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Appetite Regulation

Gen Li, Kunlin Zhang, Li Wang, Chengqi Cao, Ruojiao Fang, Ping Liu, Shu Luo, Israel Liberzon
Orexigenic hormones are a group of hormones that can up-regulate appetite. Current studies have shown that orexigenic hormones also play important roles in stress responses and may be implicated in regulation of fear memory. However, these conclusions lack evidence from human studies. In this study, we examined associations between orexigenic hormone genes and fear-related mental disorders by investigating main, G × E, and G × G effects of ghrelin and orexin gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on human posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 1134 Chinese earthquake survivors...
October 2, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Danielle T Vannan, Marc R Bomhof, Raylene A Reimer
The obesity epidemic is driving interest in identifying strategies that enhance appetite control by altering the secretion of hormones that regulate satiety and food intake. An appropriate nutrient stimulus, such as a meal or oral nutrient solution, is needed to elicit the secretion of satiety hormones in order to evaluate the impact of dietary and other interventions. Our objective was to compare the effects of oral glucose vs. mixed nutrients on plasma concentrations of glucose and appetite-regulating hormones to determine the most appropriate oral nutrient challenge to trigger robust hormone secretion...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Zahndra Diann Butt, Erin O'Brien, Hélène Volkoff
In order to assess potential interspecific differences in the endocrine mechanisms regulating feeding in Characiformes, we used three fish species with different feeding habits: two Characidae, the omnivore black widow tetra and the carnivore bucktooth tetra, and one Serrasalmidae, the herbivore silver dollar, as models. cDNAs encoding for appetite-regulating peptides (orexin, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript CART, cholecystokinin CCK and leptin) were isolated and their tissue distribution examined...
October 10, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Ziwei Sun, Fang Lu, Jinjun Cheng, Meiling Zhang, Yafan Zhu, Yaxue Zhang, Hui Kong, Huihua Qu, Yan Zhao
Although recent research on intrinsic bioactivities of carbon dots is expanding, it is focused on basic aspects, which creates the need for broadening our knowledge about carbon dots to expand their uses in biomedical sciences and facilitate their application in clinical practice. Jiaosanxian is a charcoal traditional Chinese medicine with a pronounced effect on promoting appetite and digestion that is widely used as dyspepsia therapy in China. To study the underlying mechanism and the material requirements, we investigated carbon dots which was generated in the charcoal processing...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Franziska Mende, Cecilie Hundahl, Bianca Plouffe, Louise Julie Skov, Bjørn Sivertsen, Andreas Nygaard Madsen, Michael Lückmann, Thi Ai Diep, Stefan Offermanns, Thomas Michael Frimurer, Michel Bouvier, Birgitte Holst
Biased signaling has been suggested as a means of selectively modulating a limited fraction of the signaling pathways for G-protein-coupled receptor family members. Hence, biased ligands may allow modulation of only the desired physiological functions and not elicit undesired effects associated with pharmacological treatments. The ghrelin receptor is a highly sought antiobesity target, since the gut hormone ghrelin in humans has been shown to increase both food intake and fat accumulation. However, it also modulates mood, behavior, growth hormone secretion, and gastric motility...
October 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Natália R T Amorim, Tatiana Luna-Gomes, Marcos Gama-Almeida, Glaucia Souza-Almeida, Claudio Canetti, Bruno L Diaz, Peter F Weller, Patricia Torres Bozza, Clarissa M Maya-Monteiro, Christianne Bandeira-Melo
Leptin is a cytokine, produced mainly by mature adipocytes, that regulates the central nervous system, mainly to suppress appetite and stimulate energy expenditure. Leptin also regulates the immune response by controlling activation of immunomodulatory cells, including eosinophils. While emerging as immune regulatory cells with roles in adipose tissue homeostasis, eosinophils have a well-established ability to synthesize pro-inflammatory molecules such as lipid mediators, a key event in several inflammatory pathologies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Erik Slade, Laura Williams, Jeffrey Gagnon
Ghrelin is a stomach-derived hormone that regulates several metabolic functions including growth hormone release, appetite, adiposity, and gastric motility. Nutrients, the autonomic nervous system, and other metabolic hormones have all been implicated in the regulation of ghrelin secretion. Despite this, ongoing efforts to develop modulators of ghrelin secretion in human diseases are still underway. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a gaseous signaling molecule that is produced both endogenously in many tissues and by the gut microbiome...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Alberto A Barrios-Correa, José A Estrada, Irazú Contreras
Obesity has become a major health concern in modern times, as it significantly increases the risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and some types of cancer. The obesity epidemic has brought considerable attention to the molecular mechanisms through which adipocyte-secreted adipokines regulate physiological processes involved in metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Among them, leptin is considered as one of the principal regulators of a variety of physiological processes, including appetite and energy metabolism, through its binding to a variety of receptors and in particular by signaling through the long isoform receptor ObRb...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Ana B Tinoco, Dean C Semmens, Emma C Patching, Elizabeth F Gunner, Michaela Egertová, Maurice R Elphick
Neuropeptides in deuterostomian invertebrates that have an Asn-Gly motif (NG peptides) have been identified as orthologs of vertebrate neuropeptide-S (NPS)-type peptides and protostomian crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP)-type neuropeptides. To obtain new insights into the physiological roles of NG peptides in deuterostomian invertebrates, here we have characterized the NG peptide signaling system in an echinoderm-the starfish Asterias rubens . The neuropeptide NGFFYamide was identified as the ligand for an A...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Napatsorn Saiyasit, Jirapas Sripetchwandee, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Neurotensin is an endogenous tridecapeptide that can be found in both central and peripheral nervous systems. Under normal physiological conditions, neurotensin is involved in the regulation of pain, body temperature, physical activity, appetite as well as learning and memory. In addition, it plays an important role in fat metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated that alterations of neurotensin levels were associated with several neuropathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, mood disorders, and obesity associated eating disorders...
September 8, 2018: Neuropeptides
Noa Hazut, Kayla Rapps, Donald A Kristt, Abraham J Susswein, Aron Weller
Nitric Oxide (NO) and its precursor l-arginine were found to inhibit feeding in rats with a low motivation to eat, as they do in Aplysia. In rats that are relatively satiated, treatment with an NO blocker increased feeding, and treatment with an NO donor or with either of 2 doses of l-arginine inhibited feeding. NO and l-arginine modulated several parameters of feeding, such as the total duration of appetitive behaviors, the time spent feeding, the quantity of food eaten and the number of feeding bouts. The inhibitory effect of l-arginine on feeding could not be attributed to changes in locomotion...
September 29, 2018: Appetite
Rupali Ugrankar, Pano Theodoropoulos, Fatih Akdemir, W Mike Henne, Jonathan M Graff
In mammals, blood glucose levels likely play a role in appetite regulation yet the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain opaque. Mechanisms can often be explored from Drosophila genetic approaches. To determine if circulating sugars might be involved in Drosophila feeding behaviors, we scored hemolymph glucose and trehalose, and food ingestion in larvae subjected to various diets, genetic mutations, or RNAi. We found that larvae with glucose elevations, hyperglycemia, have an aversion to feeding; however, trehalose levels do not track with feeding behavior...
2018: Communications biology
Patrick Bach, Jan Malte Bumb, Rilana Schuster, Sabine Vollstädt-Klein, Iris Reinhard, Marcella Rietschel, Stephanie H Witt, Klaus Wiedemann, Falk Kiefer, Anne Koopmann
Leptin and ghrelin and a "cross-talk" between both hormones were implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence, both modulating alcohol craving and drug-seeking. To date, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying those effects are still little-known. We thus investigated the effect of leptin and ghrelin on alcohol cue-induced brain response, alcohol craving and relapse risk in alcohol-dependent subjects. Seventy abstinent alcohol dependent individuals underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) alcohol cue-reactivity task and patients` alcohol craving was assessed...
September 18, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Marta Ordoñez, Natalia Presa, Asier Dominguez-Herrera, Miguel Trueba, Antonio Gomez-Muñoz
We showed previously that ceramide kinase (CerK) expression increases during adipogenesis pointing to a relevant role of intracellular C1P in this process. In the present work we demonstrate that administration of exogenous C1P inhibits the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes into mature adipocytes through a mechanism involving activation of extracellularly regulated kinases (ERK) 1-2. Exogenous C1P reduced the accumulation of lipid droplets and the content of triacylglycerol in these cells, and potently inhibited the expression of the early and late adipogenic markers C/EBPβ and PPARγ, respectively...
September 27, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Kenji Yoshida, Yoshihiro Kita, Suzumi M Tokuoka, Fumie Hamano, Maya Yamazaki, Kenji Sakimura, Masanobu Kano, Takao Shimizu
Excess energy intake causes obesity, which leads to insulin resistance and various other complications of metabolic syndrome, including diabetes, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although recent studies have depicted altered lipid metabolism as an underlying feature, the detailed mechanisms are still unclear. Here we describe a possible role in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity for monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), an enzyme that is also known to hydrolyze the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in brain...
September 28, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Daniel T Cervone, Justin Sheremeta, Emily N Kraft, David J Dyck
Ghrelin has garnered interest as a gut-derived regulator of lipid metabolism, beyond its classical roles in driving appetite and growth hormone release. Ghrelin's circulating concentrations follow an ultradian rhythm, peak immediately before a meal and point towards a potential metabolic role in reducing the mobilization of fatty acid stores in preparation for the storage of ingested food. Here, we demonstrate that both acylated and unacylated ghrelin have physiological roles in attenuating lipolysis in mature subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots of rats...
September 28, 2018: Adipocyte
Edward S Chambers, Tom Preston, Gary Frost, Douglas J Morrison
PURPOSE OF THIS REVIEW: This review assesses the latest evidence linking short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) with host metabolic health and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and presents the latest evidence on possible biological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: SCFA have a range of effects locally in the gut and at both splanchnic and peripheral tissues which together appear to induce improved metabolic regulation and have direct and indirect effects on markers of CVD risk...
September 28, 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Shaan S Naughton, Erik D Hanson, Michael L Mathai, Andrew J McAinch
Despite the abundance of plant-derived fats in our diet, their effects on appetite, and metabolic markers, remain unclear. This single-blinded 3-way cross-over pilot study aimed to investigate the ability of the two most abundant dietary plant-derived fats, oleic (OA) and linoleic (LA) acids, to modulate postprandial appetite and levels of circulating appetite and metabolic regulators in overweight/obese individuals. Meals were a high-carbohydrate control, a high-OA or a high-LA meal, and provided 30% of participants' estimated energy requirements...
September 26, 2018: Nutrients
Xin Zhang, Jinwen Qi, Ni Tang, Shuyao Wang, Yuanbing Wu, Hu Chen, Zhengzhi Tian, Bin Wang, Defang Chen, Zhiqiong Li
Nesfatin-1 is an 82-amino acid protein derived from nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), which could inhibit food intake in fish and mammals. However, the neuroendocrine mechanism of nesfatin-1 in animal appetite regulation is unclear. To explore the feeding mechanism of nesfatin-1 in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii), intraperitoneal injections of nesfatin-1 and sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8), Lorglumide (CCK1R selective antagonist), or LY 225,910 (CCK2R selective antagonist) were performed. Co-injection of nesfatin-1 and CCK8 synergistically significantly decreased the food intake in 1 h...
September 24, 2018: Peptides
Cadence True, Anam Arik, Sarah Lindsley, Melissa Kirigiti, Elinor Sullivan, Paul Kievit
Maternal obesity and consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy has a negative impact on offspring, including an increased risk for the development of obesity in adolescence. The mechanism for this transferred metabolic risk is unclear, but many studies have focused on the brain due to its important role in appetite and body-weight regulation. Two main pathways regulate appetite in the brain; homeostatic regulation that occurs predominantly in hypothalamic circuits and hedonic regulation of feeding that occurs via dopaminergic pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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