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Sleep and Sport

Timothy W Churchill, Supriya Krishnan, Marc Weisskopf, Brandon Yates, Frank E Speizer, Jonathan H Kim, Lee E Nadler, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Ross Zafonte, Aaron L Baggish
BACKGROUND: Professional American-style football players are among the largest athletes across contemporary sporting disciplines, and weight gain during the years of football participation is common. At present, the health implications of this early-life weight gain remain incompletely understood. We sought to define weight trajectories of former professional American-style football athletes and to establish their relationship with 5 health afflictions common in this population (cardiovascular disease, cardiometabolic disease, neurocognitive impairment, sleep apnea, and chronic pain)...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Jan Máchal, Filip Zlámal, Lubomír Kukla, Jan Švancara, Hynek Pikhart, Julie Bienertová-Vašků
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of physical activity and fitness on sleep timing parameters in adolescence. METHODS: We investigated the development of sleep timing between age 8 and 15 and its association with physical fitness at age 15 in 787 adolescents (408 males, 379 females). Physical fitness was measured using the physical work capacity (PWC) protocol. Information on sport activity was collected at ages 11 and 15. Finally, the contribution of other covariates (sex, body mass index (BMI), parental education and occupational skill level) to the association between sleep parameters and physical fitness was evaluated...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Xiao-Dan Li, Jun Tai, Zhi-Fei Xu, Gui-Xiang Wang, Yun-Xiao Wu, Jiang-Nan Du, Jie Zhang, Xiao-Xia Peng, Xin Ni
Background: It is known that short sleep duration adversely affects children's behavior and physical development. This study aimed to investigate the status of sleep duration in 3-14-year-old children in Beijing and explore the related factors of sleep loss with them. Methods: In this study, a cross-sectional study of random stratified cluster sampling was conducted on 3-14-year-old children and adolescents in Beijing. According to the proportion of children in each district and school, the final cohort included a total of 11 kindergartens, 7 primary schools, and 8 junior high schools from 7 districts of Beijing...
August 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Mathieu Nedelec, Anis Aloulou, François Duforez, Tim Meyer, Gregory Dupont
Practicing sport at the highest level is typically accompanied by several stressors and restrictions on personal life. Elite athletes' lifestyle delivers a significant challenge to sleep, due to both the physiological and psychological demands, and the training and competition schedules. Inter-individual variability of sleep patterns (e.g., sleep requirements, chronotype) may have important implications not only for recovery and training schedules but also for the choice of measures to possibly improve sleep...
July 27, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Shih-Fan Lin, Amy Binggeli-Vallarta, Griselda Cervantes, Janette Angulo, Jamie S Moody, Thomas L McKenzie, Lucy A Horton, Guadalupe X Ayala
Given the widespread use of out-of-home child care in the United States, early care and education (ECE) providers offer ideal settings to promote health behaviors among Hispanic/Latino children whose obesity prevalence remains high. This study details the process evaluation of ECE intervention strategies of a childhood obesity research demonstration study (California Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration [CA-CORD]) to prevent and control obesity among Hispanic/Latino children aged 2 to 12 years. Participating ECE providers received the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) materials and action planning sessions with a trained interventionist; Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids (SPARK) physical activity (PA), health behavior, and body mass index assessment trainings; and health behavior toolkit, cooking kit, water dispensers, and posters to promote healthy eating, PA, water consumption, and quality sleep...
July 27, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Thalia Semplonius, Teena Willoughby
PURPOSE: Findings from cross-sectional research indicate that the relationship between sleep quality and physical activity is mixed. For research that does indicate a significant association, the interpretation of the finding most often is that physical activity leads to better sleep, or less frequently, that better sleep leads to more involvement in physical activity (see sleep deprivation studies). Cross-sectional studies, however, are not able to assess the direction of these effects, and experimental studies have tested only one direction of the effects...
July 13, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Heather E Brassil, Anthony P Salvatore
BACKGROUND: Purpose of this study is to investigate the presence and frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in post-concussed (PC) athletes compared to a group of healthy control (HC) athletes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD: A pre and post-test group design was used to compare a post-concussed group to a matched healthy control group of athletes. An archival database which included PC (n = 62) and HC (n = 62) participants matched on age, years of education and gender who completed a test battery at baseline and post injury, The test battery was comprised of a neurocognitive assessment, self-reported symptom inventory and PTSD symptom questionnaire...
July 23, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Xiao Shi, Carol Pui Shan Chan, Tarah Waters, Ling Chi, David Yiu Leung Chan, Tin-Chiu Li
In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of lifestyle and demographic factors on classic and functional semen parameters. Three hundred and twenty-eight subjects who underwent semen analysis were recruited. Routine SA, sperm vitality, acrosome reaction (AR) assay and sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) were analyzed. Demographic and lifestyle information, including (1) BMI, (2) current smoking and alcohol drinking frequency, (3) sleep habits, (4) daily fluid intake, (5) weekly meat intake, (6) sports frequency, (7) trouser cell phone use, (8) age, and (9) abstinence time, were collected...
July 23, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Mireia Adelantado-Renau, Maria Reyes Beltran-Valls, Irene Esteban-Cornejo, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno, Alba María Santaliestra-Pasías, Diego Moliner-Urdiales
AIM: This study examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with academic performance and tested whether this association was mediated by sleep in Spanish adolescents. METHODS: We recruited 269 adolescents (52% boys) aged 13.9 ± 0.3 years from the Deporte, ADOlescencia y Salud study of 38 secondary schools and sport clubs in Castellon, Spain, between February and May 2015. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by the KIDMED questionnaire, sleep quality was evaluated with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index test and sleep duration was objectively computed using a wrist-worn accelerometer...
July 17, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Harry Bramley, Kathryn C Foley, Ronald Williams, Mechelle M Lewis, Lan Kong, Matthew Silvis
CONTEXT: Adolescent obesity and sports-related concussion are rising in prevalence, yet there is minimal research exploring the relationship between these two conditions. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of body mass index (BMI) percentile on duration of recovery and reported symptoms after sports-related concussion in adolescents. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review at a regional concussion program located at an academic medical center. Medical records of all patients aged 13 to 18 years treated from March 2006 through January 2012 were reviewed...
July 12, 2018: Permanente Journal
Jonathan M Peake, Graham Kerr, John P Sullivan
The commercial market for technologies to monitor and improve personal health and sports performance is ever expanding. A wide range of smart watches, bands, garments, and patches with embedded sensors, small portable devices and mobile applications now exist to record and provide users with feedback on many different physical performance variables. These variables include cardiorespiratory function, movement patterns, sweat analysis, tissue oxygenation, sleep, emotional state, and changes in cognitive function following concussion...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Sung Suk Chung, Kyoung Hwa Joung
The characteristics of and risk factors associated with binge drinking among South Korean and American adolescents were identified in this study. Data on adolescents in the 9th to 12th grades were extracted from two nationwide data sets: the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey System and the U.S. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Binge drinking was observed among 16% of American adolescents during the past month and among 11.6% of Korean adolescents during the past year. For adolescents from both countries, the following seven similar significant factors were associated with binge drinking: female gender, higher grade, fighting-related injury experience, current cigarette smoking, preteen smoking initiation, participation in team sports, and depression...
January 1, 2018: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
Osamu Itani, Yoshitaka Kaneita, Kazuto Doi, Mikiko Tokiya, Maki Jike, Sachi Nakagome, Yuichiro Otsuka, Takashi Ohida
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the incidence of predictive risk factors for poor mental health status in Japanese adolescents. METHODS: In 2010, baseline surveys of first-year junior and senior high school students were conducted at 10 randomly selected junior high schools and 14 senior high schools in Japan. After 2 years, follow-up surveys were conducted on the same students. For both surveys, a self-administered questionnaire about mental health status and lifestyle, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), was provided to the students...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Francisco de Arriba Pérez, Juan M Santos-Gago, Manuel Caeiro-Rodríguez, Manuel J Fernández Iglesias
Wearable commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) devices have become popular during the last years to monitor sports activities, primarily among young people. These devices include sensors to gather data on physiological signals such as heart rate, skin temperature or galvanic skin response. By applying data analytics techniques to these kinds of signals, it is possible to obtain estimations of higher-level aspects of human behavior. In the literature, there are several works describing the use of physiological data collected using clinical devices to obtain information on sleep patterns or stress...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Adam C Raikes, Sahil Bajaj, Natalie S Dailey, Ryan S Smith, Anna Alkozei, Brieann C Satterfield, William D S Killgore
Background: Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are a significant social, sport, and military health issue. In spite of advances in the clinical management of these injuries, the underlying pathophysiology is not well-understood. There is a critical need to advance objective biomarkers, allowing the identification and tracking of the long-term evolution of changes resulting from mTBI. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) allows for the assessment of white-matter properties in the brain and shows promise as a suitable biomarker of mTBI pathophysiology...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Monica Klungland Torstveit, Bjørn Tore Johansen, Siri Håvås Haugland, Tonje Holte Stea
Adolescence is a pivotal time for investing in both present and future health. Thus, it is important to identify arenas for promoting positive adolescent health behaviors and preventing negative ones. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between organized sports participation (OSP) and a broad range of lifestyle habits in Norwegian adolescents. A comprehensive survey was completed by 13 269 junior high and high school students in southern Norway. Multivariable binary logistic regression models, adjusted for gender, age, and parental education, were used to investigate the associations between OSP and adolescent substance use, dietary habits, physical activity level, passive vs active transportation, screen time, and sleep duration...
June 28, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Gregory W Kirschen, Jason J Jones, Lauren Hale
The athletic advantage of sleep, although commonly touted by coaches, trainers, and sports physicians, is still unclear and likely varies by sport, athletic performance metric, and length of sufficient or insufficient sleep. Although recent literature reviews have highlighted circadian and nutritional factors that influence different aspects of athletic performance, a systematic summary of the effects of sleep duration and sleep quality on performance among competitive athletes is lacking. Here we systematically review the relationship between sleep duration and sleep quality and objective athletic performance among competitive athletes across 19 studies representing 12 sports...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Lauren C Keaney, Andrew E Kilding, Fabrice Merien, Deborah K Dulson
OBJECTIVES: Elite team-sport athletes are frequently exposed to stressors that have the potential to depress immunity and increase infection risk. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to describe how team-sport stressors impact upon immune responses, along with exploring whether alterations in these markers have the potential to predict upper respiratory tract illness symptoms. DESIGN: Narrative review. METHODS: Salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and T-cell markers have been shown to predict infection risk in individual endurance athletes...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
David R Howell, Peter Kriz, Rebekah C Mannix, Tyler Kirchberg, Christina L Master, William P Meehan
OBJECTIVES: (1) To examine how age influences initial symptom presentation following concussion; and (2) to determine whether specific symptom profiles are associated with duration of postconcussion symptoms, and whether they vary by age group. DESIGN: A total of 689 patients (20% children 7-12 years of age, 69% adolescents 13-18 years of age, and 11% young adults 19-30 years of age) were seen and diagnosed with a concussion within 21 days after injury. Patients completed the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) and were followed until they no longer required care...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Ricardo Schultz Martins, Patrick Girouard, Evan Elliott, Said Mekary
Martins, RS, Girouard, P, Elliott, E, and Mekary, S. Physiological responses of a jaw repositioning custom-made mouthguard on airway and their effects on athletic performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Advanced dental techniques such as jaw-repositioning have shown to increase lower body muscular power such as vertical jump, but its effects on acceleration and speed have not been studied. Similarly, jaw repositioning is commonly used to increase airways volume and ventilation in a special population (i...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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