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N-Acetyl Cysteine Antioxidant

Nayira A Abd Elbaky, Naglaa F El-Orabi, Laila M Fadda, Omar H Abd-Elkader, Hanaa M Ali
This study is designed to evaluate the potential impact of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) each alone or in combination against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced cardiac damage in rats. Animals were treated with CCl4 in single intraperitoneal dose of 1 mL/Kg body weight; CCl4 -intoxicated animals were pretreated with 20 mg/kg/d NAC or pretreated with 200 mg/kg/d CoQ10 or NAC and CoQ10 with the same previously mentioned doses. Carbon tetrachloride-intoxicated rats showed a significant elevation in nitric oxide and lipid peroxides and downregulation in reduced glutathione level and calcium adenosine triphosphatase...
July 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
Qiong He, Xuejiao Zhou, Yang Liu, Wenfeng Gou, Jiahui Cui, Zengqiang Li, Yingliang Wu, Daiying Zuo
The purpose of this study was to explore the potential neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanism of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NPs) to mouse hippocampal neuron HT22 cells. We found that TiO2 -NPs had concentration-dependent and time-dependent cytotoxicities to HT22 cells by the MTT assay. Propidium iodide (PI) staining with FACScan flow cytometry proved that TiO2 -NPs dose-dependently increased the apoptosis rate in HT22 cells, and the apoptotic features were observed by Hochest 33258 and AO/EB staining...
August 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yasuomi Urano, Chinatsu Mori, Ayano Fuji, Keito Konno, Takayuki Yamamoto, Shohei Yashirogi, Mayu Ando, Yoshiro Saito, Noriko Noguchi
PARK7/DJ-1 is a Parkinson disease- and cancer-associated protein that functions as a multifunctional protein involved in gene transcription regulation and anti-oxidative defense. Although PARK7 lacks the secretory signal sequence, it is secreted and plays important physiological and pathophysiological roles. Whereas secretory proteins that lack the endoplasmic reticulum-targeting signal sequence are secreted from cells by way of what is called the unconventional secretion mechanism, the specific processes responsible for causing PARK7 to be secreted across the plasma membrane have remained unclear...
August 16, 2018: Autophagy
Geetika Garg, Sandeep Singh, Abhishek Singh, Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a precursor of cysteine which is known to increase the level of GSH in brain. Several neurodegenerative changes linked to oxidative stress take place in aging brain. This study is aimed to assess the neuroprotective effect of NAC supplementation on age- dependent neurodegeneration in the rat brain. Wistar rats: young (4 months) and old (24 months) age were supplemented with NAC (100 mg/kg b.w. orally) for 14 days. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as SOD, catalase, GSH and total thiol (T-SH), prooxidants such as protein carbonyl (PC), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in the brain homogenates...
August 14, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Prima Buranasin, Koji Mizutani, Kengo Iwasaki, Chantida Pawaputanon Na Mahasarakham, Daisuke Kido, Kohei Takeda, Yuichi Izumi
Delayed gingival wound healing is widely observed in periodontal patients with diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms of the impaired function of gingival fibroblasts in diabetes remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the properties of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) under high-glucose conditions. Primary HGFs were isolated from healthy gingiva and cultured with 5.5, 25, 50, and 75 mM glucose for 72 h. In vitro wound healing, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), and water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assays were performed to examine cell migration and proliferation...
2018: PloS One
Dejun Huang, Xiaoning Zhang, Chen Zhang, Hui Li, Dong Li, Yan Hu, Feng Yang, Yongmei Qi
2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is one of the most abundant chlorophenols in the aquatic environment and has been frequently detected in surface waters. Although ecological and cellular toxicity of 2,4-DCP has aroused the public concern, few reports focus on the genotoxicity, especially on DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), of 2,4-DCP in fish. The present study aims to explore the genotoxic effect of 2,4-DCP on DSBs in goldfish Carassius auratus and to further elucidate its potential mechanism. The results showed that 2,4-DCP significantly induced DSBs (detected by neutral comet assay) in erythrocytes and hepatocytes of goldfish in a dose-dependent manner, indicating a genotoxicity of 2,4-DCP on fish...
August 9, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Da Jung Kim, Seonghae Yoon, Sang Chun Ji, Jinho Yang, Yoon-Keun Kim, SeungHwan Lee, Kyung-Sang Yu, In-Jin Jang, Jae-Yong Chung, Joo-Youn Cho
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a metabolic by-product of intestinal bacteria, showing hepatoprotective effects. However, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the action mechanisms underlying the protective effects of UDCA and vitamin E against liver dysfunction using metabolomics and metagenomic analysis. In this study, we analysed blood and urine samples from patients with obesity and liver dysfunction. Nine patients were randomly assigned to receive UDCA (300 mg twice daily), and 10 subjects received vitamin E (400 IU twice daily) for 8 weeks...
August 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rou-Ling Cho, Chien-Chung Yang, Hui-Ching Tseng, Li-Der Hsiao, Chih-Chung Lin, Chuen-Mao Yang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced by thiazolidinediones including rosiglitazone and exerts anti-inflammatory effects in various models. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying rosiglitazone-induced HO-1 expression remain largely unknown in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: HO-1 expression was determined by real time-PCR, western blotting, and promoter reporter analyses. The signaling components were investigated by using pharmacological inhibitors or specific siRNAs...
August 8, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Neha Vithal Bhilare, Suneela Sunil Dhaneshwar, Kakasaheb Ramoo Mahadik
AIM: To overcome the hazardous effects on liver caused by long-term use of antitubercular agent isoniazid (INH) by developing a novel hepatoprotective prodrug strategy by conjugating INH with aminothiols as antioxidant promoities for probable synergistic effect. METHODS: INH was conjugated with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and N-(2)-mercaptopropionyl glycine using the Schotten-Baumann reaction and with L-methionine using Boc-anhydride through a biocleavable amide linkage...
July 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Minu Sharma, Amarjit S Naura, S K Singla
Hyperoxaluria-associated deposition of calcium oxalate crystals results from oxalate-induced renal injury and inflammation. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of 4-Phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA), a chemical chaperone, in ethylene glycol-induced hyperoxaluria and compare its effect with antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given ethylene glycol in drinking water for 28 days to induce hyperoxaluria. 4-PBA and NAC were given by oral gavage. Effect of 4-PBA was analyzed in both prophylactic and curative regimens...
July 31, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Ding Zhang, Ying Li, Ting Zhang, Jingying Liu, Ali Raza Jahejo, Lamei Yang, Peiru Chen, Guanbao Ning, Nairui Huo, Haili Ma, Fang Yan, Wenxia Tian
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic metals released into the environment. Here, we investigated the protective role of Zn2+ and/or N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) against Cd cytotoxicity in the erythrocytes of Arbor Acres (AA) broiler chickens. Four hundred one-day-old AA chickens were divided into 12 groups for in vitro and in vivo studies. Zn2+ and/or NAC was given to the Cd exposed AA chickens to assess their protective roles. This was accomplished by investigating nuclear morphological abnormalities, oxidative stress (SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH and T-AOC), cell apoptosis, ROS accumulation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)...
July 27, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ebrahim Shafiei, Mehrzad Bahtoei, Pema Raj, Afshin Ostovar, Daryoush Iranpour, Samad Akbarzadeh, Hooshang Shahryari, Abdorasoul Anvaripour, Rahim Tahmasebi, Thomas Netticadan, Ali Movahed
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the efficacy of oral consumption of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and melatonin (ML) in reducing early reperfusion injury and acute oxidative stress in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with respect to the measurements of cardiac troponin I, lactate, malondealdehyde (MDA), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in the blood. METHODS: This study was a randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled trial. Eighty eight patients, aged between 39 to 76 years and eligible for CABG, were recruited and randomly assigned into 3 intervention groups through a simple randomization method and underwent CABG surgery...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Tsutomu Shimura, Megumi Sasatani, Hidehiko Kawai, Kenji Kamiya, Junya Kobayashi, Kenshi Komatsu, Naoki Kunugita
Fibroblasts are a key stromal cell in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and promote tumor growth via release of various growth factors. Stromal fibroblasts in cancer, called cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), are related to myofibroblasts, an activated form of fibroblast. While investigating the role of stroma fibroblasts on radiation-related carcinogenesis, it was observed following long-term fractionated radiation (FR) that the morphology of human diploid fibroblasts changed from smaller spindle shapes to larger flat shapes...
July 24, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Xinyue You, Jing Xi, Weiying Liu, Yiyi Cao, Weifeng Tang, Xinyu Zhang, Yingxin Yu, Yang Luan
2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a representative congener of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the environment, is known to have reproductive toxicity. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be clarified, especially in in vivo systems. In the present study, we employed Caenorhabditis elegans to study the effects of BDE-47 on reproduction. Our results showed that BDE-47 impaired worm fecundity and induced germ cell apoptosis. To elucidate the mechanisms, DNA damage and oxidative stress induction were investigated by determining the numbers of foci formation in transgenic worms expressing HUS-1::GFP and the levels of reactive oxygen species, respectively...
July 19, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jun Kurai, Kunishige Onuma, Hiroyuki Sano, Futoshi Okada, Masanari Watanabe
Background: Experimental and controlled human exposure studies have demonstrated additive effects of ambient particulate matter and ozone on health. A few epidemiological studies have suggested that ambient particulate matter components are important for the combined effects of ambient particulate matter and ozone on health. However, few studies have examined whether ozone changes the effects of ambient particulate matter on pro-inflammatory cytokine production. In this study, the influence of ozone on pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to ambient particulate matter was evaluated...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
Yixin Zhang, Yi Xiong, Jiaqi Zhou, Na Xin, Zhimin Zhu, Yingying Wu
Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by oxidative stress (OS) affects cell survival, cell function and even results in cell death. As a major transcription factor of forkhead O (FoxOs) family, FoxO1 orchestrates multiple osteoblastic biological processes, thus regulating osteoblast physiology and bone metabolism. However, the outcome of osteoblast behaviors varies under different physiological and pathological conditions. Also, the underlying impact of FoxO1 on oxidative stress and further on bone metabolism still remains unclear...
July 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hojatolla Nikravesh, Mohammad Javad Khodayar, Masoud Mahdavinia, Esrafil Mansouri, Leila Zeidooni, Fereshteh Dehbashi
Purpose: Gemfibrozil (GEM) apart from agonist activity at peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of GEM on acute liver toxicity induced by acetaminophen (APAP) in mice. Methods: In this study, mice divided in seven groups include, control group, APAP group, GEM group, three APAP groups pretreated with GEM at the doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively and APAP group pretreated with N-Acetyl cysteine...
June 2018: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Omur Ozturk, Huseyin Avni Eroglu, Sefer Ustebay, Mehmet Kuzucu, Yasemen Adali
PURPOSE: To compare the preventive effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ozone preconditioning and ozone treatment against contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in an experimental rat model. METHODS: Thirty adult male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into five groups (n=6 for each group). Group I served as control and Group II had only contrast agent, while Group III received NAC and Group IV received intraperitoneal ozone 6 hours before and 6 hours after introduction of contrast agent...
June 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Kirsten C Morley, Andrew Baillie, Wim Van Den Brink, Kate E Chitty, Kathleen Brady, Sudie E Back, Greg Sutherland, Devanshi Seth, Lorenzo Leggio, Paul S Haber
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the leading cause of alcohol-related death and one of the most common forms of liver disease. Abstinence from alcohol is crucial to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. However, there are few pharmacotherapies for alcohol use disorder suitable for those with significant liver disease. Areas Covered: This paper presents a rationale for investigating the use of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) to promote abstinence or reduce heavy alcohol consumption for patients with an alcohol use disorder, particularly in the presence of liver disease...
August 1, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Wen-Ling Shih, Ching-Dong Chang, Hsiu-Tsu Chen, Kuo-Kuang Fan
N -acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is the most abundant water-soluble component of garlic. No study to date has studied the leukemia prevention ability of NAC in mouse systemic leukemia model. The current study aimed to investigate the leukemia initiation prevention potential of NAC in a mouse model. The cytotoxic concentration of NAC was determined first in HL-60 cells, and its in vivo activity was studied in a mouse acute myelocytic leukemia model with WEHI-3 leukemia cells. The results showed that a non-toxic concentration of NAC efficiently scavenged free-radicals, lowered lipid peroxidation and reduced DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in a cultured HL-60 leukemia cell line...
August 2018: Oncology Letters
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