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N-Acetyl Cysteine Antioxidant

Wen-Bo Zhou, Xin-Xin Zhang, Yun Cai, Wu Sun, Hao Li
Tamoxifen (TMX) is an antiestrogen drug that is used in the treatment and prevention of all stages of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Adverse effects of TMX include hepatotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of osthole, isolated from medicinal plants especially Fructus Cnidii, on TMX-induced acute liver injury in mice. Mice were injected with osthole (100 mg/kg, ip) or vehicle, followed by TMX (90 mg/kg, ip) 24 h later. We showed that a single injection of TMX-induced liver injury and oxidative stress...
October 12, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Teresa Joy, Muddanna S Rao, Sampath Madhyastha
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), deposition of beta amyloid plaques, and consequent neuronal loss in the brain tissue. Oxidative stress to the neurons is often attributed to AD, but its link to NFT and β-amyloid protein (BAP) still remains unclear. In an animal model of AD, we boosted the oxidative defense by N -Acetyl cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, a powerful antioxidant and free radical scavenger, to understand the link between oxidative stress and NFT...
October 11, 2018: Brain Sciences
Shan Song, Duojun Qiu, Fengwei Luo, Jinying Wei, Ming Wu, Haijang Wu, Chunyang Du, Yunxia Du, Yunzhuo Ren, Nan Chen, Huijun Duan, Yonghong Shi
Tubular injury is one of the crucial determinants of progressive renal failure in diabetic nephropathy (DN), while epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tubular cells contributes to the accumulation of matrix protein in the diabetic kidney. Activation of the nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome leads to the maturation of interleukin (IL)-1B and is involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of diabetes. In this study, we explored the role of NLRP3 inflammasome on high glucose (HG) or transforming growth factor-B1 (TGFB1)-induced EMT in HK-2 cells...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Desirèe Padilha Marchetti, Luiza Steffens, Carlos E Jacques, Gilian B Guerreiro, Caroline P Mescka, Marion Deon, Daniella M de Coelho, Dinara J Moura, Alice G Viario, Fernanda Poletto, Adriana S Coitinho, Laura B Jardim, Carmen R Vargas
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited neurometabolic disorder caused by disfunction of the ABCD1 gene, which encodes a peroxisomal protein responsible for the transport of the very long-chain fatty acids from the cytosol into the peroxisome, to undergo β-oxidation. The mainly accumulated saturated fatty acids are hexacosanoic acid (C26:0) and tetracosanoic acid (C24:0) in tissues and body fluids. This peroxisomal disorder occurs in at least 1 out of 20,000 births. Considering that pathophysiology of this disease is not well characterized yet, and glial cells are widely used in studies of protective mechanisms against neuronal oxidative stress, we investigated oxidative damages and inflammatory effects of vesicles containing lecithin and C26:0, as well as the protection conferred by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), trolox (TRO), and rosuvastatin (RSV) was assessed...
October 9, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Hideyuki Kinoshita, Sumihisa Orita, Kazuhide Inage, Kazuyo Yamauchi, Koki Abe, Masahiro Inoue, Masaki Norimoto, Tomotaka Umimura, Yawara Eguchi, Kazuki Fujimoto, Yasuhiro Shiga, Hirohito Kanamoto, Yasuchika Aoki, Takeo Furuya, Miyako Suzuki, Tsutomu Akazawa, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Seiji Ohtori
STUDY DESIGN: A basic study using a rodent model of sarcopenia. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the contribution of oxidative stress to muscle degeneration and the efficacy of antioxidant treatment for sarcopenia using an animal model of neurogenic sarcopenia. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Oxidative stress has been reported to be involved in a number of pathologies, including musculoskeletal disorders. Its relationship with sarcopenia, one of the potential origins of lower back pain, however, is not yet fully understood...
October 5, 2018: Spine
Mohamed M Abdel-Daim, Amina A Dessouki, Haidy G Abdel-Rahman, Rasha Eltaysh, Saad Alkahtani
Fipronil (FPN), a commonly used phenylpyrazole pesticide can induce oxidative tissue damage following hazard usage. Due to the extensive household and commercial usage of FPN, its toxic effects on mammals received considerable attention. Finding the proper antioxidant that can overcome FPN-induced damage is essential. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the hepatorenal ameliorative outcomes of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and taurine (TAU) against hepatorenal damage induced by FPN in male Wistar rats. Compared to control rats, oral FPN (at a dose of 19...
September 25, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Katy Saide, Victoria Sherwood, Grant N Wheeler
INTRODUCTION: Failure to predict drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains a major contributing factor to lead compound drop-out during drug development. Xenopus embryos are amenable for early stage medium throughput small molecule screens and so have the potential to be used in pre-clinical screens. To begin to assess the usefulness and limitations of Xenopus embryos for safety assessment in the early phases of drug development, paracetamol was used as a model hepatotoxin. Paracetamol overdose is associated with acute liver injury...
September 30, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Shuo Zhao, Yueyuan Wang, Xiaoying Zhang, Lu Zheng, Bin Zhu, Shuang Yao, Ling Yang, Jun Du
Background: Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induces oxidative stress and eventually leads to vascular injury. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of melatonin on HUVECs injured by H/R and explore the underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods: A model of HUVECs under hypoxia/reoxygenation was established. Cell migration and adhesive ability was measured by wound healing and adhesion assays...
September 2018: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
Ralf Henkel, Inderpreet Singh Sandhu, Ashok Agarwal
Reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress are closely associated with various pathologies such as neurodegenerative diseases, ageing and male infertility. Hence, antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, N-acetyl cysteine, L-carnitine and folic acid are regularly used in various treatment regimens to protect cells from the damage induced by free radicals. However, given their over-the-counter availability at unnaturally high concentrations and also the fact that they are commonly added to various food products, patients may run a risk of consuming excessive dosages of these compounds, which may then be toxic...
September 26, 2018: Andrologia
Garrett Teskey, Ruoqiong Cao, Hicret Islamoglu, Albert Medina, Chaya Prasad, Ramaa Prasad, Airani Sathananthan, Marcel Fraix, Selvakumar Subbian, Li Zhong, Vishwanath Venketaraman
Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ), the causative bacterial agent responsible for tuberculosis (TB) continues to afflict millions of people worldwide. Although the human immune system plays a critical role in containing M. tb infection, elimination proves immensely more challenging. Consequently, there has been a worldwide effort to eradicate, and limit the spread of M. tb through the conventional use of first-line antibiotics. Unfortunately, with the emergence of drug resistant and multi-drug resistant strains of M...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ming-Horng Tsai, Cheng-Hsun Wu, Wei-Ning Lin, Ching-Yi Cheng, Chu-Chun Chuang, Kuo-Ting Chang, Rong-San Jiang, Jen-Fu Hsu, I-Ta Lee
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) can lead to many life-threatening diseases. It has the ability to invade normal endovascular tissue. The molecular mechanisms and pathological changes of endothelial cells after S. aureus infection are of interest, but the basic understanding of how S. aureus destroys this barrier is not clear. Here, we showed that S. aureus enhanced COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) secretion in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). In addition, S. aureus induced PGE2 /interleukin-6 (IL-6)/matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9)-dependent cell migration...
November 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ahmed Nadeem, Naif O Al-Harbi, Ali S Alfardan, Sheikh F Ahmad, Abdullah F AlAsmari, Mohammed M Al-Harbi
IL-17 A is produced by several innate and adaptive immune cells which include Th17, and innate lymphoid 3 cells in the lung. IL-17 A can activate airway epithelial cells (AECs), through IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) leading to production of chemokines/cytokines. Inflammatory nature of IL-17 A and its signaling has been assessed by several studies using IL-17 A/IL-17R knockout mice which show attenuated inflammation in different disease models. IL-17 A/IL-17R signaling also plays an important role in pulmonary inflammation through recruitment of neutrophils...
November 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ghazal Hashemi, Mahtabalsadat Mirjalili, Zahra Basiri, Ahmad Tahamoli-Roudsari, Nejat Kheiripour, Maryam Shahdoust, Akram Ranjbar, Maryam Mehrpooya, Sara Ataei
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common inflammatory disease of the joints. Due to importance of inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of RA, drugs that have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties such as N-acetyl cysteine(NAC), can be effective as adjunctive therapy in patients with RA. AIMS: The aim of this study has been to evaluate the effects of oral NAC on inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in patients with RA. METHOD: Beside standard treatment, the NAC group (23 patients) received 600 mg of NAC twice daily and the placebo group (19 patients) received identical placebo twice daily for 12 weeks...
September 25, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reviews
Ahlam Alhusaini, Laila Faddaa, Hanaa M Ali, Iman Hassan, Nagla F El Orabi, Yieldiz Bassiouni
The present study aimed to explore the efficiency of N-acetyl cysteine (NACC) or thymoquinone (TMQ) alone or in combination in the downregulation of inflammatory molecule expression and decreasing hepatic injury in response to sodium fluoride (SF). Sodium fluoride upregulated serum alanine and aspartate transferases activities, tumor necrosis factor α and hepatic malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels, and the expression of cyclooxygenase 2, nuclear factor κB cell, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3...
July 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
Mikhail V Shaposhnikov, Nadezhda V Zemskaya, Liubov A Koval, Eugenia V Schegoleva, Alex Zhavoronkov, Alexey A Moskalev
N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a derivative of the sulphur-containing amino acid L-cysteine with potential anti-aging properties. We studied 3 Drosophila species with contrast longevity differences ( D. virilis is longest-lived, D. kikkawai is shortest-lived and D. melanogaster has moderate lifespan) to test the effects of NAC at 8 different concentrations (from 10 nM to 100 mM) on the lifespan, stress-resistance and locomotor activity. Except the adverse effects of highest (10 mM and 100 mM) concentrations NAC demonstrated sexually opposite and male-biased effects on Drosophila lifespan, stress-resistance and locomotor activity and not satisfied the criteria of a geroprotector in terms of the reproducibility of lifespan extending effects in different model organisms...
September 20, 2018: Aging
Jun Watanabe, Masahiro Yamada, Kunimichi Niibe, Maolin Zhang, Takeru Kondo, Minoru Ishibashi, Hiroshi Egusa
Oxidative stress on transplanted bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) during acute inflammation is a critical issue in cell therapies. N-acetyl-L cysteine (NAC) promotes the production of a cellular antioxidant molecule, glutathione (GSH). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-treatment with NAC on the apoptosis resistance and bone regeneration capability of BMSCs. Rat femur-derived BMSCs were treated in growth medium with or without 5 mM NAC for 6 h, followed by exposure to 100 μM H2 O2 for 24 h to induce oxidative stress...
September 4, 2018: Biomaterials
Ming-Yang Lee, Ming-Fang Wu, Shur-Hueih Cherng, Ling-Yen Chiu, Tsung-Ying Yang, Gwo-Tarng Sheu
Purpose: Tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a stress-regulated protein and associated with cancer cell survival. However, the effects of TG2 expression in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and redox homeostasis have not been fully elucidated. Materials and methods: We investigated the TG2 expression and activity in A549, H1299, H1355, and H460 lung cancer cells by Western blots and quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
G H Xia, Y J Jin, J F Xiao, X T Li, T H Zhu
Objective: The aims of the study were to investigate the effects of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) on autophagy in INS-1 cells and its underlying mechanism, and to explore the role of autophagy in hIAPP-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. Methods: INS-1 cells were treated with hIAPP (10 μmol/L) for 24 h in the presence or absence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), compound C, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA), respectively. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the number of autophagosome in cells...
September 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Cheng-Yun Jin, Ilandarage Menu Neelaka Molagoda, Cheol Park, Taeg Kyu Kwon, Seok-Joong Yun, Wun Jae Kim, Gi-Young Kim, Yung Hyun Choi
Piceatannol, a naturally occurring stilbene derivative mainly found in grapes, possesses apoptotic activity in various cancer cell lines, in addition to potent antioxidant activity. In the current study, we showed that piceatannol exhibits potent cytotoxic effects in all tested leukemia cell lines (THP-1, HL-60, U937, and K562). These effects were accompanied by induction of DNA damage, an increase in the proportion of cells in the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle, and inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Kangfeng Jiang, Shuai Guo, Chao Yang, Jing Yang, Yu Chen, Aftab Shaukat, Gan Zhao, Haichong Wu, Ganzhen Deng
Barbaloin is the major anthraquinone compound that is isolated from the leaf exudates of Aloe vera and is often used as a bittering agent in alcoholic beverages. Here, we investigated the potential protective role of barbaloin in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and clarified the underlying mechanism in vitro. Histological analysis showed that barbaloin exhibited a certain protective effect on LPS-induced ALI. To further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the actions of barbaloin, LPS-stimulated macrophages were used in this study...
August 30, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
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