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Appetite Regulation

Hui Yang, Ming Yang, Shaoming Fang, Xiaochang Huang, Maozhang He, Shanlin Ke, Jun Gao, Jinyuan Wu, Yunyan Zhou, Hao Fu, Congying Chen, Lusheng Huang
BACKGROUND: There are growing evidences showing that gut microbiota should play an important role in host appetite and feeding behavior. However, what kind of microbe(s) and how they affect porcine appetite remain unknown. RESULTS: In this study, 280 commercial Duroc pigs were raised in a testing station with the circadian feeding behavior records for a continuous period of 30-100 kg. We first analyzed the influences of host gender and genetics in porcine average daily feed intake (ADFI), but no significant effect was observed...
December 14, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Jeannette Y Wick
The use of medical marijuana-both the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol and its nonpsychoactive relative cannabidiol-is a growing practice in facilities served by senior care pharmacists. Currently, 30 states have approved its use under a variety of different regulations and for a number of conditions. Its use is bolstered by a growing number of Americans who support legalization of cannabis. Though oral synthetic cannabinoid compounds are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and appetite stimulation associated with AIDS, synthetic products differ from plant-derived products in several ways...
December 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Payahoo Laleh, Khajebishak Yaser, Ostadrahimi Alireza
Obesity as a multifactorial disorder has been shown a dramatically growing trend recently. Besides genetic and environmental factors, dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system tone is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. This study reviewed the potential efficacy of Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) as an endocannabinoid-like compound in the energy homeostasis and appetite control in people with obesity. OEA as a lipid mediator and bioactive endogenous ethanolamide fatty acid is structurally similar to the endocannabinoid system compounds; nevertheless, it is unable to induce to the cannabinoid receptors...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Daniel Sanford, Leon Luong, Arielle Gabalski, Suwan Oh, John P Vu, Joseph R Pisegna, Patrizia Germano
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino acid neuropeptide expressed both centrally and peripherally. CGRP has been shown to be involved in arteriolar dilation, cardiovascular regulation, pain transmission, migraine, and gastrointestinal physiology. Our current research is aimed at analyzing CGRP's impact on appetite/satiety, body metabolism, and energy homeostasis. Our study investigated the effects of a single-dose intraperitoneal (IP) treatment with CGRP on food and water consumption, energy expenditure, physical activity, respirometry, and a panel of plasma metabolic hormones in C57Bl/6 wild-type (WT) mice...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Xinyan Bi, Yi Ting Loo, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
OBJECTIVES: It has been demonstrated that leptin influences the energy balance by regulating appetite and increasing energy expenditure (EE). However, the relationship between circulating leptin and EE is confounded owing to variations in body composition. The aim of this study was to determine the role of circulating leptin in energy regulation and to examine whether the leptin-mediated changes in EE are associated with adiposity among healthy adults living in Singapore. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 300 participants (112 men)...
September 7, 2018: Nutrition
Xixi Song, Hongchao Jiao, Jingpeng Zhao, Xiaojuan Wang, Hai Lin
Ghrelin, one of the most important appetite regulating peptides, is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. The anorexia effect of ghrelin in chickens is contrary to that of ghrelin in mammals. In the present study, the effects of feeding status and dietary energy level on plasma total ghrelin levels and expression were studied in broilers. The gene expression of ghrelin and its receptor GHS-R1a were measured in the hypothalamus, proventriculus, duodenum, liver, and abdominal fat pad. The results showed that ghrelin mRNA and GHS-R1a mRNA are moderately expressed in liver and abdominal fat...
November 30, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
David Nguyen, Erind Alushaj, Suzanne Erb, Rutsuko Ito
The dorsal striatum is traditionally known for its role in sensorimotor integration. However, the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) has also been implicated in cost-benefit conflict processing, a role more readily attributed to the ventral striatum (VS), as a site of limbic-motor integration. We recently showed that dopaminergic D1 (D1R) and D2 receptors (D2R) in the VS exert dissociable control over cue-elicited approach-avoidance decision-making, in the presence of conflicting motivational stimuli. We therefore sought to investigate the contribution of DMS dopaminergic receptors in the regulation of cue-elicited and innate approach-avoidance decision-making...
November 30, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Zhang Chen, Harm Veling, Stijn P de Vries, Bas Olde Bijvank, Ignace M C Janssen, Ap Dijksterhuis, Rob W Holland
OBJECTIVE: Not responding to appetitive food items in the go/no-go training has been shown to reduce the evaluation of these items in normal-weight university students. In this preregistered study, we administered an identical go/no-go training in both morbidly obese individuals and normal-weight university students, to assess whether findings from laboratory studies on go/no-go training performed in university environments can be translated to clinical settings. METHOD: Obese individuals (N = 59, 14 males, Mage = 46...
December 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Sung-Joon Lee, Inge Depoortere, Hanns Hatt
Olfactory and taste receptors are expressed primarily in the nasal olfactory epithelium and gustatory taste bud cells, where they transmit real-time sensory signals to the brain. However, they are also expressed in multiple extra-nasal and extra-oral tissues, being implicated in diverse biological processes including sperm chemotaxis, muscle regeneration, bronchoconstriction and bronchodilatation, inflammation, appetite regulation and energy metabolism. Elucidation of the physiological roles of these ectopic receptors is revealing potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications in conditions including wounds, hair loss, asthma, obesity and cancers...
November 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
Min-Dian Li, Nicholas B Vera, Yunfan Yang, Bichen Zhang, Weiming Ni, Enida Ziso-Qejvanaj, Sheng Ding, Kaisi Zhang, Ruonan Yin, Simeng Wang, Xu Zhou, Ethan X Fang, Tian Xu, Derek M Erion, Xiaoyong Yang
Palatable foods (fat and sweet) induce hyperphagia, and facilitate the development of obesity. Whether and how overnutrition increases appetite through the adipose-to-brain axis is unclear. O-linked beta-D-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) couples nutrient cues to O-GlcNAcylation of intracellular proteins at serine/threonine residues. Chronic dysregulation of O-GlcNAc signaling contributes to metabolic diseases. Here we show that adipocyte OGT is essential for high fat diet-induced hyperphagia, but is dispensable for baseline food intake...
November 30, 2018: Nature Communications
Joanna O Bagińska, Alicja Liszewska, Anna Wasilewska, Agata Korzeniecka-Kozerska
AIM: We wanted to investigate serum levels of ghrelin and leptin - appetite-regulating hormones - and their correlation with the nutritional status of children with neurogenic bladder (NB) due to myelomeningocele (MMC) in comparison to healthy individuals. METHODS: This prospective analysis was conducted on 67 children with NB after MMC and 20 healthy children. Children's medical charts were analysed to determine age, gender, anthropometric measurements, body mass index (BMI), activity assessment using Hoffer's scale and renal function parameters...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Marie-Pierre St-Onge, Theresa Pizinger, Kyle Kovtun, Arindam RoyChoudhury
BACKGROUND: Studies associate sleeping and eating late in the day with poor dietary quality and higher obesity risk but differences in sleep duration confound this association. We aimed to determine whether sleep and meal timing, independent of sleep duration, influenced food intake in healthy adults. METHODS: This was a controlled, 2 × 2 inpatient crossover study with normal (0000-0800 h) or late (0330-1130 h) sleep and normal (1, 5, 11, and 12.5 h after awakening) or late (4...
November 28, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Atsushi Noritake, Kae Nakamura
The lateral hypothalamus (LH), which plays a role in homeostatic functions like appetite regulation, is also linked to arousal and motivational behavior. However, little is known about how these components are encoded in the LH. Thus, cynomolgus monkeys were conditioned with two distinct contexts, i.e., an appetitive context with available rewards and an aversive context with predicted airpuffs. Different LH neuron groups encoded different degrees of expectation, predictability, and risks of rewards in a specific manner...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Ernesto Tarragon, Juan José Moreno
The herb Cannabis sativa has been traditionally used in many cultures and all over the world for thousands of years as medicine and recreation. However, because it was brought to the Western world in the late 19th century, its use has been a source of controversy with respect to its physiological effects as well as the generation of specific behaviors. In this regard, the CB1 receptor represents the most relevant target molecule of cannabinoid components on nervous system and whole-body energy homeostasis. Thus, the promotion of CB1 signaling can increase appetite and stimulate feeding, whereas blockade of CB1 suppresses hunger and induces hypophagia...
November 27, 2018: Chemical Senses
Jonathan M Hailwood, Christopher J Heath, Benjamin U Phillips, Trevor W Robbins, Lisa M Saksida, Timothy J Bussey
Disruptions to motivated behaviour are a highly prevalent and severe symptom in a number of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Current treatment options for these disorders have little or no effect upon motivational impairments. We assessed the contribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors to motivated behaviour in mice, as a novel pharmacological target for motivational impairments. Touchscreen progressive ratio (PR) performance was facilitated by the nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine as well as the more subtype-selective antagonists biperiden (M1) and tropicamide (M4)...
November 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Giustino Orlando, Sheila Leone, Claudio Ferrante, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Adriano Mollica, Azzurra Stefanucci, Giorgia Macedonio, Marilisa Pia Dimmito, Lidia Leporini, Luigi Menghini, Luigi Brunetti, Lucia Recinella
Besides its role as key regulator in gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion, reproductive function, and puberty onset, kisspeptin has been proposed to act as a bridge between energy homeostasis and reproduction. In the present study, to characterize the role of hypothalamic kisspeptin as metabolic regulator, we evaluated the effects of kisspeptin-10 on neuropeptide Y (NPY) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression and the extracellular dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine, 5-HT), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIIA) concentrations in rat hypothalamic (Hypo-E22) cells...
November 24, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Aimilia Papathanasiou, Eric Nolen-Doerr, Olivia Farr, Christos S Mantzoros
The discovery of leptin, an adipocyte secreted hormone, set the stage for unraveling the mechanisms dictating energy homeostasis, revealing adipose tissue as an endocrine system that regulates appetite and body weight. Fluctuating leptin levels provide molecular signals to the brain regarding available energy reserves modulating energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine response in states of leptin deficiency and to a lesser extent in hyperleptinemic states. While leptin replacement therapy fails to provide substantial benefit in common obesity, it is effective treatment for congenital leptin deficiency and states of acquired leptin deficiency such as lipodystrophy...
November 1, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Chia Li, Jovana Navarrete, Jing Liang-Guallpa, Chunxia Lu, Samuel C Funderburk, Rui B Chang, Stephen D Liberles, David P Olson, Michael J Krashes
Understanding the neural framework behind appetite control is fundamental to developing effective therapies to combat the obesity epidemic. The paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) is critical for appetite regulation, yet, the real-time, physiological response properties of PVH neurons to nutrients are unknown. Using a combination of fiber photometry, electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and neural manipulation strategies, we determined the population dynamics of four molecularly delineated PVH subsets implicated in feeding behavior: glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (PVHGlp1r ), melanocortin-4 receptor (PVHMc4r ), oxytocin (PVHOxt ), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (PVHCrh )...
November 13, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Marina Kjaergaard, Casper Bo Gravesen Salinas, Jens F Rehfeld, Anna Secher, Kirsten Raun, Birgitte S Wulff
Peptide YY(3-36) ((PYY(3-36)) and glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in combination reduce food intake and body weight in an additive or synergistic manner in animal models and in humans. Nevertheless, the mechanisms behind are not completely understood. The present study aims to investigate the effect of combining PYY(3-36) and the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex4) by examining acute food intake and global neuronal activation as measured by c-fos in C57BL/6 J mice. An additive reduction in food intake was found 1...
November 19, 2018: Neuropeptides
Sebastian N Politis, Sune R Sørensen, David Mazurais, Arianna Servili, Jose-Luis Zambonino-Infante, Joanna J Miest, Catriona M Clemmesen, Jonna Tomkiewicz, Ian A E Butts
Digestive system functionality of fish larvae relies on the onset of genetically pre-programmed and extrinsically influenced digestive functions. This study explored how algal supplementation (green-water) until 14 days post hatch (dph) and the ingestion of food [enriched rotifer ( Brachionus plicatilis ) paste] from 15 dph onward affects molecular maturation and functionality of European eel larval ingestion and digestion mechanisms. For this, we linked larval biometrics to expression of genes relating to appetite [ghrelin ( ghrl ), cholecystokinin ( cck )], food intake [proopiomelanocortin ( pomc )], digestion [trypsin ( try ), triglyceride lipase ( tgl ), amylase ( amyl )], energy metabolism [ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 ( atp6 ), cytochrome- c -oxidase 1 ( cox1 )], growth [insulin-like growth factor ( igf1 )] and thyroid metabolism [thyroid hormone receptors ( thrαA , thrβB )]...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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