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Appetite Regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110715/cortisol-reactivity-and-weight-gain-among-adolescents-who-vary-in-prenatal-drug-exposure
#1
B Armstrong, S Buckingham-Howes, M M Black
OBJECTIVE: Low inhibitory control is linked with weight gain among youth. Inhibitory problems are associated with disruption to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis cortisol response. Increased cortisol predicts appetite and weight gain (though may be gender specific). This study hypothesized that cortisol reactivity explains the association between inhibition and weight gain while considering the moderating factors of early stressors to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g...
August 15, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110683/ghrelin-as-a-promising-therapeutic-option-for-cancer-cachexia
#2
Mahalaqua Nazli Khatib, Abhay Gaidhane, Shilpa Gaidhane, Zahiruddin Syed Quazi
Cachexia is a devastating complication of cancer and an important cause of morbidity and mortality and can have a great effect on quality of life, and sense of self-esteem. Unfortunately; there is no standard cure available for cancer cachexia. Ghrelin; a 28 amino acid orexigenic gut hormone and its mimetics have shown potential benefits in reversing the breakdown of protein and weight loss in catabolic states like cancer cachexia. Ghrelin has effects on several vital pathways in the regulation of appetite, and composition of the body...
August 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108548/involvement-of-trpv1-channels-in-energy-homeostasis
#3
REVIEW
Stewart Christie, Gary A Wittert, Hui Li, Amanda J Page
The ion channel TRPV1 is involved in a wide range of processes including nociception, thermosensation and, more recently discovered, energy homeostasis. Tightly controlling energy homeostasis is important to maintain a healthy body weight, or to aid in weight loss by expending more energy than energy intake. TRPV1 may be involved in energy homeostasis, both in the control of food intake and energy expenditure. In the periphery, it is possible that TRPV1 can impact on appetite through control of appetite hormone levels or via modulation of gastrointestinal vagal afferent signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108130/cholecystokinin-switches-the-plasticity-of-gaba-synapses-in-the-dorsomedial-hypothalamus-via-astrocytic-atp-release
#4
Karen M Crosby, Ciaran Murphy-Royal, Sarah A Wilson, Grant R Gordon, Jaideep S Bains, Quentin J Pittman
Whether synapses in appetite-regulatory brain regions undergo long term changes in strength in response to satiety peptides is poorly understood. Here we show that following bursts of afferent activity, the neuromodulator and satiety peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) shifts the plasticity of GABA synapses in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus of male Sprague Dawley rats from long-term depression (LTD) to long-term potentiation (LTP). This LTP requires activation of both type 2 CCK receptors and group 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors, resulting in a rise in astrocytic intracellular calcium and subsequent ATP release...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098476/adipokine-interactions-promote-the-pathogenesis-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#5
Durga Chougule, Milind Nadkar, Krishnamurthy Venkataraman, Anjali Rajadhyaksha, Niwrutti Hase, Tukaram Jamale, Seema Kini, Prasad Khadilkar, Vidya Anand, Manisha Madkaikar, Vandana Pradhan
BACKGROUND: Adipokines are chemical mediators released from adipose tissue involved in regulation of appetite, insulin sensitivity, immune system and inflammatory responses. Adipokines contributes to low grade inflammatory response in autoimmune disease like Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) but the pathophysiology is yet not clear. The aim of this study is to understand role of adipokine interactions in SLE disease pathogenesis. METHODS: Sixty newly diagnosed treatment naïve SLE patients fulfilling the ACR criteria and forty age-sex matched healthy subjects were enrolled in thiscase-control study...
August 8, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098217/a-qualitative-study-exploring-women-s-health-behaviours-after-a-pregnancy-with-gestational-diabetes-to-inform-the-development-of-a-diabetes-prevention-strategy
#6
J Parsons, K Sparrow, K Ismail, K Hunt, H Rogers, A Forbes
AIM: To inform targeted interventions for women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by exploring the factors that influence their health behaviours and their preferences for lifestyle support. METHODS: Participants were women with previous GDM taken from a diverse inner-city UK population. Data collection involved focus groups (n = 35 women in six groups) and semi-structured interviews (n = 15 women). The transcribed data were analysed using framework analysis...
August 11, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096245/effect-of-video-game-playing-and-a-glucose-preload-on-subjective-appetite-subjective-emotions-and-food-intake-in-overweight-and-obese-boys
#7
Brandon J F Gheller, Julia O Totosy de Zepetnek, Jo M Welch, Melissa D Rossiter, Bohdan L Luhovyy, Neil R Brett, Nick Bellissimo
Video game playing (VGP) is associated with overweight/obesity (OW/OB). VGP and caloric preloads in the pre-meal environment influence short-term food intake (FI) in healthy weight children. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of pre-meal VGP and a glucose preload on subjective emotions, subjective appetite, and FI in boys with OW/OB. On four separate mornings, boys with OW/OB (n = 22; mean±SD: age = 11.9±1.6 years; BMI percentile = 94.3±3.9) participated in four test conditions...
August 10, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089153/serum-leptin-level-is-associated-with-phase-angle-in-ckd5-patients-not-undergoing-dialysis
#8
Jun Young Lee, Jae-Seok Kim, Jae-Won Yang, Seung Ok Choi, Joon Hyung Sohn, Byoung-Geun Han
OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition is very complex in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and is associated with poor prognosis. This is because hemodynamic changes, hormonal changes, persistent inflammatory reactions, and fluid overloads are more complicated as uremia is worsening. Bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a useful method to estimate fluid balance (Overhydration/ extracellular water, OH/ECW) and nutritional status (Phase angle, PhA). We aimed to evaluate the volume and nutritional status by BIS and to investigate the relationship between the appetite regulating hormones and the parameters of BIS in patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease not undergoing dialysis (CKD5-ND)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076527/modulation-of-glucose-metabolism-in-hippocampal-neurons-by-adiponectin-and-resistin
#9
Pedro Cisternas, Milka Martinez, Rexford S Ahima, G William Wong, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Obese individuals exhibit altered circulating levels of adipokines, the proteins secreted by adipose tissue to mediate tissue cross-talk and regulate appetite and energy expenditure. The effect of adipokines on neuronal glucose metabolism, however, remains largely unknown. Two adipokines produced in adipose tissue, adiponectin and resistin, can gain access to the central nervous system (CNS), and their levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are altered in obesity. We hypothesized that dysregulated adipokines in the CNS may underlie the reported link between obesity and higher risk of neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD), by affecting glucose metabolism in hippocampal neurons...
August 3, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076343/two-drosophila-neuropeptide-y-like-neurons-define-a-reward-module-for-transforming-appetitive-odor-representations-to-motivation
#10
Yuhan Pu, Yiwen Zhang, Yan Zhang, Ping Shen
Neuropeptides, many of which are conserved among vertebrate and invertebrate animals, are implicated in the regulation of motivational states that selectively facilitate goal-directed behaviors. After a brief presentation of appetitive odors, Drosophila larvae display an impulsive-like feeding activity in readily accessible palatable food. This innate appetitive response may require coordinated signaling activities of dopamine (DA) and neuropeptide F (NPF; a fly homolog of neuropeptide Y). Here we provide anatomical and functional evidence, at single-cell resolution, that two NPF neurons define a reward module in the highest-order brain region for cognitive processing of food-related olfactory representations...
August 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075289/dorsal-hippocampal-neural-immune-signaling-regulates-heroin-conditioned-immunomodulation-but-not-heroin-conditioned-place-preference
#11
Jacqueline E Paniccia, Christina L Lebonville, Meghan E Jones, Shveta V Parekh, Rita A Fuchs, Donald T Lysle
Repeated pairings of heroin and a context results in Pavlovian associations which manifest as heroin-conditioned appetitive responses and peripheral immunomodulation upon re-exposure to heroin-paired conditioned stimuli (CS). The dorsal hippocampus (DH) plays a key role in the neurocircuitry governing these context-heroin associations. Within the DH, signaling of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is required for the expression of heroin-conditioned peripheral immunomodulation. However, the role of signaling via IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) has not been examined...
July 31, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30063436/mechanisms-responsible-for-homeostatic-appetite-control-theoretical-advances-and-practical-implications
#12
Mark Hopkins, Kristine Beaulieu, Anna Myers, Catherine Gibbons, John E Blundell
Homeostatic appetite control is part of a psychobiological system that has evolved to maintain an adequate supply of nutrients for growth and maintenance. The system links the physiological needs for energy with the behaviour that satisfies these needs (feeding), and is shaped by excitatory and inhibitory signals. Owing to rapid shifts in the food environment, homeostatic appetite control is not well adapted for modern-day human functioning. Areas covered: Homeostatic appetite control has two divisions. Tonic processes exert stable and enduring influences, with signals arising from bodily tissues and metabolism...
November 2017: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30062131/therapeutic-cannabis-and-endocannabinoid-signaling-system-modulator-use-in-otolaryngology-patients
#13
REVIEW
Lucas M Bryant, Kelly E Daniels, David M Cognetti, Patrick Tassone, Adam J Luginbuhl, Joseph M Curry
Objectives: 1) review benefits and risks of cannabis use, with emphasis on otolaryngic disease processes; 2) define and review the endocannabinoid signaling system (ESS); and 3) review state and federal regulations for the use and research of cannabis and ESS modulators. Methods: This manuscript is a review of the current literature relevant to the stated objectives. Results: Cannabis (marijuana) use is increasing. It is the most widely used illicit substance in the world...
June 2018: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058435/the-sweet-taste-signalling-pathways-in-the-oral-cavity-and-the-gastrointestinal-tract-affect-human-appetite-and-food-intake-a-review
#14
Pengfei Han, Bagenna Bagenna, Minghai Fu
Sweet taste is associated with food reward and energy source in the form of carbohydrate. Excessive sweet consumption is blamed for the prevalence of obesity. However, evidence for the potential of sweet taste to influence food intake and bodyweight regulation in humans remains unclear. The purpose of this review was to examine the physiological responses relevant to sweet taste mechanisms and the impact on appetite control. The literature was examined for studies that assessed the effects of non-nutritive sweeteners and natural sugars on hormonal secretions and neural activations via oral and gastrointestinal pathways...
July 30, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055207/effects-of-saccharin-supplementation-on-body-weight-sweet-receptor-mrna-expression-and-appetite-signals-regulation-in-post-weanling-rats
#15
Xiaolin Zhao, Jianqun Yan, Ke Chen, Lin Song, Bo Sun, Xiaojing Wei
Non-nutritive sweeteners have been considered to promote diet healthfulness by delivering a pleasant sweet taste without calories. We investigated the effects of long term supplementation with drinks containing saccharin on body weight and possible mechanisms of the effects in post-weanling rats. Our results showed that saccharin solution intake increased food intake and energy intake in male rats. In males, saccharin solution intake increased TIR3 mRNA expression in the taste buds and ghrelin receptor mRNA expression both in the taste buds and hypothalamus, whereas no effects were observed in females...
July 25, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30054897/pharmacological-effects-and-regulatory-mechanisms-of-tobacco-smoking-effects-on-food-intake-and-weight-control
#16
REVIEW
Tongyuan Hu, Zhongli Yang, Ming D Li
Beyond promoting smoking initiation and preventing smokers from quitting, nicotine can reduce food intake and body weight and thus is viewed as desirable by some smokers, especially many women. During the last several decades, the molecular mechanisms underlying the inverse correlation between smoking and body weight have been investigated extensively in both animals and humans. Nicotine's weight effects appear to result especially from the drug's stimulation of α3β4 nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are located on pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), leading to activation of the melanocortin circuit, which is associated with body weight...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30044726/environmental-obesogens-mechanisms-and-controversies
#17
Jerrold J Heindel, Bruce Blumberg
Obesity is a worldwide pandemic in adults as well as children and adds greatly to health care costs through its association with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and cancers. The prevailing medical view of obesity is that it results from a simple imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure. However, numerous other factors are important in the etiology of obesity. The obesogen hypothesis proposes that environmental chemicals termed obesogens promote obesity by acting to increase adipocyte commitment, differentiation, and size by altering metabolic set points or altering the hormonal regulation of appetite and satiety...
July 25, 2018: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30043390/darpp-32-in-the-orchestration-of-responses-to-positive-natural-stimuli
#18
REVIEW
Simona Scheggi, Maria Graziella De Montis, Carla Gambarana
Dopamine-and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (Mr 32 kDa, DARPP-32) is an integrator of multiple neuronal signals and plays a crucial role particularly in mediating the dopaminergic component of the systems involved in the evaluation of stimuli and the ensuing elaboration of complex behavioral responses (e.g., responses to reinforcers and stressors). Dopamine neurons can fire tonically or phasically in distinct timescales and in specific brain regions to code different behaviorally relevant information. Dopamine signaling is mediated mainly through the regulation of adenylyl cyclase activity, stimulated by D1-like or inhibited by D2-like receptors, respectively, that modulates cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) function...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30037606/asprosin-possible-target-in-connection-with-ghrelin-and-cytokine-network-expression-in-the-post-burn-treatment
#19
Mustafa Metin Donma, Orkide Donma
Burn injury is a severe form of trauma associated with pain, metabolic abnormalities, susceptibility to infections, muscle loss, mental and emotional distress. Conventional therapies as well as some recent approaches for the treatment of burned patients are currently in use. Nutritional therapy is also suggested as a supplementary option in major burns. Within this context, hormones involved in the regulation of appetite will have a paramount importance. The aim is to evaluate the interactions among ghrelin, some inflammatory parameters and the burn injury...
September 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30036957/appetite-metabolism-and-hormonal-regulation-in-normal-ageing-and-dementia
#20
REVIEW
Artemissia-Phoebe Nifli
Feeding and nutrition follow the growth trajectory of the course of life. The profound physiological changes that human body experiences during ageing affect separate aspects of food intake, from tastant perception to satiety. Concurrent morbidities, such as neurodegeneration, as seen in dementia, and metabolic syndrome, may further shape nutritional behaviours, status and adequacy. In an effort to fill the gap between the exhausting basic research and the actual needs of professionals caring for the exponentially expanding ageing population, the current review addresses major factors relevant to appetite and eating disturbances...
July 20, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
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