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U Rajendra Acharya, Yuki Hagiwara, Hojjat Adeli
In the past two decades, significant advances have been made on automated electroencephalogram (EEG)-based diagnosis of epilepsy and seizure detection. A number of innovative algorithms have been introduced that can aid in epilepsy diagnosis with a high degree of accuracy. In recent years, the frontiers of computational epilepsy research have moved to seizure prediction, a more challenging problem. While antiepileptic medication can result in complete seizure freedom in many patients with epilepsy, up to one-third of patients living with epilepsy will have medically intractable epilepsy, where medications reduce seizure frequency but do not completely control seizures...
October 11, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Shupeng Chen, Hongxia Liu, Shulong Wang, Wei Li, Xing Wang, Lu Zhao
In this paper, a silicon-based T-shape gate dual-source tunnel field-effect transistor (TGTFET) is proposed and investigated by TCAD simulation. As a contrastive study, the structure, characteristic, and analog/RF performance of TGTFET, LTFET, and UTFET are discussed. The gate overlap introduced by T-shape gate can enhance the efficiency of tunneling junction. The dual-source regions in TGTFET can increase the on-state current (ION ) by offering a doubled tunneling junction area. In order to further improve the device performance, the n+ pocket is introduced in TGTFET to further increase the band-to-band tunneling rate...
October 12, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Yuan Jia, Hao Sun, Xiao Li, Dongke Sun, Tao Hu, Nan Xiang, Zhonghua Ni
Rapid, disposable, point-of-care (POC) oral fluid testing has gained considerable attention in recent years as saliva contains biomarker and components of the serum proteome that offer important information on both oral and systemic disease. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) coupled with smartphone reflectance sensing systems have long been considered to be an effective POC tool for the diagnostics of biomarkers in oral fluid. However, the existing portable systems are limited by the poor color distribution in the detection area as well as not being universally applicable...
October 12, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
Deepjyoti Deka, Sriram Vishwanath, Ross Baldick
Natural disasters like hurricanes, floods or earthquakes can damage power grid devices and create cascading blackouts and islands. The nature of failure propagation and extent of damage, among other factors, is dependent on the structural features of the grid, that are distinct from that of random networks. This paper analyzes the structural vulnerability of real power grids to impending disasters and presents intuitive graphical metrics to quantify the extent of topological damage. We develop two improved graph eigen-value based bounds on the grid vulnerability...
2018: PloS One
Hongcheng Huang, Biao Liu, Min Hu, Yang Tao, Wei Xiang
There are a large number of redundant transmissions in current D2D multicast content delivery systems, which seriously reduces the utilization efficiency of resources. This paper designs a novel user-information-aware D2D video distribution mechanism. More specifically, by predicting users' video requests, the video can be pushed to potential service requesters while distributing video for service requesters. Firstly, the willingness of potential requesters to accept the pushed video is estimated based on the users' interests, the popularity of the videos and the residual-energy of the users' devices, and the user-demand-aware clustering algorithm is proposed...
October 10, 2018: Sensors
Jialin Liu, Lei Wang, Jian Fang, Linlin Guo, Bingxian Lu, Lei Shu
Intense human motion, such as hitting, kicking, and falling, in some particular scenes indicates the occurrence of abnormal events like violence and school bullying. Camera-based human motion detection is an effective way to analyze human behavior and detect intense human motion. However, even if the camera is properly deployed, it will still generate blind spots. Moreover, camera-based methods cannot be used in places such as restrooms and dressing rooms due to privacy issues. In this paper, we propose a multi-target intense human motion detection scheme using commercial Wi-Fi infrastructures...
October 10, 2018: Sensors
Luis Sánchez, Jorge Lanza, Juan Ramón Santana, Rachit Agarwal, Pierre Guillaume Raverdy, Tarek Elsaleh, Yasmin Fathy, SeungMyeong Jeong, Aris Dadoukis, Thanasis Korakis, Stratos Keranidis, Philip O'Brien, Jerry Horgan, Antonio Sacchetti, Giuseppe Mastandrea, Alexandros Fragkiadakis, Pavlos Charalampidis, Nicolas Seydoux, Christelle Ecrepont, Mengxuan Zhao
The Internet of Things (IoT) concept has attracted a lot of attention from the research and innovation community for a number of years already. One of the key drivers for this hype towards the IoT is its applicability to a plethora of different application domains. However, infrastructures enabling experimental assessment of IoT solutions are scarce. Being able to test and assess the behavior and the performance of any piece of technology (i.e., protocol, algorithm, application, service, etc.) under real-world circumstances is of utmost importance to increase the acceptance and reduce the time to market of these innovative developments...
October 10, 2018: Sensors
C S Pundir, Seema Jakhar, Vinay Narwal
Urea is the major end product of nitrogen metabolism in humans, which is eliminated from the body mainly by the kidneys through urine but is also secreted in body fluids such as blood and saliva. Its level in urine ranges from 7 to 20 mg/dL, which drastically rises under patho-physiological conditions thus providing key information of renal function and diagnosis of various kidney and liver disorders. Increase in urea levels in blood, also referred to as azotemia or uremia. The chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end stage renal disease (ESRD) is generally caused due to the progressive loss of kidney function...
September 20, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Michael G Dickinson, Larry A Allen, Nancy A Albert, Thomas Di Salvo, Gregory A Ewald, Amanda R Vest, David J Whellan, Michael R Zile, Michael M Givertz
BACKGROUND: After several neutral telehealth trials, the positive findings and subsequent FDA approval of an implantable pulmonary artery pressure monitor (PAPM) led to renewed interest in remote patient monitoring (RPM). Here we seek to provide contemporary guidance on the appropriate use of RPM technology. FINDINGS: Although early trials of external RPM devices suggested benefit, subsequent multicenter trials failed to demonstrate improved outcomes. Monitoring features of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) also did not deliver improved HF outcomes; although, newer multi-sensor algorithms may be better...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
A Maskay, D M Hummels, M Pereira da Cunha
Surface acoustic wave resonators (SAWR) have found widespread usage in various modern consumer radiofrequency (RF) communications electronics, such as cellular phones, wireless devices, GPS devices, frequency control, and sensing applications. External mechanical vibrations modify a SAWR relative dimensions and the substrate's elastic properties, which alter the device's acoustic wave propagation velocity, and ultimately causes the SAWR RF response to change. Detecting vibrations is desirable for dynamic strain, or vibration sensing applications...
October 11, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Pedro J Chacon, Limeng Pu, Tallis H da Costa, Young-Ho Shin, Taher Ghomian, Hamed Shamkhalichenar, Hsiao-Chun Wu, Brian A Irving, Jin-Woo Choi
Advances in several engineering fields have led to a trend towards miniaturization and portability of wearable biosensing devices, which used to be confined to large tools and clinical settings. Various systems to continuously measure electrophysiological activity through electrical and optical methods are one category of such devices. Being wearable and intended for prolonged use, the amount of noise introduced on sensors by movement remains a challenge and requires further optimization. User movement causes motion artifacts that alter the overall quality of the signals obtained, hence corrupting the resulting measurements...
October 9, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Michael Döring, Sergio Richter, Helge Knopp, Gerhard Hindricks
In addition to the telemedical follow-up at a fixed point in time, there is the possibility of a close-meshed telemetric monitoring in modern devices. By transferring device and patient-specific data, errors in the integrity of the device or electrodes and cardiac arrhythmias can be detected early, in various studies significantly reducing the number of outpatient or inpatient visits and the rate of inadequate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapies. Measurement of various surrogate parameters allows better clinical assessment of heart failure patients, yet no improvement in outcome with therapy guided by telemetric data has been demonstrated...
October 10, 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
Dierk Thomas, Torsten Christ, Larissa Fabritz, Andreas Goette, Matthias Hammwöhner, Jordi Heijman, Jens Kockskämper, Dominik Linz, Katja E Odening, Patrick A Schweizer, Reza Wakili, Niels Voigt
Cardiac arrhythmias remain a common challenge and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective and safe rhythm control strategies are a primary, yet unmet need in everyday clinical practice. Despite significant pharmacological and technological advances, including catheter ablation and device-based therapies, the development of more effective alternatives is of significant interest to increase quality of life and to reduce symptom burden, hospitalizations and mortality. The mechanistic understanding of pathophysiological pathways underlying cardiac arrhythmias has advanced profoundly, opening up novel avenues for mechanism-based therapeutic approaches...
October 10, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Maia P Smith, Alexander Horsch, Marie Standl, Joachim Heinrich, Holger Schulz
Accelerometers objectively monitor physical activity, and ongoing research suggests they can also detect patterns of body movement. However, different types of signal (uniaxial, captured by older studies, vs. the newer triaxial) and or/device (validated Actigraph used by older studies, vs. others) may lead to incomparability of results from different time periods. Standardization is desirable. We establish whether uniaxial signals adequately monitor routine activity, and whether triaxial accelerometry can detect sport-specific variations in movement pattern...
October 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nan Ding, Huanbo Gao, Hongyu Bu, Haoxuan Ma, Huaiwei Si
Anomaly detection is an important research direction, which takes the real-time information system from different sensors and conditional information sources into consideration. Based on this, we can detect possible anomalies expected of the devices and components. One of the challenges is anomaly detection in multivariate-sensing time-series in this paper. Based on this situation, we propose RADM, a real-time anomaly detection algorithm based on Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) and Bayesian Network (BN)...
October 9, 2018: Sensors
Dohyun Kwon, Sang-Wook Kim, Joongheon Kim, Aziz Mohaisen
The increasing use of Internet of Things (IoT) devices in specific areas results in an interference among them and the quality of communications can be severely degraded. To deal with this interference issue, the IEEE 802.11ax standard has been established in hyper-dense wireless networking systems. The 802.11ax adopts a new candidate technology that is called multiple network allocation vector in order to mitigate the interference problem. In this paper, we point out a potential problem in multiple network allocation vector which can cause delays to communication among IoT devices in hyper-dense wireless networks...
October 9, 2018: Sensors
Taylor R Mauldin, Marc E Canby, Vangelis Metsis, Anne H H Ngu, Coralys Cubero Rivera
This paper presents SmartFall, an Android app that uses accelerometer data collected from a commodity-based smartwatch Internet of Things (IoT) device to detect falls. The smartwatch is paired with a smartphone that runs the SmartFall application, which performs the computation necessary for the prediction of falls in real time without incurring latency in communicating with a cloud server, while also preserving data privacy. We experimented with both traditional (Support Vector Machine and Naive Bayes) and non-traditional (Deep Learning) machine learning algorithms for the creation of fall detection models using three different fall datasets (Smartwatch, Notch, Farseeing)...
October 9, 2018: Sensors
Alisha Prasad, Syed Mohammad Abid Hasan, Steven Grouchy, Manas Ranjan Gartia
DNA microarrays are used to examine changes in gene expression of a large number of genes simultaneously by fluorescent labeling of complementary DNAs (cDNAs). The major bottleneck in implementing microarray technology in resource-limited settings lies in the detection instrument used for generating images of spotted oligonucleotides post-hybridization. While various methods such as a lateral flow assay have been presented to accomplish point-of-care disease detection, there is no simple and effective instrument available to gather spot images maintaining the standard microarray procedures...
October 10, 2018: Analyst
Kai Ou, Guanhai Li, Tianxin Li, Hui Yang, Feilong Yu, Jin Chen, Zengyue Zhao, Guangtao Cao, Xiaoshuang Chen, Wei Lu
The optical vortex beam with an orbital angular momentum, featuring a doughnut intensity distribution and a helically structured wavefront, has received extensive attention due to its applications in nanoparticle manipulation and optical communications. In this paper, we propose high-efficiency polarization-independent vortex beam generators which are capable of transforming the arbitrarily polarized plane wave into a focusing optical vortex beam and an abruptly focusing airy vortex beam. Besides, based on holographic metasurfaces, we provide a general design scheme for detecting the topological charges...
October 10, 2018: Nanoscale
Qinghua Zeng, Shijie Zeng, Jianye Liu, Qian Meng, Ruizhi Chen, Heze Huang
Electronic appliances and ferromagnetic materials can be easily found in any building in urban environment. A steady magnetic environment and a pure value of geomagnetic field for calculating the heading of the smartphone in case of pedestrian walking indoors is hard to obtain. Therefore, an independent inertial heading correction algorithm without involving magnetic field but only making full use of the embedded Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) Inertial measurement unit (IMU) device in the smartphone is presented in this paper...
October 7, 2018: Sensors
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