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Léon Jules Owona Manga, André Arsène Bita Fouda, Lucien Mbida, Come Ebana Mvogo
The performance based financing approach is being tested in four regions of Cameroon, including the Littoral region. Our study aimed to study the effects associated with the implementation of the performance based financing approach within the health facilities based in the health district of Edea in the Littoral region in Cameroon. We've carried out a crosssectional analytical study among 178 health personnel from 21 health facilities under PBF-contract within the health district of Edea. We have studied their sociodemographic characteristics, the individual and collective effects resulting from the performance based financing subsidies and the level of job satisfaction...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Public Health in Africa
Irosh Fernando, Lisa Lampe
OBJECTIVES: To provide a further example of the utility of the pattern-based model in formulation, and to introduce some further patterns. METHODS: A case study was carried out using the Pattern-based Formulation (PBF). RESULTS: Based on the case of a patient with a past history of trauma who developed late onset somatic symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder and major depression, the PBF approach enabled development of a comprehensive formulation to explain the patient's current presentation...
July 26, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Shannon A McMahon, Adamson S Muula, Manuela De Allegri
While several evaluations have examined the extent to which performance based financing (PBF) programs induce changes in the quantity and quality of health services provided, less is known about the process of implementing PBF. We conducted a process evaluation of a PBF intervention in Malawi that focused on understanding moderators of program implementation. Informed by a seminal theory of implementation, we first created a timeline and taxonomy of key events in the program lifeline and then undertook 25 in-depth interviews with stakeholders including implementers, central-level ministry officials and district-level health staff...
August 2018: SSM—Population Health
Roseanne C Schuster, Octávio de Sousa, Anne-Kathe Reme, Carolyn Vopelak, David L Pelletier, Lynn M Johnson, Mduduzi Mbuya, Delphine Pinault, Sera L Young
BACKGROUND: Despite increased access to treatment and reduced incidence, vertical transmission of HIV continues to pose a risk to maternal and child health in sub-Saharan Africa. Performance-based financing (PBF) directed at healthcare providers has shown potential to improve quantity and quality of maternal and child health services. However, the ways in which these PBF initiatives lead to improved service delivery are still under investigation. METHODS: Therefore, we implemented a longitudinal-controlled proof-of-concept PBF intervention at health facilities and with community-based associations focused on preventing vertical transmission of HIV (PVT) in rural Mozambique...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Corinna Binder-Heschl, Kelly Crossley, Arjan Te Pas, Graeme Polglase, Douglas Blank, Valerie Zahra, Alison Moxham, Karyn Rodgers, Stuart Hooper
BACKGROUND: Caffeine is routinely given to preterm infants hours after birth to treat apnea of prematurity. In view of it's success, earlier administration in the delivery room is being considered, but little is known about how caffeine may effect the cardiovascular changes during the fetal to neonatal transition. Our aim was to determine the effect of prenatal caffeine administration on haemodynamic parameters in ventilated preterm lambs immediately after birth. METHODS: Catheters (carotid artery and jugular vein) and ultrasonic flow probes (pulmonary artery and carotid artery) were implanted in preterm lambs (~126 ±2 days of gestation; term is 147 days), immediately before delivery by caesarean section...
2018: PloS One
Zhi-Fa Wu, Chuan-Tao Zheng, Zhi-Wei Liu, Dan Yao, Wen-Xue Zheng, Yi-Ding Wang, Fei Wang, Da-Ming Zhang
Generic modeling and analysis of a slow-light enhanced absorption spectroscopic gas sensor was proposed, using a mode-tuned, hollow-core, photonic band-gap fiber (HC-PBF) as an absorption gas cell. Mode characteristics of the un-infiltrated and infiltrated HC-PBF and gas absorption enhancement of the infiltrated HC-PBF were analyzed. A general rule of microfluidic parameters for targeting different gas species in the near-infrared was obtained. Ammonia (NH₃) was used as an example to explore the effects of slow light on gas detection...
July 7, 2018: Sensors
Maria Paola Bertone, Eelco Jacobs, Jurrien Toonen, Ngozi Akwataghibe, Sophie Witter
Background: Performance based financing (PBF) has been increasingly implemented across low and middle-income countries, including in fragile and humanitarian settings, which present specific features likely to require adaptation and to influence implementation of any health financing programme. However, the literature has been surprisingly thin in the discussion of how PBF has been adapted to different contexts, and in turn how different contexts may influence PBF. With case studies from three humanitarian settings (northern Nigeria, Central African Republic and South Kivu in the Democratic Republic of Congo), we examine why and how PBF has emerged and has been adapted to those unsettled and dynamic contexts, what the opportunities and challenges have been, and what lessons can be drawn...
2018: Conflict and Health
Yuan-Yuei Chen, Wen-Hui Fang, Chung-Ching Wang, Tung-Wei Kao, Yaw-Wen Chang, Hui-Fang Yang, Chen-Jung Wu, Yu-Shan Sun, Wei-Liang Chen
Accumulated evidence has suggested associations between glucose abnormalities and insulin resistance with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. However, few studies have reported the effect of hepatitis virus infections on body composition. Our aim was to explore the association of hepatitis virus infections with percent body fat (PBF) in a cross-sectional analysis. A total of 69226 subjects obtained from the health examinations at Tri-Service General Hospital (TSGH) from 2010 to 2016 were enrolled in the study...
2018: PloS One
Xiaobin Xu, Xiaoyang Wang, Taotao Zhu, Fuyu Gao, Ningfang Song
In this Letter, we propose a simple and nondestructive method for the determination of the core size of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBF) and its axial uniformity based on a Fabry-Perot cavity induced by a pair of opposite silica-air interfaces within the hollow core. The experimental results indicate that the core size test of the HC-PBF has a nanometer-level precision, and its axial uniformity test has an ultimate spatial resolution of tens of microns. The method provides an effective and precise tool for the investigation of the hollow-core size and its longitudinal evolution...
July 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Zhe Zhang, Jun He, Qi Dong, Zhiyong Bai, Changrui Liao, Ying Wang, Shen Liu, Kuikui Guo, Yiping Wang
A diaphragm-free probe-type gas-pressure sensor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated based on a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBF) with a quartz capillary. The section of the HC-PBF acts as a Fabry-Perot cavity, and the quartz capillary acts as a microfluidic channel for a gas inlet. An inner diameter of the quartz capillary (∼2  μm) smaller than the HC-PBF (∼10.9  μm) ensures a mirror reflection and a microfluidic channel simultaneously. The sensor probe has a minimal size (∼125  μm) and can function at gas pressures as high as 8 MPa...
July 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Valéry Ridde, Lara Gautier, Anne-Marie Turcotte-Tremblay, Isidore Sieleunou, Elisabeth Paul
Over the past 15 years, hundreds of millions of dollars have been invested in reforms founded on performance-based financing (PBF) in low- and middle-income countries. While evidence on its effectiveness and efficiency is still controversial, there appears to be an emerging consensus that equity has not been adequately considered. In this article, we show how PBF-type interventions in Africa have not sufficiently taken into account equity of access to care for the worst-off and their financial protection. In reviewing the history of health reforms in Africa, we show that this omission is nothing new...
July 2018: International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
Somlak Vanavanan, Pornpen Srisawasdi, Mana Rochanawutanon, Nalinee Kumproa, Khanat Kruthkul, Martin H Kroll
Background: Body mass index (BMI) and percentage of body fat (PBF) are used to measure obesity; however, their performance in identifying cardiometabolic risk in Southeast Asians is unclear. Generally, Asian women have higher PBF and lower BMI than do men and other ethnic populations. This study was conducted to address whether a discord exists between these measures in predicting obesity-related cardiometabolic risk in a Thai population and to test whether associations between the measures and risk factors for cardiovascular disease have a sex-specific inclination...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Yuan-Yuei Chen, Wen-Hui Fang, Chung-Ching Wang, Tung-Wei Kao, Yaw-Wen Chang, Hui-Fang Yang, Chen-Jung Wu, Yu-Shan Sun, Wei-Liang Chen
Fibrocystic breast change (FBC) is extremely common and occurrs in 90% of women during their lives. The association between body composition and risk of breast cancer is well established. We hypothesized that the effect might exist during the development of FBC. Our aim was to examine the relationships of total lean mass (TLM) and percent body fat (PBF) with FBC in a general female population. In total, 8477 female subjects aged 20 years or older were enrolled in the study at the Tri-Service General Hospital in Taiwan from 2011 to 2016...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tomasz Huc, Marek Konop, Maksymilian Onyszkiewicz, Piotr Podsadni, Agnieszka Szczepanska, Jadwiga Turlo, Marcin Ufnal
Portal hypertension (PH) is potentially life-threatening condition. We investigated the effects of indole and dietary tryptophan, a substrate for gut bacterial production of indole, on portal blood pressure (PBP), portal blood flow (PBF) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) in Sprague-Dawley rats (SD) and SD with PH induced by liver cirrhosis (SD-PH). Hemodynamics were recorded in anaesthetized, male, 28-week-old, SD and SD-PH at baseline and after the administration of either a vehicle or indole into the colon...
May 30, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
C Napier, C L MacLean, J Maurer, J E Taunton, M A Hunt
Our objective was to prospectively investigate the association of kinetic variables with running-related injury (RRI) risk. Seventy-four healthy female recreational runners ran on an instrumented treadmill while 3D kinetic and kinematic data were collected. Kinetic outcomes were vertical impact transient, average vertical loading rate, instantaneous vertical loading rate, active peak, vertical impulse, and peak braking force (PBF). Participants followed a 15-week half-marathon training program. Exposure time (hours of running) was calculated from start of program until onset of injury, loss to follow-up, or end of program...
May 30, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Chiho Tokunaga, Shonosuke Matsushita, Hiroaki Sakamoto, Kazuyuki Hyodo, Misao Kubota, Kenkichi Tanioka, Yuji Hiramatsu
Background Increased pulmonary blood flow (PBF) and shear stress may provoke irreversible vascular remodeling, yet invasive visualization of the microvasculature complicates monitoring. A non-invasive imaging methodology would therefore safely provide mechanistic insights into the progression of high PBF-induced vascular remodeling. Purpose To establish a novel microvasculature visualization method using synchrotron radiation pulmonary microangiography (SRPA) that can also calculate PBF velocity in vivo. Material and Methods A high PBF rat model was established by making a fistula between the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Peixiong Zhang, Nan Chen, Rui Wang, Xingbin Huang, Siqi Zhu, Zhen Li, Hao Yin, Zhenqiang Chen
The use of Yb3+ codoping for enhancing the near-infrared (NIR) emission in Bi, Yb codoped PbF2 crystal was investigated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The NIR and visible fluorescence emission properties of the as-grown crystals were investigated in detail. It was found that the Yb3+ ion can act as an effective charge compensated ion to bring about the conversion from Bi2+ to Bi+ , enhancing the NIR fluorescence emission in Bi:PbF2 crystal. Moreover, the NIR fluorescence emission peaking at around 1090 and 1485 nm was demonstrated to be two different Bi+ related centers, Bi(I) and Bi(II), respectively...
May 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Muireann O' Shea, Carol O' Shea, Louise Gibson, Jennifer Leo, Catherine Carty
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity is a growing concern among individuals with intellectual disabilities; however, little is known about the prevalence among children and youth with Down syndrome (CYDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight/obesity among CYDS in South West Ireland. METHODS: This cross-sectional study measured height and weight of 61 CYDS aged 4-16 years. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and percentage body fat (PBF) was measured using bio-electrical impendence analysis (BIA)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Julia Lohmann, Adamson S Muula, Nathalie Houlfort, Manuela De Allegri
"Intrinsic motivation crowding out", the erosion of high-quality, sustainable motivation through the introduction of financial incentives, is one of the most frequently discussed but yet little researched potential unfavorable consequence of Performance-based Financing (PBF). We used the opportunity of the introduction of PBF in Malawi to investigate whether and how PBF affected intrinsic motivation, using a mixed-methods research design theoretically grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT). The quantitative component served to estimate the impact of PBF on intrinsic motivation, relying on a controlled pre- and post-test design, with data collected from health workers in 23 intervention and 10 comparison facilities before (March/April 2013; n = 70) and approximately two years after (June/July 2015; n = 71) the start of the intervention...
July 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Kadkao Vongsavan, Tshering Samdrup, Kanittha Kijsamanmith, Praphasri Rirattanapong, Noppakun Vongsavan
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intraosseous (IO) anesthesia with 4% articaine and 1:100,000 epinephrine on pulpal blood flow (PBF) and pulpal anesthesia of mandibular first molars and canines in human subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers with intact mandibular first molar and canine were given an osteocentral technique of IO injection using the Quick Sleeper 5 system and 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine at distal site of mandibular first molar...
May 10, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
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