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diglyceride lipolysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257194/improving-correlations-between-drug-solubilization-and-in-vitro-lipolysis-by-monitoring-the-phase-partitioning-of-lipolytic-species-for-lipid-based-formulations
#1
Tahnee J Dening, Paul Joyce, Clive A Prestidge
Solution proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was used in conjunction with in vitro lipolysis to elucidate the time-dependent speciation and release of lipolytic products during the digestion of lipid-loaded inorganic particles, allowing correlations to be made between the phase partitioning of lipolytic products and an encapsulated poorly soluble drug. Silicon dioxide, montmorillonite, and laponite were used to encapsulate medium chain triglycerides into solid-state lipid-based formulations (LBFs), and coumarin 102 was selected as a model poorly soluble compound...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490610/mechanisms-of-insulin-resistance-in-primary-and-secondary-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver
#2
Tomas Jelenik, Kirti Kaul, Gilles Séquaris, Ulrich Flögel, Esther Phielix, Jörg Kotzka, Birgit Knebel, Pia Fahlbusch, Tina Hörbelt, Stefan Lehr, Anna Lena Reinbeck, Dirk Müller-Wieland, Irene Esposito, Gerald I Shulman, Julia Szendroedi, Michael Roden
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with hepatic insulin resistance and may result primarily from increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis (PRIM) or secondarily from adipose tissue lipolysis (SEC). We studied mice with hepatocyte- or adipocyte-specific SREBP-1c overexpression as models of PRIM and SEC. PRIM mice featured increased lipogenic gene expression in the liver and adipose tissue. Their selective, liver-specific insulin resistance was associated with increased C18:1-diacylglycerol content and protein kinase Cε translocation...
August 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112679/mechanism-for-leptin-s-acute-insulin-independent-effect-to-reverse-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#3
Rachel J Perry, Liang Peng, Abudukadier Abulizi, Lynn Kennedy, Gary W Cline, Gerald I Shulman
The mechanism by which leptin reverses diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is unknown. We examined the acute insulin-independent effects of leptin replacement therapy in a streptozotocin-induced rat model of DKA. Leptin infusion reduced rates of lipolysis, hepatic glucose production (HGP), and hepatic ketogenesis by 50% within 6 hours and were independent of any changes in plasma glucagon concentrations; these effects were abrogated by coinfusion of corticosterone. Treating leptin- and corticosterone-infused rats with an adipose triglyceride lipase inhibitor blocked corticosterone-induced increases in plasma glucose concentrations and rates of HGP and ketogenesis...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519210/the-structural-analysis-of-wheat-flour-glycerolipids
#4
R O Arunga, W R Morrison
The compositions of the fatty acids in the 1, 2 and 3 positions of the principal glycerolipids and their various stereoisomers were determined. Fatty acids in the 1 and 3 positions of triglycerides were similar in composition and less unsaturated than those in the 2 position. Fatty acids in the 1,2-, 1,3- and 2,3-diglycerides were distributed in a pattern which indicated isomerization ofsn-1,2-diacylglycerol. Lysophosphatidyl choline (the principal monoacyl lipid) consisted of about 80% 1-acyl and 20% 2-acyl isomers...
October 1971: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406217/fucoxanthin-suppresses-lipid-accumulation-and-ros-production-during-differentiation-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#5
Min-Jung Seo, Young-Jin Seo, Cheol-Ho Pan, Ok-Hwan Lee, Kui-Jin Kim, Boo-Yong Lee
Fucoxanthin, a pigment from the chloroplasts of marine brown algae, has a number of effects against obesity, diabetes, inflammation and cancer and provides cerebrovascular protection. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of fucoxanthin on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis. Treatment with fucoxanthin suppresses protein levels of the adipogenic transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha C/EBPα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and of their target protein, fatty acid binding protein 4...
November 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26103718/-the-integration-and-regulation-of-hormone-sensitive-lipase-in-reproductive-system
#6
Wei-yi Wang, Guo-Heng Xu
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) has long been considered as a classical rate-limiting enzyme during lipolysis since it was first described in 1960s. HSL is regulated mainly by catecholamine, including adrenalin. Studies in recent years indicated that the substrates for HSL are not only triglycerides, but also diacylglycerol with the catalytic activity is ten times that of triglycerides, glycerol esters and cholesterol esters, which overthrow the opinion that HSL is specific to triglyceride. The scientists have generated HSL gene knockout mice and confirmed HSL is widely located in the reproductive system, which indicates that HSL may play an important role in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological process in the reproductive system...
February 2015: Sheng Li Ke Xue Jin Zhan [Progress in Physiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25819461/primary-defects-in-lipolysis-and-insulin-action-in-skeletal-muscle-cells-from-type-2-diabetic-individuals
#7
Eili T Kase, Yuan Z Feng, Pierre-Marie Badin, Siril S Bakke, Claire Laurens, Marine Coue, Dominique Langin, Michael Gaster, G Hege Thoresen, Arild C Rustan, Cedric Moro
A decrease in skeletal muscle lipolysis and hormone sensitive-lipase (HSL) expression has been linked to insulin resistance in obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify potential intrinsic defects in lipid turnover and lipolysis in myotubes established from obese and type 2 diabetic subjects. Lipid trafficking and lipolysis were measured by pulse-chase assay with radiolabeled substrates in myotubes from non-obese/non-diabetic (lean), obese/non-diabetic (obese) and obese/diabetic (T2D) subjects. Lipolytic protein content and level of Akt phosphorylation were measured by Western blot...
September 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25722153/usefulness-of-1-h-nmr-in-assessing-the-extent-of-lipid-digestion
#8
Bárbara Nieva-Echevarría, Encarnación Goicoechea, María J Manzanos, María D Guillén
Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) is proved to be, for the first time, a very useful technique in monitoring the extent of lipid hydrolysis in digestion processes. Sunflower oil and minced fish flesh, as model foods, were subjected to different in vitro digestion experiments and the lipolysis levels reached were evaluated using (1)H NMR spectral data. Simple observation of the spectra gives very valuable information about the extent of the lipolysis and enables a rapid discrimination among samples having different hydrolysis degree...
July 15, 2015: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24777447/in-vitro-digestion-of-citric-acid-esters-of-mono-and-diglycerides-citrem-and-citrem-containing-infant-formula-emulsions
#9
Sawsan Amara, Amaury Patin, Francesca Giuffrida, Tim J Wooster, Sagar K Thakkar, Anaïs Bénarouche, Isabelle Poncin, Sylvie Robert, Vanessa Point, Sacha Molinari, Hélène Gaussier, Sadia Diomande, Frédéric Destaillats, Cristina Cruz-Hernandez, Frédéric Carrière
CITREM is an emulsifier used in the food industry and contains citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides (GCFE). It is generally recognized as safe but no publication on its digestibility under gastrointestinal conditions and impact on fat digestion was available. It was shown here that fatty acids are released from CITREM by gastric lipase, pancreatic lipase, pancreatic-lipase-related protein 2 and carboxyl ester hydrolase. A two-step in vitro digestion model mimicking lipolysis in the stomach and upper small intestine of term and preterm infants was then used to evaluate the digestibility of CITREM alone, CITREM-containing infant formula and fat emulsions, and isolated GCFE fractions...
July 25, 2014: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24508576/using-the-reversible-inhibition-of-gastric-lipase-by-orlistat-for-investigating-simultaneously-lipase-adsorption-and-substrate-hydrolysis-at-the-lipid-water-interface
#10
Anaïs Bénarouche, Vanessa Point, Frédéric Carrière, Jean-François Cavalier
The lipolysis reaction carried out by lipases at the water-lipid interface is a complex process including enzyme conformational changes, adsorption/desorption equilibrium and substrate hydrolysis. Mixed monomolecular films of the lipase inhibitor Orlistat and 1,2-dicaprin were used here to investigate the adsorption of dog gastric lipase (DGL) followed by the hydrolysis of 1,2-dicaprin. The combined study of these two essential catalysis steps was made possible thanks to the highest affinity of DGL for Orlistat than 1,2-dicaprin and the fact that the inhibition of DGL by Orlistat is reversible...
June 2014: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24440819/adipose-triglyceride-lipase-activity-is-inhibited-by-long-chain-acyl-coenzyme-a
#11
Harald M Nagy, Margret Paar, Christoph Heier, Tarek Moustafa, Peter Hofer, Guenter Haemmerle, Achim Lass, Rudolf Zechner, Monika Oberer, Robert Zimmermann
Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is required for efficient mobilization of triglyceride (TG) stores in adipose tissue and non-adipose tissues. Therefore, ATGL strongly determines the availability of fatty acids for metabolic reactions. ATGL activity is regulated by a complex network of lipolytic and anti-lipolytic hormones. These signals control enzyme expression and the interaction of ATGL with the regulatory proteins CGI-58 and G0S2. Up to date, it was unknown whether ATGL activity is also controlled by lipid intermediates generated during lipolysis...
April 4, 2014: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24309818/properties-of-a-membrane-bound-triglyceride-lipase-of-rapeseed-brassica-napus-l-cotyledons
#12
I Rosnitschek, R R Theimer
The properties of the alkaline lipase activity (EC 3.1.1.3) that was recovered almost completely from a microsomal membrane fraction of 4-d-old rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cotyledons were studied employing a titrimetric test procedure. The apparent KM was 6.5 mmol l(-1), with emulgated sunflower oil as the substrate. The products of triglyceride hydrolysis in vitro were glycerol, free fatty acids, and minor amounts of mono- and diglycerides. Maximum lipase activity depended on the preincubation of the lipolytic membrane fraction in 0...
April 1980: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24163071/postprandial-vldl-lipolysis-products-increase-monocyte-adhesion-and-lipid-droplet-formation-via-activation-of-erk2-and-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#13
Laura J den Hartigh, Robin Altman, Jennifer E Norman, John C Rutledge
Postprandial lipemia is characterized by a transient increase in circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins such as very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and has been shown to activate monocytes in vivo. Lipolysis of VLDL releases remnant particles, phospholipids, monoglycerides, diglycerides, and fatty acids in close proximity to endothelial cells and monocytes. We hypothesized that postprandial VLDL lipolysis products could activate and recruit monocytes by increasing monocyte expression of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules, and that such activation is related to the development of lipid droplets...
January 1, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24121865/encapsulation-of-mixtures-of-tuna-oil-tributyrin-and-resveratrol-in-a-spray-dried-powder-formulation
#14
Luz Sanguansri, Li Day, Zhiping Shen, Peter Fagan, Rangika Weerakkody, Li Jiang Cheng, Jenny Rusli, Mary Ann Augustin
Spray dried emulsions are effective for carrying and stabilising combinations of fish oil and tributyrin, fish oil and resveratrol, or fish oil, tributyrin and resveratrol in one formulation. The encapsulation efficiencies were >99% for all three bioactives when a heated mixture of sodium caseinate: glucose: dried glucose syrup matrix (Encapsulant matrix 1) was used. When a heated sodium caseinate: glucose: processed starch matrix (Encapsulant matrix 2) was used, the encapsulation efficiencies were 90-92% for tributyrin and approximately 98% for resveratrol for all formulations but 79-91% for tuna oil where the efficiency was more formulation dependent...
December 2013: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23911434/solid-lipid-particles-for-oral-delivery-of-peptide-and-protein-drugs-i-elucidating-the-release-mechanism-of-lysozyme-during-lipolysis
#15
P C Christophersen, L Zhang, M Yang, H Mørck Nielsen, A Müllertz, H Mu
The mechanism of protein release from solid lipid particles was investigated by a new lipolysis model in a biorelevant medium containing both bile salts and phospholipids. Lysozyme, a model protein, was formulated into solid lipid particles using four different types of lipids, two triglycerides with different chain-length of fatty acyl groups i.e. trimyristin (TG14) and tristearin (TG18), and two lipid blends dominated by diglycerides and monoglycerides, respectively. The release of lysozyme from the solid lipid particles and the lipid hydrolysis process were assessed in the lipolysis model, while the change in particle surface during the lipolysis process was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy...
November 2013: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23646067/regulation-of-adipose-tissue-metabolism-in-humans-analysis-of-responses-to-the-hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-clamp-experiment
#16
Jaeyeon Kim, Gerald M Saidel, Satish C Kalhan
The suppression of lipolysis is one of the key metabolic responses of the adipose tissue during hyperinsulinemia. The failure to respond and resulting increase in plasma fatty acids could contribute to the development of insulin resistance and perturbations in the fuel homeostasis in the whole body. In this study, a mechanistic, computational model of adipose tissue metabolism in vivo has been enhanced to simulate the physiological responses during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp experiment in humans. The model incorporates metabolic intermediates and pathways that are important in the fed state...
June 1, 2011: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23603613/lipins-lipinopathies-and-the-modulation-of-cellular-lipid-storage-and-signaling
#17
REVIEW
Lauren S Csaki, Jennifer R Dwyer, Loren G Fong, Peter Tontonoz, Stephen G Young, Karen Reue
Members of the lipin protein family are phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) enzymes, which catalyze the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol, the penultimate step in TAG synthesis. Lipins are unique among the glycerolipid biosynthetic enzymes in that they also promote fatty acid oxidation through their activity as co-regulators of gene expression by DNA-bound transcription factors. Lipin function has been evolutionarily conserved from a single ortholog in yeast to the mammalian family of three lipin proteins-lipin-1, lipin-2, and lipin-3...
July 2013: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23042128/rapid-triacylglycerol-turnover-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-requires-a-lipase-with-broad-substrate-specificity
#18
Xiaobo Li, Christoph Benning, Min-Hao Kuo
When deprived of nitrogen (N), the photosynthetic microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii accumulates large quantities of triacylglycerols (TAGs), making it a promising source of biofuel. Prominent transcriptional changes associated with the conditions leading to TAG accumulation have been found, suggesting that the key enzymes for TAG metabolism might be among those that fluctuate in their expression during TAG synthesis and breakdown. Using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipase null mutant strain for functional complementation, we identified the CrLIP1 gene from Chlamydomonas based on its ability to suppress the lipase deficiency-related phenotypes of the yeast mutant...
December 2012: Eukaryotic Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22748069/diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-2-acts-upstream-of-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-1-and-utilizes-nascent-diglycerides-and-de-novo-synthesized-fatty-acids-in-hepg2-cells
#19
Haja R Wurie, Linda Buckett, Victor A Zammit
The two diacylglycerol acyltransferases, DGAT1 and DGAT2, are known to have non-redundant functions, in spite of catalysing the same reaction and being present in the same cell types. The basis for this distinctiveness, which is reflected in the very different phenotypes of Dgat1(-/-) and Dgat2(-/-) mice, has not been resolved. Using selective inhibitors of human DGAT1 and DGAT2 on HepG2 cells and gene silencing, we show that, although DGAT2 activity accounts for a modest fraction (< 20%) of overall cellular DGAT activity, inhibition of DGAT2 activity specifically inhibits (and is rate-limiting for) the incorporation of de novo synthesized fatty acids and of glycerol into cellular and secreted triglyceride to a much greater extent than it affects the incorporation of exogenously added oleate...
September 2012: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22691105/adipokines-promote-lipotoxicity-in-human-skeletal-muscle-cells
#20
Annika Taube, Silja Lambernd, Gerhild van Echten-Deckert, Kristin Eckardt, Juergen Eckel
Studies have shown the implication of specific adipokines or fatty acids (FA) in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. However, the interplay of adipokines with FA remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the combined effects of adipokines and low concentrations of palmitic acid (PA, 100 µmol/l) on skeletal muscle metabolism. Human skeletal muscle cells were incubated with adipocyte-conditioned medium (CM), PA or PA+CM, and FA transporter and FA metabolism were analysed. CM-incubation increased CD36 level (1...
July 2012: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
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