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Nathan S Teuscher, Carolyn R Sikes, Russ McMahen, Dorothy Engelking
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: A methylphenidate (MPH) extended-release orally disintegrating tablet (MPH XR-ODT) formulation was recently approved for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment in children 6 to 17 years of age. This analysis sought to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) model to describe MPH XR-ODT PD-response data in a classroom study and use the model to simulate PD responses for a range of body weights and doses. METHODS/PROCEDURES: The MPH XR-ODT PK/PD model was developed with pediatric and adult PK data from prior studies and efficacy data from a laboratory classroom study in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Tracy L Leong, Paula M Loveland, Alexandra Gorelik, Louis Irving, Daniel P Steinfort
BACKGROUND: Performance of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) for staging the radiologically normal mediastinum has been reported with inconsistent findings. We assessed the sensitivity of systematic staging using EBUS-TBNA for detection of radiologically occult mediastinal metastases in cN0/N1 lung cancer. METHODS: Studies evaluating EBUS-TBNA for systematic mediastinal staging in cN0/N1 lung cancer were identified by systematic review...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
Mitsuhiro Tsuritani, Yoshiaki Morita, Takekazu Miyoshi, Kenichi Kurosaki, Jun Yoshimatsu
OBJECTIVE: We attempted to evaluate fetal cardiac activity of congenital heart disease (CHD) and normal heart fetuses by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: We evaluated the fetal cardiac functional assessment and the blood flow of descending aorta at 34 weeks' gestation or more by MRI and compared the results with ultrasonography findings. We measured 6 normal heart fetuses and 14 CHD fetuses. RESULTS: The ejection fraction (EF) and descending aorta blood flow in the CHD group were 76...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Erdeng Du, Jiaqi Li, Siqi Zhou, Lu Zheng, Xinxin Fan
The by-products produced by pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during chlorination are attracting wide concern. Thus, the transformation and toxicity of naproxen (NAP) during the chlorination process were assessed in this study. The transformation of NAP was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the first-order rate constant was improved by increasing the NaOCl dose. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was successfully applied to identify 14 chlorination products. This study represents the first elucidation and report of the exact structure of the primary chlorine substitution product ((2S)-2-(5-chloro-6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)propionic acid) based on HRMS and 1 H NMR...
August 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Hanan E Badr, Konstantinos Francis
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of smoking and drug use among adolescent boys, and to examine adolescents' psychosocial factors, and suicidal behaviors associated with adolescents' substance use. METHODS: The Kuwait Global School-Based Student Health Survey employed a two-stage cluster sample design targeting a representative sample of adolescents. This study focused on the participated 1310 boys. Statistical analysis included Chi-square test, student t-test, and multivariate analysis...
August 7, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Andrea Ciavattini, Matteo Serri, Jacopo Di Giuseppe, Carlo A Liverani, Maria G Fallani, Dimitrios Tsiroglou, Maria Papiccio, Giovanni Dellin Carpini, Annalisa Pieralli, Nicolò Clemente, Francesco Sopracordevole
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reliability of colposcopy during pregnancy and to evaluate the concordance between colposcopic patterns and histopathological findings in these women. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter observational study of women diagnosed with an abnormal cervical cytology, who subsequently underwent a colposcopic evaluation with cervical biopsy during pregnancy. The "colpo-histopathological concordance" was evaluated. The "colposcopic overestimation and underestimation" were evaluated as well...
July 27, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Satya Kumar Avula, Ajmal Khan, Najeeb Ur Rehman, Muhammad U Anwar, Zahra Al-Abri, Abdul Wadood, Muhammad Riaz, Rene Csuk, Ahmed Al-Harrasi
Inhibition of α-glucosidase is an effective strategy for controlling the post-prandial hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. For the identification of new inhibitors of this enzyme, a series of new (R)-1-(2-(4-bromo-2-methoxyphenoxy) propyl)-4-(4-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole derivatives were synthesized (8a-d and 10a-e). The structures were confirmed by NMR, mass spectrometry and, in case of compound 8a, by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were investigated in vitro...
August 7, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Seon Beom Kim, Qing Liu, Jong Hoon Ahn, Yang Hee Jo, Ayman Turk, In Pyo Hong, Sang Mi Han, Bang Yeon Hwang, Mi Kyeong Lee
Eighteen constituents, including nine new compounds, were isolated from the bee pollen of Quercus mongolica. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of combined spectroscopic analysis. Structurally, the nine new compounds are polyamine derivatives with phenolic moieties which were assigned as one putrescine derivative, mogolicine A (2), seven spermidine derivatives, mongolidines A-G (3-5, 8, 12, 14, 17) and one spermine derivative, mogoline A (18). Evaluation of the biological activity of isolated compounds revealed that the polyamine derivatives with coumaroyl and caffeoyl moieties showed tyrosinase inhibition with IC50 values of 19...
August 10, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Lekkala Ravindar, S N A Bukhari, K P Rakesh, H M Manukumar, H K Vivek, N Mallesha, Zhi-Zhong Xie, Hua-Li Qin
A series of aryl fluorosulfate analogues (1-37) were synthesized and tested for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal studies, and validated by docking studies. The compounds 9, 12, 14, 19, 25, 26, 35, 36 and 37 exhibited superior antibacterial potency against tested bacterial strains, while compounds 2, 4, 5, 15, 35, 36 and 37 were found to have better antifungal activity against tested fungal strains, compared to standard antibiotic gentamicin and ketoconazole respectively. Among all the synthesized 37 analogs, compounds 25, 26, 35, 36 and 37 displayed excellent anti-biofilm property against Staphylococcus aureus...
August 6, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Kate Hayes, Anne E Holland, Vincent A Pellegrino, Sunita Mathur, Carol L Hodgson
PURPOSE: Muscle weakness is common in patients requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), but early identification is challenging. This study aimed to 1) quantify the change in quadriceps size and quality (echogenicity) from baseline to day 10 using ultrasound in patients requiring ECMO, 2) determine the relationship between ultrasound measures, muscle strength and highest mobility level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective cohort study involving ultrasound measurement of quadriceps at baseline, days 10 and 20...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Xueyuan Hu, Qianru Chi, Dongxu Wang, Xin Chi, Xiaohua Teng, Shu Li
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is widely accepted to be a signaling molecule that exhibits some potentially beneficial therapeutic effects at physiological concentrations. At elevated levels, H2 S is highly toxic and has a negative effect on human health and animal welfare. Studies have shown that H2 S exposure induces an immune function in mice, but there are few studies of the effect of continuous H2 S exposure on immune organs in poultry. In this study, one-day-old broilers were selected and exposed to 4 or 20 ppm of H2 S gas for 14, 28 and 42 days of age...
August 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Carl-Maria Mörch, Louis-Philippe Côté, Laurent Corthésy-Blondin, Léa Plourde-Léveillé, Luc Dargis, Brian L Mishara
CONTEXT: The Internet contains both public content ("Surface Web"), and private content ("Deep Web") sometimes hosted on exclusive networks ("Darknets") only accessible using dedicated software such as TOR (The Onion Router). This software makes it almost impossible to identify its users. Information media have reported on suicide-related aspects of Darknets, for example when poisons that can be used to kill oneself are offered for sale (Le Garff et al., 2016) when users discuss ways to kill oneself in anonymous forums (Ferrara, 2016; Franceschi-Bicchierai, 2015) and suicides that follow bullying or "doxing" (online divulgation without consent of intimate personal information) (Bartlett, 2015)...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Hee Jung Yang, Gawon Kim, KangUk Lee, Jakyoung Lee, Hae Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi, Soon Young Lee
BACKGROUND: In April 2014, a ferry carrying 476 passengers sunk on the coast of Korea, resulting in 304 deaths. Of these, 250 were local high school students, and the disaster significantly affected their community. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety among Ansan city residents to understand their recovery process after the accident. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys (survey 1, after 4-6 months and survey 2, after 16-18 months of disaster) were used to compare prevalence among residents of Ansan city and adjacent cities...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Hyejin Kim, Sung Won Kim, Kwang Hyuk Seok, Chi Woo Hwang, Jin-Chul Ahn, Jun-O Jin, Hyun Wook Kang
BACKGROUND: Hypericin (HYP) extracted from St. John's wort ( Hypericum perforatum L.) is a natural photosensitizer in clinical photodynamic therapy (PDT). The PDT is one of the powerful methods for cancer treatments because of its excellent tumoritropic characteristics and photosensitizing properties. However, limited reports on the efficacy of PDT on the anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) have been published. Especially HYP-associated PDT has not been investigated in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we evaluated the effect of HYP for PDT against FRO ATC cells...
August 14, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Mairéad C Connor, John W McGrath, Geoff McMullan, Nikki Marks, Derek J Fairley
Clostridium difficile is a spore forming bacterium and the leading cause of colitis and antibiotic associated diarrhoea in the developed world. Effective recovery of spores, particularly in low numbers, is imperative to obtain accurate prevalence data, due to the low number of spores found within non-clinical samples (<20/ml). Through comparison of C. difficile enrichment media, this study showed the importance of selecting an effective enrichment media. Commonly used broths, such as Cooked Meat broth, promote significantly less growth than other available broths such as Brain Heart Infusion broth, BHI...
August 14, 2018: Anaerobe
Yuping Zhou, Xueyou Lv, Hui Qu, Kekai Zhao, Liyun Fu, Linwen Zhu, Guoliang Ye, Junming Guo
OBJECTIVE: To screen for circular RNAs (circRNAs) that are associated with the activation of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) by monitoring changes in liver circRNA expression in a model of liver fibrosis. METHODS: The classic mouse model of CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis was established and validated by histopathological examination. JS1 cells were activated by TGF-β1 to model HSC activation in vitro. Differentially expressed circRNAs in the fibrotic liver tissues and JS1 cells were determined using circRNA microarray, and some of those circRNAs were verified by RT-qPCR...
August 14, 2018: Gene
Alexander Tuchman, Lawrence G Lenke, Meghan Cerpa, Michael G Fehlings, Stephen J Lewis, Christopher I Shaffrey, Kenneth M C Cheung, Leah Yacat Carreon, Mark B Dekutoski, Frank J Schwab, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei, Khaled Kebaish, Christopher P Ames, Yong Qiu, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Benny T Dahl, Hossein Mehdian, Ferran Pellisé, Sigurd H Berven
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Scoli-RISK-1 is a multicenter prospective cohort designed to study neurologic outcomes following complex adult spinal deformity (ASD). The effect of unilateral versus bilateral postoperative motor deficits on the likelihood of long term recovery has not been previously studied in this population. PURPOSE: Evaluate if bilateral postoperative neurologic deficits have a worse recovery than unilateral deficits. STUDY DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a prospective, multicenter, international cohort study...
August 14, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Joshua M Bock, David P Treichler, Samuel L Norton, Kenichi Ueda, William E Hughes, Darren P Casey
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is characterized by functional and vascular impairments as well as elevated levels of inflammation which are associated with reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Inorganic nitrate supplementation boosts NO bioavailability potentially improving functional and vasodilatory capacities and may reduce inflammation. Twenty-one patients with PAD were randomly assigned to sodium nitrate (NaNO3 ) or placebo supplementation groups for eight-weeks. Outcome measures included a 6-min walk test (6 MWT), blood flow and vasodilator function in the forearm and calf, as well as plasma inflammatory and adhesion biomarker concentrations...
August 14, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Yanting Wang, Michael S Sharbaugh, Andrew D Althouse, Suresh Mulukutla, Samir Saba
INTRODUCTION: With the recent publication of the negative DANISH trial, the mortality benefit of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has been put in question in patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM). Because a majority of patients in DANISH receive cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices, we investigated in the present study the survival of recipients of CRT pacemakers (CRT-P) versus CRT ICDs (CRT-D) in a cohort of older (≥75 years) NICM patients at our institution...
August 14, 2018: Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
Priyal Barai, Nisith Raval, Sanjeev Acharya, Ankit Borisa, Hardik Bhatt, Niyati Acharya
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an enervating and chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder, occurring frequently in the elderly and adversely affecting intellectual capabilities and the cognitive processes. Bergenin possesses efficacious antioxidant, antiulcerogenic, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity along with antinociceptive effect and wound healing properties. Previous studies have shown that bergenin has in vitro bovine adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitory activity, mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities, β-secretase (BACE-1) enzyme inhibitory activity and prevented neuronal death in the primary culture of rat cortical neurons...
August 14, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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