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Empyema in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083077/osteosarcoma-of-the-rib-a-rare-presentation
#1
Sema Büyükkapu Bay, Rejin Kebudi, Ayça İribaş, Ömer Görgün, Fulya Ağaoğlu, Feryal Gün, Alaettin Çelik, Emin Darendeliler
In children and adolescents with chest pain and dyspnea, pneumonia, pleural effusion, and empyema are the frequent causes in the differential diagnosis. Malignant tumors of the chest wall are rare and most originate from the ribs. In children, the most frequent malignant tumor of the rib is Ewing's sarcoma. Osteosarcomas of the rib are very rare. Osteosarcoma has a predilection for rapidly growing long bones including the femur, tibia and humerus in adolescents. In this paper, we present an adolescent girl who presented with chest pain and dyspnea with osteosarcoma that originated from the rib and extended to the right hemithorax...
March 2018: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30059559/streptococcus-pneumoniae-potently-induces-cell-death-in-mesothelial-cells
#2
Rabab Rashwan, Julius F Varano Della Vergiliana, Sally M Lansley, Hui Min Cheah, Natalia Popowicz, James C Paton, Grant W Waterer, Tiffany Townsend, Ian Kay, Jeremy S Brown, Y C Gary Lee
Pleural infection/empyema is common and its incidence continues to rise. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the commonest bacterial cause of empyema in children and among the commonest in adults. The mesothelium represents the first line of defense against invading microorganisms, but mesothelial cell responses to common empyema pathogens, including S. pneumoniae, have seldom been studied. We assessed mesothelial cell viability in vitro following exposure to common empyema pathogens. Clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae from 25 patients with invasive pneumococcal disease and three reference strains were tested...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014307/subdural-empyema-in-children
#3
Dattatraya Muzumdar, Naresh Biyani, Chandrashekhar Deopujari
BACKGROUND: Subdural empyema denotes the collection of purulent material in the subdural spaceand is commonly seen in infants and older children. In infants, the most common cause is bacterialmeningitis. In older children, sinusitis and otitis media are usually the source for subdural empyema. Theclinical symptomatology is varied and has a wide range including prolonged or recurrent fever, seizures,meningeal irritation, and raised intracranial pressure. It can mimic as well as complicate meningitis and aheightened clinical awareness is therefore paramount...
July 16, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951836/real-time-ultrasound-guided-pigtail-catheter-chest-drain-for-complicated-parapneumonic-effusion-and-empyema-in-children-16-year-single-centre-experience-of-radiologically-placed-drains
#4
Megan R Lewis, Thomas A Micic, Iolo J M Doull, Alison Evans
BACKGROUND: Chest tube drainage with fibrinolytics is a cost-effective treatment option for parapneumonic effusion and empyema in children. Although the additional use of ultrasound (US) guidance is recommended, this is rarely performed in real time to direct drain insertion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of real-time US-guided, radiologically placed chest drains at a tertiary university hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective review over a 16-year period of all children with parapneumonic effusion or empyema undergoing percutaneous US-guided drainage at our centre...
June 27, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29943912/interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-il1ra-gene-polymorphism-and-levels-associated-with-adverse-outcome-in-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children-a-hospital-based-study-in-india
#5
Shally Awasthi, Krishna K Yadav, Monika Pandey, Abbas A Mahdi, Nidhi Awasthi
BACKGROUND: High morbidity and mortality due to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is seen in children under 5 years of age in India. Besides identified risk factors for CAP, there may be a phenotype-genotype association with cytokines, resulting in enhanced inflammatory response resulting in the adverse outcome (AO), namely complications and death. AIM: To assess the association of IL1RA gene polymorphism on serum levels of IL1RA and with AO in children under 5 years of age hospitalized with WHO-defined severe CAP...
June 26, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930870/pediatric-infratentorial-subdural-empyema-a-case-report
#6
Eleftherios Neromyliotis, Dimitrios Giakoumettis, Evangelos Drosos, Ioannis Nikas, Alexios Blionas, George Sfakianos, Marios S Themistocleous
Background: Infratentorial subdural empyemas in children are extremely rare and potentially lethal intracranial infections. Delay in diagnosis and therapy is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Case Description: A 4-year-old boy presented with cerebellar signs following a failed treatment of otitis media. Imaging studies revealed a subdural empyema and left transverse and sigmoid sinus thrombosis. The empyema was evacuated operatively and antibiotic treatment was initiated and administered for 6 weeks...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912700/pediatric-complicated-pneumonia-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-3-in-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccinees-portugal-2010-2015
#7
Catarina Silva-Costa, Maria João Brito, Marcos D Pinho, Ana Friães, Sandra I Aguiar, M Ramirez, Jose Melo-Cristino
Despite use of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, incidence of pleural effusion and empyema (pediatric complicated pneumococcal pneumonia [PCPP]) is reportedly increasing globally. We cultured and performed PCR on 152 pleural fluid samples recovered from pediatric patients in Portugal during 2010-2015 to identify and serotype Streptococcus pneumoniae. We identified only 17 cases by culture, but molecular methods identified S. pneumoniae in 68% (92/135) of culture-negative samples. The most frequent serotypes were 3, 1, and 19A, together accounting for 62% (68/109) of cases...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849668/evaluation-of-clinical-and-immunological-characteristics-of-children-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency
#8
Gülsüm Alkan, Sevgi Keles, İsmail Reisli
Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID) that typically presents with hypogammaglobulinemia and impaired antibody production. Objectives: This study aimed to promote the awareness of CVID, whose clinical spectrum is quite broad. Methods: The demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of 12 children (seven males and five females) with CVID were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were diagnosed using the diagnostic criteria of the European Society for Primary Immunodeficiencies...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790830/empyema-necessitans-in-a-six-month-old-girl
#9
P Goussard, Robert Gie, Jacques Janson, Savvas Andronikou
Empyema necessitans is a rare complication of acute bacterial pneumonia, especially in children. It is a complication of empyema characterised by the extension of pus from the pleural cavity into the thoracic wall to form a mass of purulent fluid in the adjacent soft tissue. An inflammatory chest wall mass following pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumonia in a six-month-old infant is reported. The case emphasises that children presenting with persistent fever and a painful chest wall mass following pneumonia should be investigated immediately as there might be an urgent need for surgery...
May 23, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782063/intrapleural-streptokinase-is-effective-and-safe-for-children-with-multi-loculated-empyema-regardless-of-the-time-from-disease-onset
#10
Joseph L Mathew, Vimlesh Soni, Meenu Singh, Piyush Mittal, Sunit Singhi, Vikas Gautam, Kushaljit S Sodhi, Muralidharan Jayashree, Pankaj Vaidya
AIM: This study compared the efficacy of administering intrapleural streptokinase to children with multi-loculated empyema within 14 days or at any time after disease onset. METHODS: We studied children under 12 years with multi-loculated empyema who were admitted to a teaching hospital in Chandigarh, India, from July 2013 to June 2017. They received antibiotics, pleural drainage and intrapleural streptokinase. The first group received three doses within 14 days of disease onset, the second received three doses regardless of time after onset and the third group received four to six doses regardless of time after onset...
May 21, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754841/-risks-associated-with-the-use-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-during-pneumonia
#11
REVIEW
G Voiriot, M Chalumeau, J Messika, D Basille, B Philippe, J-D Ricard, C Andrejak, V Jounieaux, O Sanchez, M Fartoukh
INTRODUCTION: Outpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is frequent, although this is not based on clinical recommendations and there is no scientific evidence supporting better symptom relief in comparison to acetaminophen. STATE OF THE ART: Experimental data suggest that NSAIDs alter the intrinsic functions of neutrophils, limit their locoregional recruitment, alter bacterial clearance and delay the resolution of inflammatory processes during acute bacterial pulmonary challenge...
April 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751582/whole-exome-sequencing-identifies-new-host-genomic-susceptibility-factors-in-empyema-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-children-a-pilot-study
#12
Antonio Salas, Jacobo Pardo-Seco, Ruth Barral-Arca, Miriam Cebey-López, Alberto Gómez-Carballa, Irene Rivero-Calle, Sara Pischedda, María-José Currás-Tuala, Jorge Amigo, José Gómez-Rial, Federico Martinón-Torres
Pneumonia is the leading cause of death amongst infectious diseases. Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for about 25% of pneumonia cases worldwide, and it is a major cause of childhood mortality. We carried out a whole exome sequencing (WES) study in eight patients with complicated cases of pneumococcal pneumonia (empyema). An initial assessment of statistical association of WES variation with pneumonia was carried out using data from the 1000 Genomes Project (1000G) for the Iberian Peninsula (IBS) as reference controls...
May 3, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748704/subdural-empyema-due-to-salmonella-paratyphi-b-in-an-infant-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#13
Vijai Williams, Keshavamurthy Mysore Lakshmikantha, Karthi Nallasamy, K C Sudeep, Arun Kumar Baranwal, Muralidharan Jayashree
Intracranial infection due to Salmonella is uncommon in children. Subdural empyema (SDE) is described with Salmonella typhi as a complication of meningitis. We report a 6-month-old infant with SDE secondary to Salmonella paratyphi B who had presented with prolonged fever and enlarging head. A literature review of Salmonella SDE in infants with respect to clinical course and outcome is presented.
May 10, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697077/surgical-management-of-stage-iii-pediatric-empyema-thoracis
#14
Aditya Pratap Singh, Arvind Kumar Shukla, Pramila Sharma, Jyotsna Shukla
Aim and Objective: This study aims to report 100 pediatric patients of empyema thoracis treated by open decortication, highlighting the presentation, delay in referral, operative findings, the response to surgical intervention, and follow-up. Materials and Methods: All the children who underwent open decortication for stage III empyema thoracis during the study period January 2015-December 2016 were included. Preoperative workup included hemogram, serum protein, chest radiographs, and contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CECT) scan of the chest...
May 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685595/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-northern-alberta-not-a-red-queen-but-a-dark-horse
#15
Thomas J Marrie, Gregory J Tyrrell, Sumit R Majumdar, Dean T Eurich
BACKGROUND: The consequences of the introduction of various pneumococcal protein conjugate vaccines (PCV) for children and adults is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We undertook a population-based cohort study of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Northern Alberta (Canada) from 2000 to 2014, years spanning pre-and early PCV (2000-2004) vs PCV-7 (2005-2009) vs PCV-13 (2010-2014) time periods. DESIGN: We collected clinical, laboratory, and Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype information on all patients from 2000 to 2014...
May 17, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682010/craniofacial-trauma-in-pediatric-patients-following-winnowing-blade-injury-review-of-literature
#16
REVIEW
Harsha Huliyappa, Balakrishna Ojha, Anil Chandra, Sunil Kumar Singh, Chhitij Srivastava
In developing countries, during the harvest season, winnower blade injuries occur very frequently in children and results in lifelong disability. Nine children were managed during 1 month, all resulting due to winnower blade induced craniofacial trauma. PubMed search for "fan blade injury" showed two case series and three case reports. In our study, 88% had compound depressed fracture; brain matter leak in 56%, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak alone in 22%. 66.7% had injury involving the frontal bone...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628834/comparison-of-analgesic-efficacy-and-safety-of-continuous-epidural-infusion-versus-local-infiltration-and-systemic-opioids-in-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-decortication-in-pediatric-empyema-patients
#17
Priyanka Pradeep Karnik, Nandini Malay Dave, Madhu Garasia
Introduction: The stripping of the densely innervated and inflamed parietal pleura in empyema during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) decortication can lead to significant pain and major postoperative respiratory compromise. Hence, we compared the analgesic efficacy of continuous epidural infusion versus local infiltration and systemic opioids in children undergoing VATS decortications. Methodology: Following ethics approval and informed consent, forty patients from 1 to 12 years of age were randomized into two groups, Group E (epidural) and Group L (local infiltration) after induction of anesthesia...
April 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622912/uncommon-pathogen-bacillus-cereus-causing-subdural-empyema-in-a-child
#18
Prastiya Indra Gunawan, Leny Kartina, Dwiyanti Puspitasari, Erny Erny
Background: Subdural empyema (SDE) in children is a severe intracranial infection. Many pathogens can cause SDE. Case Details: In this articlewe present a 15-month old Indonesian boy diagnosed as SDE based on the clinical symptoms and neuroimaging. A complete blood count showed white blood cell count of 13.800/mm3 and the CRP level was 8.3 mg/L. Craniotomy following burr hole drainage procedure was performed to decrease intracranial pressure. The liquor culture indicated Bacillus cereus...
January 2018: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567906/nontuberculous-mycobacterial-empyema-in-an-immunocompetent-child
#19
Ira Shah, Forum Shah
Nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) species are mycobacterial species other than those belonging to the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis complex and Mycobacterium leprae. There are very few reports of NTM in immunocompetent children causing empyema. In this article, we report a 9-year-old immunocompetent girl who presented with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare empyema.
January 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564197/conservative-management-of-acalculous-cholecystitis-in-a-seven-year-old-child
#20
Jessica Y Ng, Jennie Gu
Acute acalculous cholecystitis is an uncommon disease in children and is usually associated with trauma, burns, and infections. Whereas acute acalculous cholecystitis is only seen in 10% of cholecystitis in adults, it is uncommon in the paediatric population. A seven-year-old male presented to the emergency department of a regional hospital with a 36-hour history of right-upper-quadrant abdominal pain. He had associated symptoms of anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. He was septic with raised white cell count and inflammatory markers...
January 20, 2018: Curēus
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