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Satish Chandra Pandey, Anubhuti Jha, Awanish Kumar, Mukesh Samant
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most devastating diseases of the tropical region caused by protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. So far, there is no effective drug and vaccine available against this fatal disease. The DEAD-box RNA helicase is quite essential for the RNA processing, amastigote differentiation and infectivity in Leishmania. In this study, L. donovani DEAD-box RNA helicase (LdHel-67) was evaluated as a potential drug target against VL. Using in-silico approach we have identified ligands that can specifically bind to this protein by using various application of Schrodinger (Maestro, version 10...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ana Carina Nogueira Vasconcelos, Danilo Pedro Streit, Anna Octavera, Misako Miwa, Naoki Kabeya, Raycon Roberto Freitas Garcia, Daniel Antonio Rotili, Goro Yoshizaki
The native Amazonian fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) is the second-largest scaled fish in South America and the most common native species in Brazil. To preserve genetic resources with sufficient genetic diversity through germ cell cryopreservation and transplantation techniques, a molecular marker for identifying the cells is required to trace them during the manipulation processes. The vasa gene is a promising candidate, as its specific expression in germ cell lineage has been well-conserved throughout animal evolution...
October 11, 2018: Gene
Ilias Chantziaras, Jeroen Dewulf, Tommy Van Limbergen, Marlijn Klinkenberg, Andreas Palzer, Carlos Pineiro, Vivi Aarestrup Moustsen, Jarkko Niemi, Ilias Kyriazakis, Dominiek Maes
Production diseases are often of multi-factorial origin in which environment (housing, nutrition and management) health and reproductive challenges show complex interactions. The aim of this study was to identify specific environment-related factors and to discuss their associations with health, welfare and reproductive performance in sows and piglets, in diverse systems using data from 130 farms from five EU countries. Two sets of data were used: a) a questionnaire was developed for sows and piglets covering farm management, interventions and housing and b) farm production data covering various performance parameters...
November 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Darren A Pollock
The North American (north of Mexico) species of Elacatis were revised, based on external and genitalic structures of adults. Seven species are recognized, though the historical inclusion of E. fasciatus Bland among Nearctic species is very likely based on an erroneous collecting locality. Two new species are described, with type localities (counties only) in parentheses: E. larsoni (Nebraska: Box Butte County) and E. stephani (Arizona: Cochise County). The following new synonym is proposed: Othnius umbrosus LeConte 1861 = Othnius lugubris Horn 1868; therefore, only E...
May 17, 2018: Zootaxa
Kholoud Arafat, Elham Al Kubaisy, Shahrazad Sulaiman, Sherif M Karam, Zeina Al Natour, Ahmed H Hassan, Samir Attoub
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and within this cancer type, triple-negative breast cancers have the worst prognosis. The identification of new genes associated with triple-negative breast cancer progression is crucial for developing more specific anti-cancer targeted therapies, which could lead to a better management of these patients. In this context, we have recently demonstrated that SMARCAD1, a DEAD/H box-containing helicase, is involved in breast cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis...
October 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Chieh-Hsiang Chan, Chun-Ming Chen, Yan-Hwa Wu Lee, Li-Ru You
The pleiotropic roles of DEAD-box helicase 3, X-linked (DDX3X), including its functions in transcriptional and translational regulation, chromosome segregation, DNA damage, and cell growth control, have highlighted the association between DDX3X and tumorigenesis. However, mRNA transcripts and protein levels of DDX3X in patient specimens have shown the controversial correlations of DDX3X with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prevalence. In this study, generation of hepatocyte-specific Ddx3x knockout mice revealed that loss of Ddx3x facilitates liver tumorigenesis...
October 8, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Guillaume Giraud, Sophie Terrone, Cyril F Bourgeois
RNA helicases DDX5 and DDX17 are multitasking proteins that regulate gene expression in different biological contexts through diverse activities. Special attention has long been paid to their function as coregulators of transcription factors, providing insight about their functional association with a number of chromatin modifiers and remodelers. However, to date, the variety of described mechanisms has made it difficult to understand precisely how these proteins work at the molecular level, and the contribution of their ATPase domain to these mechanisms remains unclear as well...
October 8, 2018: BMB Reports
Bernadette Rubio, Patrick Cosson, Mélodie Caballero, Frédéric Revers, Joy Bergelson, Fabrice Roux, Valérie Schurdi-Levraud
The genetic architecture of plant response to viruses has often been studied in model non-natural pathosystems under controlled conditions. There is an urgent need to elucidate the genetic architecture of the response to viruses in a natural setting. A field experiment was performed in each of two years. In total, 318 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions were inoculated with its natural Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). The accessions were phenotyped for viral accumulation, frequency of infected plants, stem length and symptoms...
October 3, 2018: New Phytologist
Hao Zhang, Yanqiu Zhang, Xiaoyun Zhu, Chen Chen, Chao Zhang, Yuanzheng Xia, Yucheng Zhao, Ourania Andrisani, Lingyi Kong
In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), dysregulated expression of DDX5 (DEAD box protein 5) and impaired autophagy have been reported separately. However, the relationship between them has not been explored. Here we present evidence to show that, by interacting with autophagic receptor p62, DDX5 promotes autophagy and suppresses tumorigenesis. DDX5 inversely correlated with p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) expression in HBV-associated and non-HBV associated HCCs. Patients with low DDX5 expression showed poor prognosis after tumor resection...
October 3, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Neha Gupta, Jon R Lorsch, Alan G Hinnebusch
DEAD-box RNA helicase Ded1 is thought to resolve secondary structures in mRNA 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTRs) that impede 48S preinitiation complex (PIC) formation at the initiation codon. We reconstituted Ded1 acceleration of 48S PIC assembly on native mRNAs in a pure system, and recapitulated increased Ded1-dependence of mRNAs that are Ded1-hyperdependent in vivo. Stem-loop (SL) structures in 5'-UTRs of native and synthetic mRNAs increased the Ded1 requirement to overcome their intrinsically low rates of 48S PIC recruitment...
October 3, 2018: ELife
Daisuke Kami, Tomoya Kitani, Akihiro Nakamura, Naoki Wakui, Rena Mizutani, Masahito Ohue, Fuyuki Kametani, Nobuyoshi Akimitsu, Satoshi Gojo
Cellular transitions and differentiation processes require mRNAs supporting the new phenotype but also the clearance of existing mRNAs for the parental phenotype. Cellular reprogramming from fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) occurs at the early stage of mesenchymal epithelial transition (MET) and involves drastic morphological changes. We examined the molecular mechanism for MET, focusing on RNA metabolism. DDX6, an RNA helicase, was indispensable for iPSC formation, in addition to RO60 and RNY1, a non-coding RNA, which form complexes involved in intracellular nucleotide sensing...
2018: PloS One
Frank A Tedeschi, Sara C Cloutier, Elizabeth J Tran, Eckhard Jankowsky
The DEAD-box RNA helicase Dbp2p is highly conserved in eukaryotes and has been implicated in transcription, ribosome biogenesis, mRNP assembly, nuclear export, and lncRNA function. It is not understood how Dbp2p performs these seemingly unrelated biological roles. An important step towards addressing this question is the determination of cellular RNA binding sites of Dbp2p. Here, we identify transcriptome-wide RNA binding sites of Dbp2p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae using UV-crosslinking, denaturing tandem affinity purification, and Next Generation Sequencing...
September 27, 2018: RNA
Laura Glass, Susan R Wente
Stress granules (SGs) are non-membrane bound organelles that form in response to multiple different stress stimuli, including exposure to sodium arsenite. SGs are postulated to support cells during periods of stress and provide a protective effect, allowing survival. Gle1 is a highly conserved, essential modulator of RNA-dependent DEAD-box proteins that exists as at least two distinct isoforms in human cells. Gle1A is required for proper SG formation, whereas Gle1B functions in mRNA export at the nuclear pore complex...
September 18, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
Hiroaki Suzuki, Yoshio Shibagaki, Seisuke Hattori, Masaaki Matsuoka
A GGGGCC repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene has been identified as the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. The repeat expansion undergoes unconventional translation to produce dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins. Although it has been reported that DPR proteins cause neurotoxicity, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we have first confirmed that proline-arginine repeat protein (poly-PR) reduces levels of ribosomal RNA and causes neurotoxicity and found that the poly-PR-induced neurotoxicity is repressed by the acceleration of ribosomal RNA synthesis...
September 24, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Daniela Toro-Ascuy, Bárbara Rojas-Araya, Francisco García-de-Gracia, Cecilia Rojas-Fuentes, Camila Pereira-Montecinos, Aracelly Gaete-Argel, Fernando Valiente-Echeverría, Théophile Ohlmann, Ricardo Soto-Rifo
Gag synthesis from the full-length unspliced mRNA is critical for the production of the viral progeny during human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) replication. While most spliced mRNAs follow the canonical gene expression pathway in which the recruitment of the nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC) and the exon junction complex (EJC) largely stimulates the rates of nuclear export and translation, the unspliced mRNA relies on the viral protein Rev to reach the cytoplasm and recruit the host translational machinery...
September 20, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Chaitanya Jain
DEAD-Box proteins (DBPs) constitute a prominent class of RNA remodeling factors that play a role in virtually all aspects of RNA metabolism. To better define their cellular functions, deletions in the genes encoding each of the Escherichia coli DBPs were combined with mutations in genes encoding different Ribonucleases (RNases). Significantly, double-deletion strains lacking Ribonuclease R (RNase R) and either the DeaD or SrmB DBP were found to display growth defects and an enhanced accumulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) fragments...
September 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Hao Zhang, Yanqiu Zhang, Chen Chen, Xiaoyun Zhu, Chao Zhang, Yuanzheng Xia, Yucheng Zhao, Ourania M Andrisani, Lingyi Kong
DDX21, a DEAD-box protein, implicated in fundamental aspects of RNA metabolism such as gene transcription. DDX21 expression is dysregulated in cancer, but its specific contribution to tumor invasion and metastasis remains to be determined. Here, we demonstrate DDX21 down-regulation is associated with highly metastatic and poor prognosis human breast cancers. DDX21 overexpression inhibited, while DDX21 knockdown promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of Snail reversed DDX21 mediated inhibition of cell invasion...
August 27, 2018: Cancer Letters
Birgitte R Diness, Lotte Risom, Thomas L Frandsen, Bente Hansen, Mette K Andersen, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Karin A W Wadt
DDX41 has recently been identified as a new autosomal dominantly inherited cancer predisposition syndrome causing increased risk of adult onset acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We report for the first time compound heterozygote germline missense DDX41 mutations located in the DEAD-box domain, identified in two siblings by exome sequencing. Both siblings have slight dysmorphic findings, psychomotor delays and intellectual disability, and one developed blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) at age five...
August 25, 2018: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
Ruth Brennan, Antje Haap-Hoff, Lili Gu, Virginie Gautier, Aideen Long, Martina Schröder
The human DEAD-box helicase DDX3 is a multi-functional protein involved in the regulation of gene expression and additional non-conventional roles as signalling adaptor molecule that are independent of its enzymatic RNA remodeling activity. It is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein and it has previously been suggested that dysregulation of its subcellular localization could contribute to tumourigenesis. Indeed, both tumour suppressor and oncogenic functions have been attributed to DDX3. In this study, we investigated the regulation of DDX3's nucleocytoplasmic shuttling...
August 4, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Ying Xue, Xuebing Jia, Lei Li, Xiao Dong, Jing Ling, Jian Yuan, Qi Li
The DEAD-box-protein DDX5 is an ATP-dependent RNA helicase and also acts as co-activator that contributes to progression and metastasis of various tumours. However, its expression as well as prognostic roles of DDX5 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain elusive. In this study, we investigated clinical significance and biological functions of DDX5 in HCC. Our results suggested that DDX5 showed overexpression at both transcriptional and translational levels in HCC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues...
September 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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