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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019618/detection-of-hyperexcitability-by-fmri-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Joanna K Huttunen, Antti M Airaksinen, Carmen Barba, Gabriella Colicchio, Juha-Pekka Niskanen, Artem Shatillo, Alejandra Sierra Lopez, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Asla Pitkanen, Olli Gröhn
Diagnosis of ongoing epileptogenesis and associated hyperexcitability after brain injury is a major challenge. As increased neuronal activity in the brain triggers a blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we hypothesized that fMRI could be used to identify the brain area(s) with hyperexcitability during post-injury epileptogenesis. We applied fMRI to detect the onset and spread of BOLD activation after pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures (PTZ, 30 mg/kg, i...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882580/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-for-spinal-cord-ischaemia-after-complex-aortic-repair-a-retrospective-review
#2
Matteo Parotto, Maral Ouzounian, Ludwik Fedorko, George Oreopoulos, Thomas Lindsay, Rita Katznelson
BACKGROUND: Complex aortic repair (CAR) carries high rates of debilitating postoperative complications, including spinal cord injury. The rate of spinal cord deficits post-CAR is approximately 10%, with permanent paraplegia in 2.9% and paraparesis in 2.4% of patients. Treatment options are limited. Rescue therapies include optimization of spinal cord perfusion and oxygen delivery by mean arterial pressure augmentation (> 90 mm Hg), cerebrospinal fluid drainage, and preservation of adequate haemoglobin concentration (> 100 g L⁻¹)...
2018: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876334/pneumocephalus-after-tympanomastoidectomy-a-case-presentation
#3
Mohammadhossein Baradaranfar, Sedighe Vaziribozorg, Mojtaba Mirzade, Mostafa Salari
Introduction: Pneumocephalus is the presence of air or gas within the cranial cavity. It can occur following otorhinolaryngological procedures. A small pneumocephalus spontaneously heals without any treatment. In severe cases, conservative therapy includes a 30-degree head elevation, avoidance of the Valsalva maneuver, analgesics, osmotic diuretics, and oxygen therapy. Case Report: A 56-year-old woman was referred to the emergency department due to a severe headache in the frontal area for 2 days before admission...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651419/management-of-glioblastoma-multiforme-in-a-patient-treated-with-ketogenic-metabolic-therapy-and-modified-standard-of-care-a-24-month-follow-up
#4
Ahmed M A Elsakka, Mohamed Abdel Bary, Eman Abdelzaher, Mostafa Elnaggar, Miriam Kalamian, Purna Mukherjee, Thomas N Seyfried
Few advances have been made in overall survival for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in more than 40 years. Here, we report the case of a 38-year-old man who presented with chronic headache, nausea, and vomiting accompanied by left partial motor seizures and upper left limb weakness. Enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solid cystic lesion in the right partial space suggesting GBM. Serum testing revealed vitamin D deficiency and elevated levels of insulin and triglycerides. Prior to subtotal tumor resection and standard of care (SOC), the patient conducted a 72-h water-only fast...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511115/measurement-of-oxygen-extraction-fraction-by-blood-sampling-to-estimate-severe-cerebral-hemodynamic-failure-and-anticipate-cerebral-hyperperfusion-syndrome-following-carotid-artery-stenting
#5
Tomonori Iwata, Takahisa Mori, Yuhei Tanno, Shigen Kasakura, Kazuhiro Yoshioka
BACKGROUND: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is likely to occur after carotid revascularization in patients with stage 2 hemodynamic failure (st2HF), in whom the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) increases. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to investigate whether measurement of the global cerebral OEF (gcOEF) by blood sampling can be used to estimate st2HF and anticipate CHS following carotid artery stenting (CAS). METHODS: The OEF was calculated by blood sampling just before and after elective CAS...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180981/cerebral-microdialysis-monitoring-to-improve-individualized-neurointensive-care-therapy-an-update-of-recent-clinical-data
#6
REVIEW
Laurent Carteron, Pierre Bouzat, Mauro Oddo
Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) allows bedside semicontinuous monitoring of patient brain extracellular fluid. Clinical indications of CMD monitoring are focused on the management of secondary cerebral and systemic insults in acute brain injury (ABI) patients [mainly, traumatic brain injury (TBI), subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)], specifically to tailor several routine interventions-such as optimization of cerebral perfusion pressure, blood transfusion, glycemic control and oxygen therapy-in the individual patient...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886474/functional-connectivity-of-the-hippocampus-to-the-thalamocortical-circuitry-in-an-animal-model-of-absence-seizures
#7
Seyed Reza Mousavi, Justin A Arcaro, L Stan Leung, Jeffrey R Tenney, Seyed M Mirsattari
OBJECTIVE: Using the gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) rat model of absence seizures, this study investigated the functional connectivity of the hippocampus, thalamus and cerebral cortex before and during absence seizures. METHODS: Functional connectivity between the hippocampus, thalamus and sensory and motor cortecies, were examined by the temporal correlations of the resting state blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal. Functional connectivity between these regions was calculated at baseline, 5min after saline injection, and at 5, 20 and 52min after GBL injection...
November 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268486/identifying-stereotypic-evolving-micro-scale-seizures-sems-in-the-hypoxic-ischemic-eeg-of-the-pre-term-fetal-sheep-with-a-wavelet-type-ii-fuzzy-classifier
#8
Hamid Abbasi, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn, Charles P Unsworth
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) around the time of birth due to lack of oxygen can lead to debilitating neurological conditions such as epilepsy and cerebral palsy. Experimental data have shown that brain injury evolves over time, but during the first 6-8 hours after HIE the brain has recovered oxidative metabolism in a latent phase, and brain injury is reversible. Treatments such as therapeutic cerebral hypothermia (brain cooling) are effective when started during the latent phase, and continued for several days...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226660/identifying-stereotypic-evolving-micro-scale-seizures-sems-in-the-hypoxic-ischemic-eeg-of-the-pre-term-fetal-sheep-with-a-wavelet-type-ii-fuzzy-classifier
#9
Hamid Abbasi, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn, Charles P Unsworth, Hamid Abbasi, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn, Charles P Unsworth, Charles P Unsworth, Laura Bennet, Hamid Abbasi, Alistair J Gunn
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) around the time of birth due to lack of oxygen can lead to debilitating neurological conditions such as epilepsy and cerebral palsy. Experimental data have shown that brain injury evolves over time, but during the first 6-8 hours after HIE the brain has recovered oxidative metabolism in a latent phase, and brain injury is reversible. Treatments such as therapeutic cerebral hypothermia (brain cooling) are effective when started during the latent phase, and continued for several days...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203222/unexpected-death-of-a-child-with-complex-febrile-seizures-pathophysiology-similar-to-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy
#10
Brian J Dlouhy, Michael A Ciliberto, Christina L Cifra, Patricia A Kirby, Devin L Shrock, Marcus Nashelsky, George B Richerson
Febrile seizures are usually considered relatively benign. Although some cases of sudden unexplained death in childhood have a history of febrile seizures, no documented case of febrile seizure-induced death has been reported. Here, we describe a child with complex febrile seizures who died suddenly and unexpectedly after a suspected seizure while in bed at night during the beginning phases of sleep. She was resuscitated and pronounced brain dead 2 days later at our regional medical center. Autopsy revealed multiorgan effects of hypoperfusion and did not reveal an underlying (precipitating) disease, injury, or toxicological cause of death...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011391/pathophysiology-of-status-epilepticus
#11
REVIEW
Matthew C Walker
Status epilepticus (SE) is the maximal expression of epilepsy with a high morbidity and mortality. It occurs due to the failure of mechanisms that terminate seizures. Both human and animal data indicate that the longer a seizure lasts, the less likely it is to stop. Recent evidence suggests that there is a critical transition from an ictal to a post-ictal state, associated with a transition from a spatio-temporally desynchronized state to a highly synchronized state, respectively. As SE continues, it becomes progressively resistant to drugs, in particular benzodiazepines due partly to NMDA receptor-dependent internalization of GABA(A) receptors...
February 22, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800071/neonatal-transport-practices-in-ibadan-nigeria
#12
Muhydeen Abiodun Abdulraheem, Olukemi Oluwatoyin Tongo, Adebola Emmanuel Orimadegun, Olukayode Felix Akinbami
INTRODUCTION: Neonatal transport involves moving sick neonates in optimal conditions to ensure good outcomes. It is well organized in most developed countries but receives little attention in developing countries where the highest burden of neonatal mortality exists and a large number of newborns require referrals daily for better medical care. This study sought to evaluate the modes of transport, pre- and intra-transport care of neonates referred to the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765939/inadvertent-methylergonovine-administration-to-a-neonate
#13
Bryan M Corbett, Charles O'Connell, Mallory A Boutin, Nabil I Fatayerji, Charles W Sauer
BACKGROUND Methylergonovine is an ergot alkaloid used to treat post-partum hemorrhage secondary to uterine atony. Mistaking methylergonovine for vitamin K with accidental administration to the neonate is a rare iatrogenic illness occurring almost exclusively in the delivery room setting. Complications of ergot alkaloids in neonates include respiratory depression, seizures, and death. CASE REPORT A term infant was inadvertently given 0.1 mg of methylergonovine intramuscularly in the right thigh. The error was only noted when the vial of medication was scanned, after administration, identifying it as methylergonovine rather than vitamin K...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340754/in-hospital-neurologic-complications-in-adult-patients-undergoing-venoarterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-results-from-the-extracorporeal-life-support-organization-registry
#14
Roberto Lorusso, Fabio Barili, Michele Di Mauro, Sandro Gelsomino, Orlando Parise, Peter T Rycus, Jos Maessen, Thomas Mueller, Raf Muellenbach, Jan Belohlavek, Giles Peek, Alain Combes, Bjorn Frenckner, Antonio Pesenti, Ravi R Thiagarajan
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the epidemiology, complication profiles, hospital outcome, and predisposing factors of CNS complications occurring during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adults. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry. SETTING: Data reported to Extracorporeal Life Support Organization by 230 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers from 1992 to 2013. PATIENTS: Patients more than 16 years old supported with a single-run of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation...
October 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239267/case-report-a-case-report-of-dry-tap-during-ventriculostomy
#15
Sunil Munakomi, Binod Bhattarai
Pneumocephalus following ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion is an exceptionally rare occurrence. We report such an event after attempting ventricular puncture (ventriculostomy) for VP shunt insertion and then discuss the management of the same. Dry tap can lead to multiple attempts for ventriculostomy with the associated added risks of complications, as well as complicating the subsequent management. In addition, there is an increased risk of tension pneumocephalus, seizure and shunt failure due to a blockage by air bubbles...
2015: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27208748/1400w-a-highly-selective-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibitor-is-a-potential-disease-modifier-in-the-rat-kainate-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#16
Sreekanth Puttachary, Shaunik Sharma, Saurabh Verma, Yang Yang, Marson Putra, Achala Thippeswamy, Diou Luo, Thimmasettappa Thippeswamy
Status epilepticus (SE) initiates epileptogenesis to transform normal brain to epileptic state which is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). Prior to SRS, progressive changes occur in the brain soon after SE, for example, loss of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, neuronal hyper-excitability (epileptiform spiking), neuroinflammation [reactive gliosis, high levels of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)], neurodegeneration and synaptic re-organization. Our hypothesis was that modification of early epileptogenic events will alter the course of disease development and its progression...
September 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26819937/the-relevance-of-interictal-bold-changes-to-lateralize-seizure-focus-using-simultaneous-eeg-fmri
#17
Sandhya Mangalore, Rose Dawn Bharath, Neeraj Upadhyay, Ganne Chaitanya, Rajanikanth Panda, A K Gupta, P Satish Chandra, Malla Bhaskar Rao, Anita Mahadevan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The main challenge in assessing patients with epilepsy is the localization of neuronal networks involved in seizure generation and the lateralization of seizure onset. Electro encephalogram-functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) is a noninvasive multimodal imaging technique for epilepsies where the data is acquired based on the interictal epileptiform discharges (IED). Since this is a new technique, the specificity for lateralizing epileptic focus is yet to be established...
December 2015: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26812173/mitochondrial-dysfunction-plus-high-sugar-diet-provokes-a-metabolic-crisis-that-inhibits-growth
#18
Esko Kemppainen, Jack George, Görkem Garipler, Tea Tuomela, Essi Kiviranta, Tomoyoshi Soga, Cory D Dunn, Howard T Jacobs
The Drosophila mutant tko25t exhibits a deficiency of mitochondrial protein synthesis, leading to a global insufficiency of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. This entrains an organismal phenotype of developmental delay and sensitivity to seizures induced by mechanical stress. We found that the mutant phenotype is exacerbated in a dose-dependent fashion by high dietary sugar levels. tko25t larvae were found to exhibit severe metabolic abnormalities that were further accentuated by high-sugar diet. These include elevated pyruvate and lactate, decreased ATP and NADPH...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26656779/inhibition-of-adenosine-metabolism-induces-changes-in-post-ictal-depression-respiration-and-mortality-in-genetically-epilepsy-prone-rats
#19
Srinivasa P Kommajosyula, Marcus E Randall, Carl L Faingold
A major cause of mortality in epilepsy patients is sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Post-ictal respiratory dysfunction following generalized convulsive seizures is most commonly observed in witnessed cases of human SUDEP. DBA mouse models of SUDEP are induced by audiogenic seizures (AGSz) and show high incidences of seizure-induced death due to respiratory depression. The relatively low incidence of human SUDEP suggests that it may be useful to examine seizure-associated death in an AGSz model that rarely exhibits sudden death, such as genetically epilepsy-prone rats (GEPR-9s)...
January 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26413266/supplemental-oxygen-delivery-to-suspected-stroke-patients-in-pre-hospital-and-emergency-department-settings
#20
Yu-Feng Yvonne Chan, Maya Katz, Ari Moskowitz, Steven R Levine, Lynne D Richardson, Stanley Tuhrim, Kevin Chason, Kelly Barsan-Silverman, Aneesh Singhal
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggests that high-flow oxygen started promptly after stroke symptom onset salvages ischemic brain tissue. We investigated the consistency of oxygen delivery to suspected stroke patients in the pre-hospital (PH) and Emergency Department (ED) settings, and associated adverse events (AEs). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed pre-hospital call reports of suspected stroke patients transported by our institution's paramedics. We extracted data on oxygen delivery in the PH and ED settings, demographics, Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS), final diagnosis, and selected AEs (mortality, seizures, worsening neurological status, new infarction, and post-ischemic hemorrhage)...
2014: Medical Gas Research
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