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Maria Paola Bertone, Haja Wurie, Mohamed Samai, Sophie Witter
BACKGROUND: As performance-based financing (PBF) has been increasingly implemented in low-income countries, a growing literature has developed, assessing its effectiveness and, more recently, focussing on the political dynamics of PBF introduction and implementation. This study contributes to the latter body of literature by exploring decision-making processes on PBF in Sierra Leone during the 2010-2017 period. Sierra Leone presents an interesting case because of the 'start-stop-start' trajectory of PBF...
October 20, 2018: Globalization and Health
Jessica Gergen, Yogesh Rajkotia, Julia Lohmann, Nirmala Ravishankar
BACKGROUND: Performance-based financing (PBF) reforms aim to directly influence health worker behavior through changes to institutional arrangements, accountability structures, and financial incentives based on performance. While there is still some debate about whether PBF influences extrinsic or intrinsic motivators, recent research finds that PBF affects both. Against this backdrop, our study presents findings from a process evaluation of a PBF program in Mozambique, exploring the perceived changes to both internal and external drivers of health worker motivation associated with PBF...
October 19, 2018: Human Resources for Health
Jason Boehme, Natacha Le Moan, Rebecca J Kameny, Alexandra Loucks, Michael J Johengen, Amy L Lesneski, Wenhui Gong, Tina Davis, Kevin Tanaka, Andrew Davis, Youping He, Janel Long-Boyle, Vijay Ivaturi, Jogarao V S Gobburu, Jonathan A Winger, Stephen P Cary, Sanjeev A Datar, Jeffrey R Fineman, Ana Krtolica, Emin Maltepe
The heart exhibits the highest basal oxygen (O2) consumption per tissue mass of any organ in the body and is uniquely dependent on aerobic metabolism to sustain contractile function. During acute hypoxic states, the body responds with a compensatory increase in cardiac output that further increases myocardial O2 demand, predisposing the heart to ischemic stress and myocardial dysfunction. Here, we test the utility of a novel engineered protein derived from the heme-based nitric oxide (NO)/oxygen (H-NOX) family of bacterial proteins as an O2 delivery biotherapeutic (Omniox-cardiovascular [OMX-CV]) for the hypoxic myocardium...
October 2018: PLoS Biology
Christian Schoenfeld, Jan B Hinrichs, Karen M Olsson, Martin-Alexander Kuettner, Julius Renne, Till Kaireit, Christoph Czerner, Frank Wacker, Marius M Hoeper, Bernhard C Meyer, Jens Vogel-Claussen
OBJECTIVES: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) can be treated with balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) in inoperable patients. Sensitive non-invasive imaging methods are missing to detect treatment response after a single BPA treatment session. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure treatment response after a single BPA session using cardio-pulmonary MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall, 29 patients with CTEPH were examined with cardio-pulmonary MRI before and 62 days after their initial BPA session...
October 11, 2018: European Radiology
Serge Mayaka Ma-Nitu, Lara Tembey, Eric Bigirimana, Christophe Y Dossouvi, Olivier Basenya, Elizabeth Mago, Pacifique Mushagalusa Salongo, Aloys Zongo, Fanen Verinumbe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: BMJ Global Health
Shuaibing Wang, Rui Peng, Shuying Liang, Kaiyan Dong, Wei Nie, Qian Yang, Nan Ma, Jianying Zhang, Kaijuan Wang, Chunhua Song
BACKGROUND: To compare the efficiency of bioelectrical indices (visceral fat index, VFI; percentage body fat, PBF) and anthropometric indices (body mass index, BMI; waist circumference, WC; waist-to-height ratio, WHtR; a body shape index, ABSI) in the relation to prehypertension (120-139/80-89mmHg) among Chinese population. METHODS: Using stratified multistage random sampling method, a general population-based sample of 11,175 adults in Henan province were selected during 2013 to 2015...
October 3, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Elena Bassoli, Lucia Denti
Even though additive manufacturing (AM) techniques have been available since the late 1980s, their application in medicine is still striving to gain full acceptance. For the production of dental implants, the use of AM allows to save time and costs, but also to ensure closer dimensional tolerances and higher repeatability, as compared to traditional manual processes. Among the several AM solutions, Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) is the most appropriate for the production of metal prostheses. The target of this paper was to investigate the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of Co⁻Cr⁻Mo and Ti⁻6Al⁻4V alloys processed by L-PBF, with a specific focus on secondary anisotropy that is usually disregarded in the literature...
September 26, 2018: Materials
Seyda Ersahan, Fidan A Sabuncuoglu
We aimed to assess the relationship between age, pulpal blood flow (PBF), and orthodontic treatment outcomes. Decreased blood supply to pulp cells commonly occurs with age and can change the response of pulp to orthodontic tooth movement. This study was conducted in 28 human subjects divided into 2 groups according to age. A laser Doppler flowmeter was used to record blood flow to the teeth prior to and during the course of orthodontic treatment (days 1, 3, and 7; week 3; and month 1). Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney U tests...
2018: Journal of Oral Science
Anne-Marie Turcotte-Tremblay, Manuela De Allegri, Idriss Ali Gali-Gali, Valéry Ridde
BACKGROUND: User fees and poor quality of care contribute to low use of healthcare services in Burkina Faso. The government implemented an innovative intervention that combines equity measures with performance-based financing (PBF). These health equity measures included a community-based selection of indigents to receive user fee exemptions and paying healthcare centres higher purchase prices for services provided to indigents. Research suggests complex interventions can trigger changes not targeted by program planners...
September 24, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Ranko Gacesa, Damir Baranasic, Antonio Starcevic, Janko Diminic, Marino Korlević, Mirjana Najdek, Maria Blažina, Davor Oršolić, Domagoj Kolesarić, Paul F Long, John Cullum, Daslav Hranueli, Sandi Orlic, Jurica Zucko
Three metagenomic libraries were constructed using surface sediment samples from the northern Adriatic Sea. Two of the samples were taken from a highly polluted and an unpolluted site respectively. The third sample from a polluted site had been enriched using crude oil. The results of the metagenome analyses were incorporated in the REDPET relational database (, which was generated using the previously developed MEGGASENSE platform. The database includes taxonomic data to allow the assessment of the biodiversity of metagenomic libraries and a general functional analysis of genes using hidden Markov model (HMM) profiles based on the KEGG database...
June 2018: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Yuan-Yuei Chen, Wen-Hui Fang, Chung-Ching Wang, Tung-Wei Kao, Yaw-Wen Chang, Hui-Fang Yang, Chen-Jung Wu, Yu-Shan Sun, Wei-Liang Chen
Family history was one of the major risk factors for developing adverse health outcomes such as metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN). Our aim was to examine the relationship between different family histories and cardiometabolic events, including DM, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and HTN. Participants who attended the health examinations at the Tri-Service General Hospital from 2010 to 2016 were enrolled in the study and were categorized into four groups by representing different family history...
September 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Seyda Ersahan, Fidan Alakus Sabuncuoglu, Elif Aybala Oktay
Objective: To evaluate the effect of extrusion on immature permanent tooth PBF values during a 6-month post-trauma period and to compare the accuracy of cold tests on pulp sensibility of traumatized teeth with that of electric pulp tests (EPT). Methods: The study group comprised of 26 extruded immature maxillary incisors in 25 trauma patients. The respective contralateral homologous teeth ( n =25) were included as a positive control group. Teeth in the study group were treated by repositioning and splinting...
July 2018: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Martina Gažarová, Lucia Mečiarová, Jana Kopčeková, Mária Holovičová, Marta Habánová, Monika Bronkowska
Background: Physical activity is bodily movement produced by skeletal muscle that requires energy expenditure and promotes health benefits. Appropriate physical activity is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, breast cancer, and others. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the body composition of the selected group of women in relation to physical activity (group of sporting women (S) versus group of non-sporting women (N-S) using an InBody 230 instrument based on the principle of bioelectric impedance...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Juliana Silvani, Caroline Buss, Geórgia das Graças Pena, Andrea Fontoura Recchi, Eliana Márcia Wendland
A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate and compare dietary intake, type of assistance (Basic Health Units - UBS and Family Health Strategies - ESF) and participation in the "Bolsa Família" Program (PBF) among users of the Brazilian Unified Health System, (SUS). The sample was composed of individuals of both sexes between 18 and 78 years of age in Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul. Socioeconomic, clinical and food consumption data were collected via a questionnaire adapted from the SISVAN and VIGITEL national surveys...
August 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Léon Jules Owona Manga, André Arsène Bita Fouda, Lucien Mbida, Come Ebana Mvogo
The performance based financing approach is being tested in four regions of Cameroon, including the Littoral region. Our study aimed to study the effects associated with the implementation of the performance based financing approach within the health facilities based in the health district of Edea in the Littoral region in Cameroon. We've carried out a crosssectional analytical study among 178 health personnel from 21 health facilities under PBF-contract within the health district of Edea. We have studied their sociodemographic characteristics, the individual and collective effects resulting from the performance based financing subsidies and the level of job satisfaction...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Public Health in Africa
Irosh Fernando, Lisa Lampe
OBJECTIVES: To provide a further example of the utility of the pattern-based model in formulation, and to introduce some further patterns. METHODS: A case study was carried out using the Pattern-based Formulation (PBF). RESULTS: Based on the case of a patient with a past history of trauma who developed late onset somatic symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder and major depression, the PBF approach enabled development of a comprehensive formulation to explain the patient's current presentation...
July 26, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Shannon A McMahon, Adamson S Muula, Manuela De Allegri
While several evaluations have examined the extent to which performance based financing (PBF) programs induce changes in the quantity and quality of health services provided, less is known about the process of implementing PBF. We conducted a process evaluation of a PBF intervention in Malawi that focused on understanding moderators of program implementation. Informed by a seminal theory of implementation, we first created a timeline and taxonomy of key events in the program lifeline and then undertook 25 in-depth interviews with stakeholders including implementers, central-level ministry officials and district-level health staff...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Roseanne C Schuster, Octávio de Sousa, Anne-Kathe Reme, Carolyn Vopelak, David L Pelletier, Lynn M Johnson, Mduduzi Mbuya, Delphine Pinault, Sera L Young
BACKGROUND: Despite increased access to treatment and reduced incidence, vertical transmission of HIV continues to pose a risk to maternal and child health in sub-Saharan Africa. Performance-based financing (PBF) directed at healthcare providers has shown potential to improve quantity and quality of maternal and child health services. However, the ways in which these PBF initiatives lead to improved service delivery are still under investigation. METHODS: Therefore, we implemented a longitudinal-controlled proof-of-concept PBF intervention at health facilities and with community-based associations focused on preventing vertical transmission of HIV (PVT) in rural Mozambique...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Corinna Binder-Heschl, Kelly Crossley, Arjan Te Pas, Graeme Polglase, Douglas Blank, Valerie Zahra, Alison Moxham, Karyn Rodgers, Stuart Hooper
BACKGROUND: Caffeine is routinely given to preterm infants hours after birth to treat apnea of prematurity. In view of it's success, earlier administration in the delivery room is being considered, but little is known about how caffeine may effect the cardiovascular changes during the fetal to neonatal transition. Our aim was to determine the effect of prenatal caffeine administration on haemodynamic parameters in ventilated preterm lambs immediately after birth. METHODS: Catheters (carotid artery and jugular vein) and ultrasonic flow probes (pulmonary artery and carotid artery) were implanted in preterm lambs (~126 ±2 days of gestation; term is 147 days), immediately before delivery by caesarean section...
2018: PloS One
Zhi-Fa Wu, Chuan-Tao Zheng, Zhi-Wei Liu, Dan Yao, Wen-Xue Zheng, Yi-Ding Wang, Fei Wang, Da-Ming Zhang
Generic modeling and analysis of a slow-light enhanced absorption spectroscopic gas sensor was proposed, using a mode-tuned, hollow-core, photonic band-gap fiber (HC-PBF) as an absorption gas cell. Mode characteristics of the un-infiltrated and infiltrated HC-PBF and gas absorption enhancement of the infiltrated HC-PBF were analyzed. A general rule of microfluidic parameters for targeting different gas species in the near-infrared was obtained. Ammonia (NH₃) was used as an example to explore the effects of slow light on gas detection...
July 7, 2018: Sensors
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