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hollow fibers

Meng Zhang, Wenlei Yang, Ke Tian, Jibo Yu, Angzhen Li, Shunbin Wang, Elfed Lewis, Gerald Farrell, Libo Yuan, Pengfei Wang
A novel in-fiber whispering-gallery mode (WGM) microsphere resonator-based integrated device is reported. It is fabricated by placing a silica microsphere into an embedded dual-core hollow fiber (EDCHF). Using a fiber tapering method, a silica microsphere can be placed and fixed in the transition section of the hollow core of the EDCHF. The transmitted light from the tapered-input single-mode fiber is coupled into the embedded silica microsphere via the two suspended fiber cores, and hence effectively excites the WGMs...
August 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Mohammad Noaman, Maria Langbecker, Patrick Windpassinger
We report on the observation of strong transmission line shape alterations in a cold-atom-hollow-core-fiber interface. We show that this can lead to a significant overestimation of the assigned resonant optical depth for high atom densities. By modeling light beam propagation in an inhomogeneous dispersive medium, we attribute the observations to micro lensing in the atomic ensemble in combination with the mode selection of the atom-fiber interface. The approach is confirmed by studies of Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency line shapes...
August 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Vanessa E Rees, Rajbharan Yadav, Kate E Rogers, Jürgen B Bulitta, Veronika Wirth, Antonio Oliver, John D Boyce, Anton Y Peleg, Roger L Nation, Cornelia B Landersdorfer
Hypermutable Pseudomonas aeruginosa are prevalent in chronic respiratory infections and have been associated with reduced lung function in cystic fibrosis (CF); these isolates can become resistant to all antibiotics in monotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the time-course of bacterial killing and resistance of meropenem and ciprofloxacin in combination against hypermutable and non-hypermutable P. aeruginosa Static concentration time-kill experiments over 72h assessed meropenem and ciprofloxacin in mono- and combination therapy against PAO1 (non-hypermutable), PAOΔ mutS (hypermutable), and hypermutable isolates CW08, CW35 and CW44 obtained from CF patients with chronic respiratory infections...
August 13, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sheng Shen, Shao-Fei Jiang
Distributed deformation based on fiber Bragg grating sensors or other kinds of strain sensors can be used to monitor bridges during operation. However, most research on distributed deformation monitoring has focused on solid rectangular beams rather than box girders-a kind of typical hollow beam widely employed in actual bridges. The deformation of a single-cell box girder contains bending deflection and also two additional deformations respectively caused by shear lag and shearing action. This paper revises the improved conjugated beam method (ICBM) based on the long-gage fiber Bragg grating (LFBG) sensors to satisfy the requirements for monitoring the two additional deformations in a single-cell box girder...
August 8, 2018: Sensors
Brian R McMinn, Eric R Rhodes, Emma M Huff, Pauline Wanjugi, Michael M Ware, Sharon P Nappier, Mike Cyterski, Orin C Shanks, Kevin Oshima, Asja Korajkic
Coliphages are alternative fecal indicators that may be suitable surrogates for viral pathogens, but majority of standard detection methods utilize insufficient volumes for routine detection in environmental waters. We compared three somatic and F + coliphage methods based on a paired measurement from 1 L samples collected from the Great Lakes (n = 74). Methods include: 1) dead-end hollow fiber ultrafilter with single agar layer (D-HFUF-SAL); 2) modified SAL (M-SAL); and 3) direct membrane filtration (DMF) technique...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Alexander Nikolay, Arnaud Léon, Klaus Schwamborn, Yvonne Genzel, Udo Reichl
A live-attenuated, human vaccine against mosquito-borne yellow fever virus has been available since the 1930s. The vaccine provides long-lasting immunity and consistent mass vaccination campaigns counter viral spread. However, traditional egg-based vaccine manufacturing requires about 12 months and vaccine supplies are chronically close to shortages. In particular, for urban outbreaks, vaccine demand can be covered rarely by global stockpiling. Thus, there is an urgent need for an improved vaccine production platform, ideally transferable to other flaviviruses including Zika virus...
August 8, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Nasim Golafshan, Mahshid Kharaziha, Morteza Alehosseini
A significant clinical challenge in the surgery of peripheral nervous system injured via accidents and natural disease is development of biomimetic grafts which could potentially promote nerve repair and regeneration. Although various engineered neural tissue scaffolds have been proposed to support the neural cell functions, they have not been able to instantaneously mimic the whole characteristics of endogenous microenvironment. In this study, we proposed a bi-layered tubular scaffold which could provide appropriate electrical, mechanical and biological properties for peripheral nerve engineering...
August 8, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Young-Gyun Jeong, Riccardo Piccoli, Denis Ferachou, Vincent Cardin, Michael Chini, Steffen Hädrich, Jens Limpert, Roberto Morandotti, François Légaré, Bruno E Schmidt, Luca Razzari
We present a straightforward route for extreme pulse compression, which relies on moderately driving self-phase modulation (SPM) over an extended propagation distance. This avoids that other detrimental nonlinear mechanisms take over and deteriorate the SPM process. The long propagation is obtained by means of a hollow-core fiber (HCF), up to 6 m in length. This concept is potentially scalable to TW pulse peak powers at kW average power level. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate 33-fold pulse compression of a 1 mJ, 6 kHz, 170 fs Yb laser down to 5...
August 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mahdi Fathizadeh, Konstantin Khivantsev, Travis J Pyrzynski, Naomi B Klinghoffer, Abolfazl Nabi Shakouri, Miao Yu, Shiguang Li
A low-cost poly(ethyleneimine)-cobalt (PEI-Co) complex solution with high O2 absorption capacity (as high as 1.5 L O2 (STP)/L solution) was developed and used in a bio-mimetic system to produce high-purity O2 from air. An oxygen concentration greater than 99.6% was demonstrated.
August 7, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Nazia Noor, Joachim Koll, Nico Scharnagl, Clarissa Abetz, Volker Abetz
Hollow fiber membranes (HFM) are fabricated from blend solutions of a polyethersulfone (PESU) with a sulfonated PESU (sPESU) or a sulfonated polyphenylenesulfone (sPPSU). The influence of different additives in the dope solution and different bore fluids on the HFM are studied. The addition of poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSSNa)/ethylene glycol (EG) to the dope solution results in an increased water flux of the HFM compared to its counterparts without this additive system. The morphology of the hollow fibers is examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
August 2, 2018: Membranes
Said Bey, Hassina Semghouni, Alessandra Criscuoli, Mohamed Benamor, Enrico Drioli, Alberto Figoli
This work focuses on the study of the mass transfer of arsenic(V) through asymmetric polyvinylidene fluoride hollow-fiber membrane contactors using Aliquat-336 as an extractant. In the first part of this work, the fibers were prepared and characterized by SEM and by determining their thickness and porosity. From SEM pictures, an asymmetric structure was obtained that was characterized by an inner sponge-like structure and outer finger-like structure with a pore radius and porosity about 0.11 µm and 80%, respectively...
August 2, 2018: Membranes
S Ghotbi, B Pirzadeh, Davod Mohebbi-Kalhori, A Abdollahi
Hollow fiber (HF) membranes with circular geometry, are used in many separation processes such as water and wastewater treatment. Since optimization of energy efficiency is important for wastewater treatment, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of non-circular geometry of the inner surface of the HF on the separation performance. To this purpose, the HF bundle has been assumed as a double porous media having two porosities and permeabilities. Since these two parameters are defined by the geometry of the porous medium, any change in the geometry affects their values and the media performance...
July 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Hua-Jie Wang, Kun Dai, Yun-Qi Wang, Hou-Feng Wang, Fang Zhang, Raymond Jianxiong Zeng
The effects of pore sizes on the in-situ utilization of synthesis gas (syngas, H2 and CO) mixed culture fermentation (MCF) in the hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor (HfMBR) are not clear. Thus, the ultrafiltration (R1) and microfiltration (R2) HfMBRs were constructed. Syngas was totally consumed within the formed biofilm in R1; contrarily, it accumulated notably in R2. In the batch mode of R1 and R2, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) of acetate, butyrate and caproate were the main metabolites, but the production rate of total VFA in R1 (61...
July 21, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Tatiana Prado, Antônio de Castro Bruni, Mikaela Renata Funada Barbosa, Suzi Cristina Garcia, Luisa Zanolli Moreno, Maria Inês Zanoli Sato
The importance of noroviruses (NoVs) in the epidemiology of waterborne diseases has increased globally in the last decades. The present study aimed to monitor genogroup I and II noroviruses in different treatment stages of four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the metropolitan São Paulo. WWTPs consist of secondary (activated sludge) and tertiary treatments (coagulation, sand-anthracite filters, membrane bioreactor (MBR)/reverse osmosis (RO) and chlorination). Raw sewage (500mL) and treated effluents (1L) were concentrated by celite and reclaimed water (40L) by hollow-fiber ultrafiltration system...
July 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yoshitaka Kurihara, Shunichi Ueki, Kenichi Kokubo, Yuta Kobayashi, Tomoyo Ebine, Kaya Murakami, Yosuke Ushiroda, Naoko Maruyama, Hiroshi Tsukao, Kozue Kobayashi, Hirosuke Kobayashi
The purpose of the present study was to establish a continuous hemofiltration model using porcine blood to compare filter life. Continuous hemofiltration (CHF) experiments were performed using an in vitro hemofilter evaluation system utilizing porcine blood containing trisodium citrate in addition to nafamostat mesilate as anticoagulants. The lifetime of the hemofilter was evaluated using the transmembrane pressure and the pressure drop across the hemofilter at varying trisodium citrate concentrations. The porcine blood used in this experiment was considered to be in a slightly hypercoagulable state because of the continuous contact with non-biological materials and calcium inflow from substitution fluid...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
Akshay Modi, Surendra Kumar Verma, Jayesh Bellare
The hydrophobic nature of zeolitic imidazole framework-8 (ZIF-8) nanoparticles restricts their use as additives in hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) for biomedical applications. In this study, hydrophilic ZIF-8 decorated graphene oxide nanosheets (ZGs) were synthesized and used as additives (0-1 wt%) in polyethersulfone (P) HFMs with the aim of improving the biocompatibility and separation performance so as to make the ZGP HFMs suitable for bioartificial liver (BAL) application. Elemental mapping and Fourier transform infrared studies confirmed the efficacious incorporation of ZG nanohybrids in the ZGP HFMs, which resulted in their improved hydrophilicity...
October 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Zohreh Rezaeifar, Gholam Hossein Rounaghi, Zarrin Es'haghi, Mahmoud Chamsaz
Flutamide (FLT) is a non-steroidal anti-androgen drug that has a specific anti-androgenic activity so that it is used in the treatment of prostate cancer. FLT may also be used to treat excess androgen levels in women. A sensitive electrochemical sensor based on hyperbranchedpolyglycerol functionalized- graphene oxide developed, using ionic liquid mediated hollow fiber-pencil graphite electrode (HF/HBP-GO/PGE) as a working electrode for determination of an anticancer drug, flutamide (FLT. In this design, a two centimeter piece of porous polypropylene hollow fiber membrane was impregnated with ionic liquid (1-Pentyl-3-methylimidazoliumbromide), and a graphite rod modified with hyperbranchedpolyglycerol/graphene oxide (HBP-GO), was located inside the fiber lumen...
October 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Hui Cheng, Yutaka Hiro, Toshimasa Hojo, Yu-You Li
In this study, the effects of organic loading rates (OLRs) on anaerobic fermentation of food waste were comprehensively evaluated using a hollow fiber type anaerobic membrane bioreactor (HF-AnMBR). Compared to other OLRs, biogas production rate was highest at the OLR of 9.72 g-COD/L/d, the organic matter removal efficiency was also significantly higher and VFA was in lower concentration. COD conversion efficiency was as high as 92.9%, 85.3%, 82.6% and 80.4% at OLRs of 2.43, 4.86, 7.29 and 9.72 g-COD/L/d, respectively...
July 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jing Li, Changwang Jiang, Wansheng Shi, Feiyue Song, Di He, Hengfeng Miao, Tao Wang, Jingxuan Deng, Wenquan Ruan
PTFE hollow fiber anaerobic membrane bio-reactor (AnMBR) performance was investigated in the treatment of organic wastewater, with varying salinity and PTFE membrane cleaning behavior. The AnMBR was operated for 226 days, with a total and biological COD removal efficiency of 97.2% and 89.9% respectively, at a NaCl concentration of 35 g L-1 . A high number of Proteobacteria (38.2%) and Bacteroidetes (25.9%) were present in the system, with an increase in membrane fouling rate from 1.88 × 1011 to 2...
July 18, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Elnaz Taheri, Abdulrahman Bahrami, Farshid Ghorbani Shahna, Maryam Farhadian
The purpose of this study was to develop a novel one-step method for the time-weighted average determination of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) in the air followed by spectrophotometric detection. For this reason, 0.1% hydrochloric acid as the absorbent was used in hollow fiber (HF) membrane for sampling of UDMH from an atmospheric standard chamber. Response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the sampling parameters, such as flow rate and sampling time. Moreover, several analytical parameters including breakthrough (BT) volume, storage time, and carryover effect of the proposed HF were investigated...
July 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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