal behaviors for these early euprimates, associated with the use of various types of substrates. However, inferring the positional behavior of early euprimates based exclusively on fossils fails to unravel the positional flexibility in terms of modes and substrate use, which is important for understanding key adaptations related to limb postures...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Catherine M Phillips, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Ivan J Perry
Accumulating evidence identifies diet and inflammation as potential mechanisms contributing to cardiometabolic risk. However, inconsistent reports regarding dietary inflammatory potential, biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk exist. Our objective was to examine the relationships between a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)-derived dietary inflammatory index (DII® ), biomarkers of lipoprotein metabolism, inflammation and glucose homeostasis and MetS risk in a cross-sectional sample of 1992 adults...
August 8, 2018: Nutrients
Fernando J Meijide, Rodrigo H Da Cuña, José P Prieto, Luciana S Dorelle, Paola A Babay, Fabiana L Lo Nostro
Chemical pollution from pharmaceuticals is increasingly recognized as a major hazard to the aquatic biota. Among the wide variety of pharmaceuticals, fluoxetine (FLX) is one of the most widely prescribed antidepressants, and therefore, it is frequently identified in the aquatic environment. As FLX is designed to alter human behaviour and many physiological pathways are conserved across vertebrates, this drug may affect the behaviour of fish living in FLX-polluted environments. Here, we exposed groups of female mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki to waterborne FLX for 14 days, under semi-static conditions with daily renewal of test solutions...
August 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Adrian Alexis Ruiz, Patrycja K Wyszyńska, Krzysztof Laudanski
Several theories describing the decision-making process in the intensive care unit (ICU) have been formulated. However, none of them appreciate the complexities of the process in an eclectic way by unifying several miscellaneous variables in 1 comprehensive theory. The purpose of this review is to highlight the key intricacies associated with the decision-making process in the ICU, to describe the theoretical frameworks with a special emphasis on gaps of knowledge, and to offer some avenues for improvement...
August 9, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Yali Wang, Jiamei Lu, Chuanhua Gu, Biying Hu
Frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) has been explored extensively in affective neuroscience. To determine which FAA indicators are linked with the habitual use of emotion regulation, we recorded the resting electroencephalogram alpha activity. First, we reduced all of the FAA indicators to four factors by exploratory factor analysis. Next, we carried out a multiple regression analysis to determine which factors could significantly predict the habitual use of emotion-regulation strategies. According to the results, greater left-asymmetric activation at the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex predicted increased use of reappraisal, whereas at the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, it was predicted by right-asymmetric activation...
August 8, 2018: Neuroreport
Oscar F Araneda, Felipe Contreras-Briceño, Gabriel Cavada, Ginés Viscor
PURPOSE: The respiratory redox-state of swimmers can be affected by chronic exposures to chlorinated pools, and the effects of different exercises on it are unknown. Our aim was to compare two exercises performed at high-intensity and under habitual environmental conditions (swimming indoor vs. running outdoor) on the production of pro-oxidants (hydrogen peroxide and nitrite) and pH in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and spirometry parameters in competitive swimmers chronically exposed to chlorinated pools...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Sebastiano Bariselli, Hanna Hörnberg, Clément Prévost-Solié, Stefano Musardo, Laetitia Hatstatt-Burklé, Peter Scheiffele, Camilla Bellone
Atypical habituation and aberrant exploration of novel stimuli have been related to the severity of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but the underlying neuronal circuits are unknown. Here we show that chemogenetic inhibition of dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) attenuates exploration toward nonfamiliar conspecifics and interferes with the reinforcing properties of nonfamiliar conspecific interaction in mice. Exploration of nonfamiliar stimuli is associated with the insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors at excitatory synapses on VTA DA neurons...
August 9, 2018: Nature Communications
A Acosta-Rangel, M Sánchez-Polo, A M S Polo, J Rivera-Utrilla, M S Berber-Mendoza
The objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of UVC, UVC/H2 O2 and UVC/K2 S2 O8 on the degradation of SAs. Rate constant values increased in the order SMZ < SDZ < SML and showed the higher photodegradation of sulfonamides with a penta-heterocycle. Quantum yields were 1.72 × 10-5  mol E-1 , 3.02 × 10-5  mol E-1 , and 6.32 × 10-5  mol E-1 for SMZ, SDZ and SML, respectively, at 60 min of treatment. R254 values show that the dose habitually utilized for water disinfection is inadequate to remove this type of antibiotic...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Lauren K Slone, David S Moore, Scott P Johnson
How do infants learn to mentally rotate objects, to imagine them rotating through different viewpoints? One possibility is that development of infants' mental rotation (MR) is facilitated by visual and manual experience with complex objects. To evaluate this possibility, eighty 4-month-olds (40 females, 40 males) participated in an object exploration task with Velcro "sticky mittens" that allow infants too young to grasp objects themselves to nonetheless explore those objects manually as well as visually...
2018: PloS One
Mónica Díaz Pacheco, Juan Vargas Romero, Susana Rojas-Maya, Socorro Retana-Márquez
Chronic stress disrupts reproductive efficiency. Yet, the manner in which stress disturbs reproduction in goats is currently unknown. The Oaxacan Mixteca region is one of Mexico's poorest, with high levels of deforestation, high ambient temperatures, and lack of water. Native goats of the Oaxacan Mixteca Region live in these stressful conditions, as well as in overcrowded and water restricted conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of these very stressful conditions on the reproduction of male and female goats...
August 9, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Brian W Bauer, Rachel L Martin, Nicholas P Allan, Erin L Fink-Miller, Daniel W Capron
OBJECTIVE: The acquired capability for suicide (ACS) is one of the most important breakthroughs in suicide research. ACS refers to an individual's increased fearlessness about death over time from experiencing painful and provocative events (PPE) and is based on opponent-process theory-a habituation model. Few studies have investigated how ACS develops and found that ACS remained relatively stagnant. METHOD: This study sought to expand these findings by observing how ACS develops in two cross-sectional data sets involving high-risk nonclinical samples of physicians (n = 419) and veterinary students (n = 124)...
August 8, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
L D'Elia, M Manfredi, P Strazzullo, F Galletti
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to validate a short questionnaire on habitual dietary salt intake, to quickly and easily identify individuals whose salt consumption exceeds recommended levels. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 1131 hypertensive subjects participating in the MINISAL-SIIA study were included in the analysis. Anthropometric indexes, blood pressure, and 24-h urinary sodium excretion (NaU) were measured. A fixed-sequence questionnaire on dietary salt intake was administered...
August 8, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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