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Stem cell and placenta

Shayesteh Khalifeh Soltani, Bijan Forogh, Naser Ahmadbeigi, Homayoun Hadizadeh Kharazi, Khadijeh Fallahzadeh, Ladan Kashani, Masoumeh Karami, Yadollah Kheyrollah, Mohammad Vasei
OBJECTIVE: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common skeletal impairment that can cause many limitations in normal life activities. Stem cell therapy has been studied for decades for its regenerative potency in various diseases. We investigated the safety and efficacy of intra-articular injection of placental mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in knee OA healing. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 20 patients with symptomatic knee OA were randomly divided into two groups to receive intra-articular injection of either 0...
December 3, 2018: Cytotherapy
Guizhen Du, Mingming Yu, Lingling Wang, Weiyue Hu, Ling Song, Chuncheng Lu, Xinru Wang
Cardiac development is a dynamic process and sensitive to environmental chemicals. Triclosan is widely used as an antibacterial agent and reported to transport across the placenta and affect embryonic development. Here, we used human embryonic stem cell- (hESC-) derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) to determine the effects of TCS exposure on cardiac development. After TCS treatment, the differentiation process was significantly blocked and spontaneous beating rates of CMs were also decreased. Transcriptome analysis showed the dysregulation of genes involved in cardiogenesis, including GATA4 and TNNT2...
2018: Stem Cells International
Haiyan Yu, Xiaoling Yuan, Lifeng Liu, Tian Wang, Dianrong Gong
Multiple system atrophy is a sporadic progressive degenerative disease which is characterized by multiple central nervous systems involved. So far, there is no effective medicine to cure MSA. The main research direction of treatment includes immunization transplantation and cytotherapy. Human umbilical cord blood is the residue of blood in the placenta and umbilical cord after fetal delivery. It is the most abundant cell bank and its usage is not limited to treat hematological diseases. The researches about hUCB-MNC treatment on MSA are increasing gradually...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Xunsha Sun, Yulin Jin, Qihua Liang, Jie Tang, Jinsong Chen, Qiuxia Yu, Fatao Li, Yan Li, Jieying Wu, Shaoqing Wu
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic preconditioning alters the biological properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). It is not known whether this process has an effect on circular RNAs (circRNAs) in MSCs. METHODS: Human placental chorionic plate-derived MSCs (hpcpMSCs) isolated from the same placentae were classed into two groups: hypoxic pretreated (hypoxia) group and normally cultured (normoxia) group. The comparative circRNA microarray analysis was used to determine circRNAs expression and verified by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the two groups...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Hsi-Ting Lin, Shao-Kuan Chen, Jiun-Wen Guo, I-Chang Su, Chi-Jung Huang, Chih-Cheng Chien, Chih-Ju Chang
Human pluripotent stem cells have the potential assist in the identification of genes involved in mammalian development. The human placenta is considered a repository of stem cells, termed placenta‑derived multipotent cells (PDMCs), which are able to differentiate into cells with an osteoblastic phenotype. This plasticity of PDMCs maybe applied clinically to the understanding of osteogenesis and osteoporosis. In the presentstudy, osteoblasts were generated by culturing PDMCs in osteogenic medium. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reactionand the degree of osteoblast calcification were used to evaluate the efficacy of osteogenesis...
November 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Teena Kjb Gamage, William Schierding, Daniel Hurley, Peter Tsai, Jackie L Ludgate, Chandrakanth Bhoothpur, Lawrence W Chamley, Robert J Weeks, Erin C Macaulay, Joanna L James
The placenta is a vital fetal exchange organ connecting mother and baby. Specialised placental epithelial cells, called trophoblasts, are essential for adequate placental function. Trophoblasts transform the maternal vasculature to allow efficient blood flow to the placenta and facilitate adequate nutrient uptake. Placental development is in part regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. However, our understanding of how DNA methylation contributes to human trophoblast differentiation is limited. To better understand how genome-wide methylation differences affect trophoblast differentiation, reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) was conducted on four matched sets of trophoblasts (a candidate human trophoblast stem cell population), cytotrophoblasts (an intermediate progenitor population) and extravillous trophoblasts (EVT, a terminally differentiated population) each isolated from the same first trimester placenta...
November 26, 2018: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Saehong Min, Ok Joon Kim, Jinkun Bae, Tae Nyoung Chung
Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Enhancement of the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs in ICH is necessary, considering the diseases high association with mortality and morbidity. Various preconditioning methods to enhance the beneficial properties of MSCs have been introduced. We suggested apocynin, a well-known nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor, as a novel preconditioning regimen to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs in ICH...
November 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bryony V Natale, Prutha Mehta, Priscilla Vu, Christina Schweitzer, Katarina Gustin, Ramie Kotadia, David R C Natale
This study characterized the effect of the reduced utero-placental perfusion pressure (RUPP) model of placental insufficiency on placental morphology and trophoblast differentiation at mid-late gestation (E14.5). Altered trophoblast proliferation, reduced syncytiotrophoblast gene expression, increased numbers of sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells, decreased Vegfa and decreased pericyte presence in the labyrinth were observed in addition to changes in maternal blood spaces, the fetal capillary network and reduced fetal weight...
November 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ruhma Mahmood, Azra Mehmood, Mahmood S Choudhery, Sana Javaid Awan, Shaheen N Khan, Sheikh Riazuddin
Conventional approaches can repair minor skin injuries; however, severe burn injuries require innovative approaches for efficient and better wound repair. Recent studies indicate that stem-cell-based regenerative therapies can restore severe damaged skin both structurally and functionally. The current study aims to evaluate the wound healing potential of skin substitute derived from human neonatal stem cells (hNSCs) using a severe burn injury rat model. AECs (Amniotic epithelial cells) and MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) were isolated from placenta (a source of neonatal stem cells) by explant culture method...
November 16, 2018: Cell Biology International
Natalia Szpilbarg, Nora A Martínez, Mauricio Di Paola, Julieta Reppetti, Yollyseth Medina, Abril Seyahian, Mauricio Castro Parodi, Alicia E Damiano
Accumulated evidence suggests that an abnormal placentation and an altered expression of a variety of trophoblast transporters are associated to preeclampsia. In this regard, an abnormal expression of AQP3 and AQP9 was reported in these placentas. Recent data suggests that placental AQPs are not only water channel proteins and that may participate in relevant processes required for a normal placental development, such as cell migration and apoptosis. Recently we reported that a normal expression of AQP3 is required for the migration of extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Soo-Hwan Kim, Jieun Jung, Kyung Jin Cho, Jong-Ho Choi, Hyeong Seon Lee, Gi Jin Kim, Seung Gwan Lee
The immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an important mediator of their therapeutic effects in stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine. The regulation mechanism of MSCs is orchestrated by several factors in both intrinsic and extrinsic events. Recent studies have shown that the dynamic expression of cytokines secreted from MSCs control T cell function and maturation by regulating the expression of FoxP3, which figures prominently in T cell differentiation. However, there is no evidence that placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs) have strong immunomodulatory effects on T cell function and maturation via FoxP3 expression...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Yu-Chieh Wen, Mao-Kuang Du, Meng-Wei Li, Yogi Cheng-Yo Hsuan, Yu-Chin Su, Willie Lin
OBJECTIVE: Previous study has demonstrated that EphA2 is a biomarker of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human placenta or umbilical cord and is able to distinguish MSCs from fibroblasts. In this study, we further examine the potential efficacy of EphA2+ human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUC-MSCs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: MSCs specific markers, EphA2 and CD146 expression on the surface of hUC-MSCs were determined by flow cytometry analysis. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction was used to examine pro-fibrotic gene expression of TGF-β1-stimulated lung fibroblast (MRC-5 cells)...
October 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Tae-Hee Kim, Jong Ho Choi, Yesl Jun, Seung Mook Lim, Sohae Park, Jin-Young Paek, Sang-Hoon Lee, Ji-Young Hwang, Gi Jin Kim
Placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs) have numerous advantages over other adult MSCs that make them an attractive cell source for regenerative medicine. Here, we demonstrate the therapeutic effect of PD-MSCs in ovariectomized (Ovx) rats and compare their efficacy when generated via a conventional monolayer culture system (2D, naïve) and a spheroid culture system (3D, spheroid). PD-MSC transplantation significantly increased the estradiol level in Ovx rats compared with the non-transplantation (NTx) group...
October 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Min Joon Seo, Ju Hyun Lim, Dong-Hwan Kim, Hae-Rahn Bae
Aquaporin (AQP) 3, a facilitated transporter of water and glycerol, expresses in placenta and fetal membranes, but the detailed localization and function of AQP3 in placenta remain unclear. To elucidate a role of AQP3 in placenta, we defined the expression and cellular localization of AQP3 in placenta and fetal membranes, and investigated the structural and functional differences between wild-type and AQP3 null mice. Gestational sacs were removed during mid-gestational period and amniotic fluid was aspirated for measurements of volume and composition...
September 2018: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
Radoslaw Litwinowicz, Bogusław Kapelak, Jerzy Sadowski, Anna Kędziora, Krzysztof Bartus
Ischemic heart disease is a major cause of death and disabilities worldwide. Unfortunately, not all patients are suitable for direct revascularization. Cell-based therapies may be alternative options because of their potential to promote neovascularisation and endothelial repair, improving myocardial perfusion. The success of cell-based therapies depends on the type of implanted stem cells, delivery method and underlying disease. Several different cell populations including bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs), mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), CD34+, CD133+, endothelial progenitor cells, adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) and stem cells from placenta and umbilical cord have been investigated...
September 2018: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
Nadia Naseer, Saliha Bashir, Noreen Latief, Farzana Latif, Shaheen N Khan, Sheikh Riazuddin
AIM: The aim of the present study is to use human amniotic membrane (HAM) for in vitro chondrogenesis of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and umbilical cord-derived MSCs. MATERIALS & METHODS: MSCs from the placenta and umbilical cord were isolated, characterized by immunophenotyping and after analyzing their rate of proliferation, cytotoxicity and viability, chondrogenesis was performed on plastic adherent surface and on HAM. RESULTS: Successfully isolated and characterized placenta-derived MSCs and umbilical cord-derived MSCs revealed positive expression of MSCs markers CD90, CD73, CD105 and CD49d, while they were negative for CD45...
October 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Fereshteh Dorazehi, Mohammad Nabiuni, Hanieh Jalali
Scaffolds derived from decellularized tissues provide a natural microenvironment for cell culture. Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (e-CSF) contains factors which play vital roles in the development of the nervous system. This research was aimed to survey the effect of Wistar rat e-CSF on neural differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) cultured on the human amniotic membrane (AM). BM-MSCs were collected from femurs and tibias, and were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium...
2018: International Journal of Molecular and Cellular Medicine
Sarah A Robertson, Alison S Care, Lachlan M Moldenhauer
At implantation, the embryo expresses paternally derived alloantigens and evokes inflammation that can threaten reproductive success. To ensure a robust placenta and sustainable pregnancy, an active state of maternal immune tolerance mediated by CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) is essential. Tregs operate to inhibit effector immunity, contain inflammation, and support maternal vascular adaptations, thereby facilitating trophoblast invasion and placental access to the maternal blood supply. Insufficient Treg numbers or inadequate functional competence are implicated in idiopathic infertility and recurrent miscarriage as well as later-onset pregnancy complications stemming from placental insufficiency, including preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Anna L Boss, Lawrence W Chamley, Joanna L James
BACKGROUND: Correct development of the placenta is critical to establishing pregnancy and inadequate placentation leads to implantation failure and miscarriage, as well as later gestation pregnancy disorders. Much attention has been focused on the placental trophoblasts and it is clear that the trophoblast lineages arise from the trophectoderm of the blastocyst. In contrast, the cells of the placental mesenchyme are thought to arise from the inner cell mass, but the details of this process are limited...
November 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Karlie Jones, Sarah Bryant, Jian Luo, Patricia Kiesler, Sherry Koontz, James Warren, Harry Malech, Elizabeth Kang, Gabriela Dveksler
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is an immune-mediated reaction that can occur after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in which donor T cells recognize the host antigens as foreign, destroying host tissues. Establishment of a tolerogenic immune environment while preserving the immune response to infectious agents is required for successful bone marrow transplantation. Pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 1 (PSG1), which is secreted by the human placenta into the maternal circulation throughout pregnancy, likely plays a role in maintaining immunotolerance to prevent rejection of the fetus by the maternal immune system...
September 22, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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