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Sleep and Sport

Melissa Skein, Tristan Harrison, Deborah Clarke
The aim of the study was to examine sleep characteristics, scheduling of activities, perceived stress and coping strategies between periods of perceived high and low scheduling commitments in adolescent athletes. Twenty adolescents (10 male and 10 female) wore an Actiwatch during two 14-day testing periods, one in in January (JAN), which was deemed to be a period of low school and sport commitments, and one in March (MAR), during which there was a high volume of school and sport commitments. Actiwatches and sleep diaries assessed sleep quantity and quality, a daily schedule of all activities in 30-min increments was recorded and questionnaires related to perceived stress and coping strategies were administered...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
André Oliveira Werneck, Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete, Suziane Ungari Cayres, Jacqueline Bexiga Urban, Andréa Wigna, Lucas Gabriel de Moraes Chagas, Wesley Torres, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes
Objective: To analyze the association of potential risk factors to health with body fatness and insulin resistance. Baseline measures of the ongoing longitudinal Analysis of Behaviors of Children During (ABCD) Growth Study. Materials and Methods: The sample was composed of 280 adolescents of both sexes (198 boys and 82 girls) aged from 10 to 18 years. Four risk factors were considered, as follows: no sports practice, skipping breakfast, poor sleep quality, and TV viewing. The outcomes considered were insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and body fatness (densitometer scanner)...
December 1, 2018: Medicina
Nathália Brandolim Becker, Saul Neves de Jesus, João N Viseu, Claus Dieter Stobäus, Mariana Guerreiro, Rita B Domingues
Background/Objective: Sleep insufficiency, which affects more than 45% of the world's population, has a great importance when considering older adults. Thus, this research tested a mediation hypothesis, through a path analysis, which explains how depression relates to the quality of life considering the effects of sleep quality in older adults. Method: A sample of 187 community-dwelling Portuguese older adults answered questionnaires about sociodemographic status (age, gender, highest level of education completed, family status, sports activities, health, and retirement status), quality of life, sleep quality, and depression...
January 2018: International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology: IJCHP
Pei Qin, Bruce D Dick, Ada Leung, Cary A Brown
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of sport-related concussion (SRC) is high and results in a number of serious health consequences. One area that has received minimal research is the relationship between SRC and sleep. The literature shows that sleep deficiency is a frequent negative consequence of SRC. At the same time, sleep deficiency delays recovery from SRC and contributes added risk of symptom recurrence. A 2014 study of chronic pain patients who learned to apply the complementary and alternative medicine intervention hand self-shiatsu (HSS) had promising, sleep-promoting results that warrant further investigation with other populations...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Andrew Guidry, Kevin Crutchfield
Neurologic disease does not discriminate, even among athletes. Common neurologic diseases among athletes include multiple sclerosis, seizures, headaches, and sleep disorders. Although concrete guidelines for sport participation among athletes with neurologic diseases do not exist, evidence-based and consensus statements can aid healthcare providers in determining whether and to what extent such athletes should participate in sports. Moreover, sport participation is important, since multiple studies indicate that exercise improves disease-specific symptoms, manifestations, and overall quality of life...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Anne Marie Morse, Sanjeev V Kothare
Sleep disorders are a common sequel of sports-related concussion. Sleep-wake dysfunction can vary among patients, independent of cause or severity of concussive injury. The pathogenesis of postconcussive sleep disorder is unclear, but may be related to impaired signaling in neurons involved in normal sleep-wake control and circadian rhythm maintenance. Standardized methods of assessment for sleep disorders following concussion are important for diagnosis and management. Appropriate management is key because sleep dysfunction can have deleterious effects on concussion recovery...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Hugo Paquin, Alex Taylor, William P Meehan
More children and adolescents are participating in competitive sports than ever before, causing an overall increase in sport-related injuries. Concussion is a common injury in the pediatric population and its prevalence has increased with increased visibility and awareness. This chapter will discuss the clinical presentation, evaluation, and management of concussions sustained by pediatric athletes, while addressing the distinctive factors that pertain to this population. Management of concussion should be tailored to patients' symptoms and should focus on an early and gradual return to both cognitive and noncontact low-risk physical activity...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Melanie Knufinke, Arne Nieuwenhuys, Kamiel Maase, Maarten H Moen, Sabine A E Geurts, Anton M L Coenen, Michiel A J Kompier
Performance capacity in athletes depends on the ability to recover from past exercise. While evidence suggests that athletic performance decreases following (partial) sleep deprivation and increases following sleep extension, it is unclear to which extent natural variation in sleep impacts performance. Sleep quantity and, for the first time, sleep stages were assessed among 98 elite athletes on three non-consecutive nights within a 7-day monitoring period, along with performance tests that were taken on standardized times each following morning...
December 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Alexandro Andrade, Guilherme Bevilacqua, Pedro Casagrande, Ricardo Brandt, Danilo Coimbra
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze the association between sleep quality and mood in elite athletes of different competitive levels. METHODS: Participants were 1,041 elite athletes (aged 20.82 ± 6.62 years), with 671 men (64.5%/21.52 ± 6.90 years) and 370 women (35.5%/19.55 ± 5.89 years) from 10 individual sports and 6 team sports. Participants self-reported sleep quality on a Likert-type scale and mood was measured with the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS). The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and binary logistic regression...
November 26, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Andrew Murray, Alec Buttfield, Andrew Simpkin, John Sproule, Anthony P Turner
OBJECTIVES: It is commonplace to consider accelerometer load and any resultant neuromuscular fatigue in training programs. With these data becoming accepted in sport alongside wellness questionnaires this study aimed to investigate if a deeper analysis of the accelerometry data can provide actionable insight into training-induced disruptions. DESIGN: Accelerometer data from Collegiate American Football athletes (n=63) were collected during training and matches across a regular season...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Kaitlin E Riegler, Erin T Guty, Peter A Arnett
Objective: The relationship between depression and sports-related concussion is complex and has implications both pre- and post-injury. The current study established the construct validity, convergent and discriminant, of the affective symptom cluster of The Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) post-concussion symptom scale (PCSS) as a screening tool for depression. Method: Nine hundred and thirty (M = 695, F = 235) college athletes were assessed at baseline using the ImPACT PCSS and Beck-Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS)...
November 12, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Edward Y Hu, Sujith Ramachandran, Kaustuv Bhattacharya, Sasikiran Nunna
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents in the United States is high. The aim of this study was to assess the association between modifiable risk factors and obesity and to estimate the population attributable fractions (PAFs) of modifiable risk factors among high school students in the United States. METHODS: For this retrospective study, we used a nationally representative sample of 15,624 students who participated in the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)...
November 8, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Jun Liang, Deqiang Xian, Xingyu Liu, Jing Fu, Xingting Zhang, Buzhou Tang, Jianbo Lei
BACKGROUND: Wearable devices have the potential to promote a healthy lifestyle because of their real-time data monitoring capabilities. However, device usability is a critical factor that determines whether they will be adopted on a large scale. Usability studies on wearable devices are still scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare the functions and attributes of seven mainstream wearable devices and to evaluate their usability. METHODS: The wearable devices selected were the Apple Watch, Samsung Gear S, Fitbit Surge, Jawbone Up3, Mi Band, Huawei Honor B2, and Misfit Shine...
November 8, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Sylvain Laborde, Emma Mosley, Lea Ueberholz
Self-regulation plays a critical role in sport performance. An objective, psychophysiological marker of self-regulation is cardiac vagal activity, the activity of the vagus nerve regulating cardiac functioning. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of factors influencing cardiac vagal activity, which can be useful for athletes. Specifically, we organize this overview in two main domains: personal factors and environmental factors. Among the personal factors, we discuss the behavioral strategies that can be used by athletes: nutrition, non-ingestive oral habits, water immersion, body temperature reduction, sleeping habits, relaxation methods, cognitive techniques, praying, music, and exercise...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
Emma Ross, Luke Gupta, Liam Sanders
Research from sports science and related clinical and scientific fields produces knowledge that is often highly relevant to high performance sport. However, there exists a gap between current science and applied coaching or sports science practice. Addressing, and bridging, this gap from both sides of the research-application divide is an important ambition. In this commentary we discuss the wonderful, yet often unforgiving challenge of improving athlete performance as a practitioner or coach in high performance sport...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
Dana Waltzman, Jill Daugherty
Background: Recently, there has been a strong emphasis on educating athletes, parents, coaches, and health care providers about concussions. However, not much is known about whether these efforts are affecting the general public's level of concussion knowledge. Purpose: To determine what is currently known among the public about concussions and where education campaigns may be targeted in order to fill in the gaps. Methods: In order to achieve the project's objective, CDC analyzed self-reported data from Porter Novelli's 2017 SummerStyles survey, an annual survey of American adults aged 18 and older across the United States...
January 1, 2018: Journal of concussion
Tim J Gabbett
BACKGROUND: Since 2000, there has been a rapid growth in training load and injury research. In the past 5 years alone, a total of 38 studies (from as many as 24 different research groups, and 11 different sports) have investigated the relationship between loading profiles and injury. Despite the growing body of literature examining training load and injury, there is often a disconnect between this evidence and the actual training programmes prescribed in practice. In this paper, some common myths and misconceptions about training load and its role in injury and performance are reviewed...
October 26, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Jackson J Peos, Eric R Helms, Paul A Fournier, Amanda Sainsbury
Introduction: Reducing fat mass (FM) while retaining fat free mass (FFM) is a common goal of athletes. Evidence suggests that some-but not all-forms of intermittent energy restriction (IER) may be superior to the conventional method of continuous energy restriction (CER) for people with excess body fat that are sedentary, by reducing some of the adaptive responses to ER. However, it is yet to be established whether this dietary approach is effective for athletes. Methods and analysis: A single-blind, parallel group, randomised controlled trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio is proposed...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Elise R Facer-Childs, Sophie Boiling, George M Balanos
BACKGROUND: Whether you are a morning lark or a night owl has proven to be a key contributor in the timing of peak athletic performance. Recent evidence suggests that accounting for these differences, known as one's chronotype, results in significantly different diurnal performance profiles. However, there is limited research investigating multiple measures of performance simultaneously over the course of a socially constrained day. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the impact of chronotype on indices of cognitive and physical performance at different times of day in healthy volunteers...
October 24, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Maddison J Jones, Brian Dawson, Daniel F Gucciardi, Peter R Eastwood, Joanna Miller, Shona L Halson, Ian C Dunican, Peter Peeling
The present study aimed to investigate pre-sleep behaviours (including evening electronic device use) and sleep quantity in well-trained athletes. Seventy well-trained athletes (44 females, 26 males) aged 21 ± 4 y from a range of team and individual sports were asked to complete an online sleep diary for 7 days. The sleep diary included questions about pre-sleep behaviours (e.g. napping, caffeine intake), electronic device use in the 2 h prior to bedtime (e.g. type of device and duration of use) and sleep (e...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
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