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Zhongyong Qiu, Xiaofei Ji, Chunju He
It is still a challenge to design and fabricate a robust nanoporous membrane in large scale and of fundamental importance for practical application. Here, a robust three/two-dimensional polyacrylonitrile/graphene oxide (PAN/GO) homogeneous nanoporous membrane is fabricated in large scale via thermally induced phase separation method, which guarantees the membrane with high mechanical strength and selective separation properties. Differing from conventional nanofiltration (NF) membrane with high rejection to both salt and dye, the resulting hybrid membrane is relative loose, which shows outstanding performances, i...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Efstratios Karavasilis, Foteini Christidi, Georgios Velonakis, Zoi Giavri, Nikolaos L Kelekis, Efstathios P Efstathopoulos, Ioannis Evdokimidis, Georges Dellatolas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The cerebellum has a pivotal role in regulating human behavior; yet whether this function is mediated only through contralateral cerebro-cerebellar pathways is under-investigated. Thus, we examined feed-backward and feed-forward ipsilateral and contralateral cerebro-cerebellar connections using a detereministic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) algorithm, the robustness of which was also estimated using phantom DTI data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one healthy controls (22-60 years old; 15 males/36 females) were scanned in a 3 T MRI scanner with a 30-direction DTI sequence...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Elias Villiger, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
The aim of the study was to examine the effect of performance group by race time (10 groups;<3 h, 3-4 h, and so on up to>12 h) on pacing in women (n=19,465) and men (n=164,454) finishers in the 'Vasaloppet' cross-country (XC) skiing race from 2004 to 2017. The speed in the fastest and slowest split was analysed as a percentage of the mean race speed and pacing was defined as the difference (%) between the fastest and slowest split. Women had a larger pace range than men (44.0±10.6% versus 41.1±12...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Trent W Victor, Emma Tivesten, Pär Gustavsson, Joel Johansson, Fredrik Sangberg, Mikael Ljung Aust
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand how to secure driver supervision engagement and conflict intervention performance while using highly reliable (but not perfect) automation. BACKGROUND: Securing driver engagement-by mitigating irony of automation (i.e., the better the automation, the less attention drivers will pay to traffic and the system, and the less capable they will be to resume control) and by communicating system limitations to avoid mental model misconceptions-is a major challenge in the human factors literature...
August 10, 2018: Human Factors
J Enrique Vázquez-Lozano, Alejandro Martínez
Several dynamical properties of electromagnetic waves such as energy, momentum, angular momentum, and optical helicity have been recently reexamined in dispersive and lossless media. Here, we address an alternative derivation for the optical chirality, extending it so as to include dissipative effects as well. To this end, we first elaborate on the most complete form of the conservation law for the optical chirality, without any restrictions on the nature of the medium. As a result we find a general expression for the optical chirality density both in lossless and lossy dispersive media...
July 27, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Fouad Atallah, Peter S Bernstein, Danilo Acosta Diaz, Howard Minkoff
The Adverse Outcome Index, originally designed to provide an objective inventory of adverse outcomes, is often promoted as a tool for assessing the quality of inpatient obstetric care. Although the Adverse Outcome Index is well described, and its outcomes are easy to collect, it has notable drawbacks such as "paradoxical measures" (eg, blood transfusions are counted as adverse measures even when they are used appropriately) and the dominance of certain measures within the Adverse Outcome Index that can drive scores (eg, neonatal intensive care unit admissions)...
August 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Rachel Peragallo Urrutia, Chelsea B Polis, Elizabeth T Jensen, Margaret E Greene, Emily Kennedy, Joseph B Stanford
OBJECTIVE: To summarize best available prospective data on typical and perfect use effectiveness of fertility awareness-based methods for avoiding pregnancy. DATA SOURCES: We conducted a systematic review of studies published in English, Spanish, French, or German by June 2017 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We reviewed 8,755 unique citations and included 53 studies that contained 50 or greater women using a specific fertility awareness-based method to avoid pregnancy, calculated life table pregnancy probabilities or Pearl rates, and prospectively measured pregnancy intentions and outcomes...
August 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Clare B Jones, Christopher T Chan
Since the inception of hemodialysis (HD) for patients with chronic kidney disease, the "perfect" dialysis prescription has remained elusive. Part of this may relate to the heterogeneity among populations, individual patients, and differences in access to health provision. The optimal balance between dialysis frequency and duration to achieve reductions in patient morbidity and mortality continues to be debated. The concept of dialysis adequacy originated from a post hoc mathematical analysis of the National Cooperative Study and has evolved to become a way of calculating dialysis dose and standardizing the dialysis prescription...
August 9, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Majid Daneshvar, Mohammad Raouf Hosseini
Sorption is the most effective approach to the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) and wastewaters, but the removal of the adsorbents from water has always been a challenging problem which may be resolved by using magnetic separation. In this work, a magnetic bioadsorbent was prepared using low cost and high-performance sources and applied in Cr(VI) removal from a synthetic solution. Initially, magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized from iron boring scraps by chemical co-precipitation method. Results of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) analyses showed that the synthesized nanoparticles were around 40 nm in size and had a significant magnetization...
August 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marc Garbey, Stefano Casarin, Scott A Berceli
Peripheral arterial occlusive disease is a chronic pathology affecting at least 8-12 million people in the USA, typically treated with a vein graft bypass or through the deployment of a stent in order to restore the physiological circulation. Failure of peripheral endovascular interventions occurs at the intersection of vascular biology, biomechanics, and clinical decision making. It is our hypothesis that the majority of endovascular treatment approaches share the same driving mechanisms and that a deep understanding of the adaptation process is pivotal in order to improve the current outcome of the procedure...
August 9, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Stephen J Warner, Matthew R Garner, Peter D Fabricant, Dean G Lorich
INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis and decreased bone density are known to increase fracture incidence and severity. Although much is known regarding the effects of bone density on fracture risk and the treatment options for prevention of fragility fractures, whether bone quality alters clinical outcomes after fracture fixation is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether bone quality correlates with clinical outcomes after fracture fixation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective database of all operatively treated ankle fractures by a single surgeon from 2003 to 2013 was used to identify patients...
August 9, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Hao Li, Chengliang Mao, Huan Shang, Zhiping Yang, Zhihui Ai, Lizhi Zhang
Catalytic ammonia synthesis from dinitrogen (N2) under mild conditions has been considered to be the "holy grail" of N2 fixation, which is one of the most important chemical processes in the agriculture, biological and industrial fields. Given that current artificial N2 fixation is still dominated by the energy-intensive Haber-Bosch process, solar N2 fixation represents an encouraging and fascinating route for carbon-free and energy-saving N2 fixation. However, its practical application is seriously hampered by surface sluggish reaction kinetics...
August 10, 2018: Nanoscale
Yipeng An, Jutao Jiao, Yusheng Hou, Hui Wang, Dapeng Wu, Tianxing Wang, Zhaoming Fu, Guoliang Xu, Ruqian Wu
We study the electronic transport properties of two-dimensional (2D) fully-hydrogenated borophene (namely, borophane), using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function approaches. Borophane shows a perfect electrical transport anisotropy and is promising for applications. Along the peak- or equivalently the valley-parallel direction, 2D borophane exhibits a metallic characteristic and its current-voltage (I-V) curve shows a linear behavior, corresponding to the ON state in borophane-based nano-switches...
August 10, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
A Gunes, E Bulut, A Uzumcugil, K K Oguz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brachial plexus birth injury is caused by traction on the neck during delivery and results in flaccid palsy of an upper extremity commonly involving C5-C6 nerve roots. MR imaging and MR myelography help to assess the anatomic location, extent, and severity of brachial plexus injuries which influence the long-term prognosis along with the surgical decision making. Recently, sonography has been increasingly used as the imaging modality of choice for brachial plexus injuries...
August 9, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Gannon L Curtis, Muhammad B Tariq, David P Brigati, Mhamad Faour, Carlos A Higuera
BACKGROUND: The OrthoMiDaS (Orthopedic Minimal Data Set) Episode of Care (OME) database was developed in an effort to advance orthopedic outcome measurements on a national scale. This study was designed to evaluate if the OME data capture system would increase the quality of data collected in the context of primary and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) compared to conventional operative notes. METHODS: This study includes data from the first 100 primary THAs and 100 revision THAs performed by 15 surgeons at a single institution from January through April 2016...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Imane El Dika, David H Ilson
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers altogether represent the most common cancer type. HER2 is found to be present in nearly all histologic types of GI cancers in variable degrees of expression. Over the last decade, substantial advances have been made in targeting HER2-positive cancers. Areas covered: The present review summarizes the current progress and future directions for HER2 targeted therapies in GI cancers, including esophagogastric, pancreaticobiliary, and colon cancers. To date trastuzumab is the only anti-HER2 therapy approved for metastatic esophagogastric adenocarcinoma...
August 9, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Young Rae Kim, Dongha Kim, Sung Young Kim
Purpose: This study was conducted to develop and validate an individualized prediction model for automated detection of acquired taxane resistance (ATR). Materials and Methods: Penalized regression, combined with an individualized pathway score algorithm, was applied to construct a predictive model using publically available genomic cohorts of ATR and intrinsic taxane resistance (ITR). To develop a model with enhanced generalizability, we merged multiple ATR studies then updated the learning parameter via robust cross-study validation...
August 10, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Manali Mangesh Mahajan, Urmila Mukund Thatte, Nithya Jaideep Gogtay, Siddharth Deshpande
Purpose/Aim: The Adverse Drug Reaction [ADR] form is the source document for the Pharmacovigilance Programme of India [PvPI] and captures information first hand from the patient. The raw data from it then gets converted into an individual case safety report [ICSR] after entry into Vigiflow. The National Coordinating Centre [NCC] uses an instrument to assess quality of these ICSRs. We carried out the present study to assess whether the same instrument with minor modifications could be used to check the quality of ADR forms at our centre...
July 2018: Perspectives in Clinical Research
Tomoya Yamada
Rodent carcinogenicity studies are useful for screening for human carcinogens but they are not perfect. Some modes of action (MOAs) lead to cancers in both experimental rodents and humans, but others that lead to cancers in rodents do not do so in humans. Therefore, analysing the MOAs by which chemicals produce tumours in rodents and determining the relevance of such tumour data for human risk are critical. Recently, experimental data were obtained as case examples of an evaluation of the human relevance of pyrethroid (metofluthrin and momfluorothrin)- and pyrethrins-induced liver tumours in rats based on MOA...
July 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Majid Moshirfar, Yanning Ding, Tirth J Shah
Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy is a hereditary and progressive vision-threatening disease with a high prevalence in our adult population. In the past two decades, endothelial transplantation has dramatically changed the way we treat these patients. Back then, our limited surgical techniques often resulted in less than ideal outcomes. It was unimaginable for our patients to achieve near perfect visual acuity in such a short span of time. Over the years, we have tenaciously refined our surgical techniques to vastly improve patient outcomes, and with the recent advent of Rho-kinase inhibitors, we may even consider delivering a simple injection to our patients in the future...
July 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
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