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Stem cell and placenta

Megan A Evans, Brad R S Broughton, Grant R Drummond, Henry Ma, Thanh G Phan, Euan M Wallace, Rebecca Lim, Christopher G Sobey
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability and new therapies are desperately needed. Given the complex nature of ischemic brain injury, it has been postulated that cell-based therapies may be useful. However, cell resources, invasive extraction procedures, immunological rejection, tumorigenesis and ethical challenges make it unlikely that many stem cell types could serve as a practical source for therapy. By contrast, these issues do not pertain to human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs), which are placenta-derived stem cells...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Aaron B Bogutz, Rosemary Oh-McGinnis, Karen J Jacob, Rita Ho-Lau, Ting Gu, Marina Gertsenstein, Andras Nagy, Louis Lefebvre
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor ASCL2 plays essential roles in diploid multipotent trophoblast progenitors, intestinal stem cells, follicular T-helper cells, as well as during epidermal development and myogenesis. During early development, Ascl2 expression is regulated by genomic imprinting and only the maternally inherited allele is transcriptionally active in trophoblast. The paternal allele-specific silencing of Ascl2 requires expression of the long non-coding RNA Kcnq1ot1 in cis and the deposition of repressive histone marks...
August 10, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Shreeta Chakraborty, Rupasri Ain
Differentiation-dependent expression of NOSTRIN in murine trophoblast cells prompted investigation on NOSTRIN's function in trophoblast differentiation. We show here that NOSTRIN levels increased in both mouse and rat placenta during gestation. NOSTRIN expression was not co-related to expression of eNOS precluding its eNOS mediated function. NOSTRIN transcripts were identified in trophoblast cells of the placenta, predominantly in trophoblast giant cells (TGC). Precocious over-expression of NOSTRIN during differentiation of trophoblast stem cells led to up-regulation of genetic markers associated with invasion (Prl4a1, Prl2a1) and TGC formation (Prl2c2, Prl3d1, Prl3b1)...
July 29, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Michiko Hirose, Masashi Hada, Satoshi Kamimura, Shogo Matoba, Arata Honda, Kaori Motomura, Narumi Ogonuki, Hossam H Shawki, Kimiko Inoue, Satoru Takahashi, Atsuo Ogura
Although phenotypic abnormalities frequently appear in the placenta following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), mouse trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) established from SCNT embryos reportedly show no distinct abnormalities compared with those derived from normal fertilization. In this study, we reexamined SCNT-TSCs to identify their imprinting statuses. Placenta-specific maternally imprinted genes (Gab1, Slc38a4, and Sfmbt2) consistently showed biallelic expression in SCNT-TSCs, suggesting their loss of imprinting (LOI)...
August 5, 2018: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Ming-Lian Luo, Xiao-Ping Liu, Fang Wang, Xiao-Xia Liu, Wei-Fang Liu, Di Wu, Hui Tao, Rong-Li Wang, Yin Zhao, Jian-Wen Zhu, Li Zou
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific hypertensive complication, closely related to endothelial dysfunction. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into endothelial cells for vascular repair. Therefore, we hypothesized that induced endothelial differentiation of ADSCs might hold great potential for the treatment of PE. In this study, the primary ADSCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were isolated by the collagenase digestion method. The supernatant of HUVECs was collected from the first generation of cells...
February 2018: Current medical science
Marcelo Paulo Vaccari Mazzetti, Nivaldo Alonso, Ryane Schmidt Brock, Alexandre Ayoub, Sally Mizukami Massumoto, Lilian Piñero Eça
Cleft lip and palate is a congenital malformation that requires a multidisciplinary treatment that evolves pediatrician, obstetrics, fetal medicine, genetics, plastic surgery, orthodontics, speech therapist, nursery, and psychology. Actually, the authors believe that it could be possible to ad protocols to use stem cells.The intrauterine diagnosis leads to preborn parental orientation and better parental collaboration to accept a precocious multidisciplinary treatment. After birth the authors' protocol is: orthodontic devices, phonoaudiology, and surgical procedures...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Zhi-Hui Xiong, Jing Wei, Meng-Qi Lu, Mei-Yuan Jin, Hong-Ling Geng
AIM: This study aims to investigate the effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell exosomes (hucMSC-Ex) on placental tissue and angiogenesis in rats with preeclampsia (PE). METHOD: The expression of MSC surface markers were identified by flow cytometry. Alizarin red staining and oil red O staining were used to examine osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of hucMSCs. Western blotting was used to determine expressions of CD63 and CD81 in hucMSC-Ex. PE rat models were established using endothelial nitric oxide synthase, eNOS)NG -Nitro-l-arginine Methyl Ester, which were then treated with exosome (Exo) of low dosage (L-Exo), Exo of medium dosage (M-Exo) and Exo of high dosage (H-Exo)...
September 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Runsheng He, Benjamin L Kidder
Pluripotent stem cells within the inner cell mass and epiblast of mammalian embryos have the capacity to form all lineages in the adult organism, while multipotent trophoblast stem (TS) cells derived from the trophectoderm are capable of differentiating into fetal lineages of the placenta. While mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) exhibit distinct expression patterns and utilize distinct external signaling pathways for self-renewal, because mouse EpiSCs resemble human ES cells they are a useful model to investigate mechanisms of human ES cell self-renewal and differentiation...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jing Chen, Marina Gálvez-Peralta, Xiang Zhang, Jingyuan Deng, Zijuan Liu, Daniel W Nebert
Slc39a8 encodes ZIP8, a divalent cation/bicarbonate symporter expressed in pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells, and therefore ubiquitous in adult tissues; ZIP8 influxes Zn2+ , Mn2+ and Fe2+ . Slc39a8(neo/neo) knockdown mice exhibit 10-15% of wild-type ZIP8 mRNA and protein levels, and show pleiotropic phenotype of stunted growth, neonatal lethality, multi-organ dysmorphogenesis, and dysregulated hematopoiesis manifested as severe anemia. Herein we performed RNA-seq analysis of gestational day (GD)13.5 yolk sac and placenta, and GD16...
July 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Camille Syrett, Isabel Sierra, Corbett L Berry, Daniel Beiting, Montserrat Anguera
The placenta is a short-lived tissue required for embryonic growth and survival, and it is fetal-derived. Fetal sex influences gestation, and many sexual dimorphic diseases have origins in utero. There is sex-biased gene expression in third trimester human placentas, yet the origin of sex-specific expression is unknown. Here we used an in vitro differentiation model to convert human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into trophoblastic progenitor cells of the first trimester placenta, which will eventually become mature extravilllous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts...
July 11, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Megan A Sheridan, Velmurugan Balaraman, Danny J Schust, Toshihiko Ezashi, R Michael Roberts, Alexander W E Franz
Zika virus (ZIKV) drew worldwide attention when a recent epidemic was linked to fetal microcephaly. Here we used human embryonic stem cell derived trophoblasts as a model for primitive placental trophoblast to test the hypothesis that there are differences in how the two genetically distinct ZIKV lineages, African (AF) and Asian (AS), target the human placenta. Upon infection with three AF (ib-H30656, SEN/1984/41525-DAK, and MR-766) and three AS (FSS13025, MexI-44, and PANcdc259249) ZIKV strains, we observed that severe placental cell lysis was only induced after infection with AF strains, while viral replication rates remained similar between both lineages...
2018: PloS One
Y Zhao, H Wang, Y Peng, L Peng, X Y Lin
Skin is the largest organ in the body, with a variety of functions, such as thermoregulation, physical barriers, and sensory transmission, etc. Therefore, to restore the function after injury as soon as possible is particularly important. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are derived from mesoderm, and can differentiate into a variety of tissues, such as cartilaginous tissue, myoideum, and adipose tissue. Weak immunogenicity of MSCs make them become the ideal seed cells of tissue engineering. MSCs have a wide range of sources, including known sources of bone marrow, skin, placenta, and adipose tissue, etc...
June 20, 2018: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Toshio Miki
Multiple stem cell types can be isolated from the human placenta. Recent advances in stem cell biology have revealed that human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) are one of the perinatal stem cells which possess embryonic stem cell-like differentiation capability and adult stem cell-like immunomodulatory properties. Unlike other types of placental stem cells, hAECs are derived from pluripotent epiblasts and maintain multilineage differentiation potential throughout gestation. Similar to mesenchymal stem cells, hAECs are also able to modulate the local immune response...
June 29, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Jeannette Attiger, Alois Boos, Karl Klisch
Binucleate trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) are one characteristic feature of the ruminant placenta. In cows, the frequency of TGCs remains constant for most of the duration of pregnancy. As TGCs are depleted by their fusion with uterine epithelial cells, they need to be constantly formed. It is still unclear whether they develop from stem cells within the trophectoderm or whether they can arise from any uninucleate trophoblast cell (UTC). Within the latter, generally accepted theory, a basally located uninucleate cell (BUC) without contact to the feto-maternal interface would represent a transient cell between a UTC and a TGC...
June 20, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Juliane Ertl, Melanie Pichlsberger, Alexandru-Cristian Tuca, Paul Wurzer, Jakob Fuchs, Stefan H Geyer, Barbara Maurer-Gesek, Wolfgang J Weninger, Dagmar Pfeiffer, Vladimir Bubalo, Daryousch Parvizi, Lars-Peter Kamolz, Ingrid Lang
OBJECTIVE: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells derived from human term placentas (PMSCs) are novel therapeutic agents and more topical than ever. Here we evaluated the effects of three types of PMSCs on wound healing in an in vivo mouse model: Amnion-derived MSCs (AMSCs), blood vessel-derived MSCs (BV-MSCs) from the chorionic plate and Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs) from the umbilical cord. METHODS: We topically applied PMSCs onto skin wounds in mice using the dermal substitute Matriderm® as carrier and evaluated wound healing parameters...
May 2018: Placenta
Pinki Nandi, Hyobin Lim, Eloy Jose Torres-Garcia, Peeyush K Lala
The origin and regulation of stem cells sustaining trophoblast renewal in the human placenta remain unclear. Decorin, a leucine-rich proteoglycan restrains trophoblast proliferation, migration/invasiveness and endovascular differentiation, and local decorin overproduction is associated with preeclampsia (PE). Here, we tested the role of decorin in human trophoblast stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, using two models: an immortalized first trimester trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR) and freshly isolated primary trophoblast (p-trophoblast) from early first trimester (6-9 weeks) placentas...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mohd Rehan, Manish Khatri, Mansi Bansal, Komal Puri, Ashish Kumar
Background: An amnion membrane is a placenta-derived tissue that consists of numerous growth factors, proteins, and stem cell reserves which help in accelerated wound healing and regeneration. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) also releases growth factors after activation from the platelets and gets trapped within fibrin matrix which has been shown to stimulate the mitogenic response in the periosteum for bone repair and regeneration during normal wound healing. This preliminary, controlled, randomized clinical trial with an 18-month follow-up was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of coronally advanced flap (CAF) with either PRF membrane or bioresorbable amniotic membrane (AM) in treatment of localized gingival recession defects...
April 2018: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
Han Wool Kim, Hyun-Seob Lee, Jun Mo Kang, Sang-Hun Bae, Chul Kim, Sang-Hun Lee, Johannes Schwarz, Gi Jin Kim, Jin-Su Kim, Dong Hyun Cha, Joopyung Kim, Sung Woon Chang, Tae Hee Lee, Jisook Moon
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disease in the elderly and the patients suffer from uncontrolled movement disorders due to loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons on substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). We previously reported that transplantation of human fetal midbrain-derived neural precursor cells restored the functional deficits of a 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA)-treated rodent model of PD but its low viability and ethical issues still remain to be solved. Albeit immune privilege and neural differentiation potentials suggest mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various tissues including human placenta MSCs (hpMSCs) for an alternative source, our understanding of their therapeutic mechanisms is still limited...
May 2018: Cell Transplantation
Sanjay Gottipamula, K N Sridhar
Background and Objectives: The human Amniotic epithelial cells (AME) derived from amniotic membrane of placenta have been considered as the potential fetal stem cell source with minimal or no ethical concerns and are important therapeutic tool for anti-fibrotic and regenerative therapies. Methods and Results: Here, we evaluated the isolation, media screening, scale-up and characterization of AME cells. The isolation, expansion of AMEs were performed by sequential passaging and growth kinetics studies...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Feiyu Gong, Zairong Wei, Wenhu Jin, Hai Li, Chengliang Deng, Bihua Wu, Kaiyu Nie
Objective: Inducing human amniotic membrane mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) to Schwann cells-like cells (SCs-like cells) in vitro , and to evaluate the efficacy of transplantation of hAMSCs and SCs-like cells on nerves regeneration of the rat flaps. Methods: hAMSCs were isolated from placenta via two-step digestion and cultured by using trypsin and collagenase, then identified them by flow cytometry assay and immunofluorescence staining. The 3rd generation of hAMSCs cultured for 6 days were induced to SCs-like cells in vitro ; at 19 days after induction, the levels of S-100, p75, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were detected by immunofluorescence staining, Western blot, and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
January 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
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