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mRNA processing

Xueying Zhang, Ying Xu, Lulu Fu, Dandan Li, Xiaowei Dai, Lianlian Liu, Jingshun Zhang, Lianwen Zheng, Manhua Cui
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and is commonly complicated by adverse endometrial outcomes. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding transcripts that are more than 200 nucleotides in length. Accumulating evidence indicates that lncRNAs are involved in the development of various human diseases. Among these lncRNAs, lncRNA CD36-005 (CD36-005) is indicated to be associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS...
October 15, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Yu Fujita, Tsukasa Kadota, Jun Araya, Takahiro Ochiya, Kazuyoshi Kuwano
It is currently thought that extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, play an important autocrine/paracrine role in intercellular communication. EVs package proteins, mRNA and microRNA (miRNA), which have the ability to transfer biological information to recipient cells in the lungs. Depending on their origin, EVs fulfil different functions. EVs derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to promote therapeutic activities that are comparable to MSCs themselves. Recent animal model-based studies suggest that MSC-derived EVs have significant potential as a novel alternative to whole-cell therapies...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Barbora Prochazkova, Pavla Komrskova, Michal Kubelka
Oocyte meiotic maturation and embryogenesis are some of the most important physiological processes that occur in organisms, playing crucial roles in the preservation of life in all species. The post-transcriptional regulation of maternal messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) and the post-translational regulation of proteins are critical in the control of oocyte maturation and early embryogenesis. Translational control affects the basic mechanism of protein synthesis, thus, knowledge of the key components included in this machinery is required in order to understand its regulation...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Huijun Zhang, Jinfeng Chen, Fei Zhang, Yunxian Song
OBJECTIVE: To identify the key genes promoting the differentiation of melon non-embryogenic callus into embryogenic callus. METHODS: The transcriptome sequencing analysis was used to analyze the mRNA sequence in embryogenic callus (Z) and non-embryogenic callus (F); transcript mapping, gene expression analysis, cluster analysis, classification analysis and enrichment analysis were then used to detect the gene expression levels and metabolic activities. RESULTS: The correlation coefficient between sample Z and sample F was 0...
October 12, 2018: Gene
Long Bai, Hsun-Ming Chang, Yi-Min Zhu, Peter C K Leung
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a copper-dependent enzyme that maintains and stabilizes the extracellular matrix (ECM) by catalyzing the cross-linking of elastin and collagen. ECM within the ovarian follicle plays a crucial role in regulating follicular development and oocyte maturation. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) belongs to the BMP subfamily that has been shown to be involved in the process of ovarian folliculogenesis and luteal formation. To date, whether BMP2 regulates the activity of LOX during human follicular development remains to be elucidated...
October 12, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Xiaoteng Cui, Chunyan Zhao, Xuyang Yao, Baoxin Qian, Chao Su, Yuanyuan Ren, Zhi Yao, Xingjie Gao, Jie Yang
Multifunctional SND1 (staphylococcal nuclease and tudor domain containing 1) protein is reportedly associated with different types of RNA molecules, including mRNA, miRNA, pre-miRNA, and dsRNA. SND1 has been implicated in a number of biological processes in eukaryotic cells, including cell cycle, DNA damage repair, proliferation, and apoptosis. However, the specific molecular mechanism regarding the anti-apoptotic role of SND1 in mammalian cells remains largely elusive. In this study, the analysis of the online HPA (human protein atlas) and TCGA (the cancer genome atlas) databases showed the significantly high expression of SND1 in liver cancer patients...
October 15, 2018: RNA Biology
Leticia Meneguello, Natália M Barbosa, Karina D Pereira, André R G Proença, Leticia Tamborlin, Fernando M Simabuco, Leo K Iwai, Cleslei F Zanelli, Sandro R Valentini, Augusto D Luchessi
Ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and S6K2 proteins are effectors of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway, which control the process of protein synthesis in eukaryotes. S6K2 is associated with tumor progression and has a conserved C-terminus polyproline rich motif predicted to be important for S6K2 interactions. It is noteworthy that the translation of proteins containing sequential prolines has been proposed to be dependent of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) translation factor...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Fernando Moreira Simabuco, Isadora Carolina Betim Pavan, Nathalie Fortes Pestana, Paulo Costa Carvalho, Fernanda Luisa Basei, Daniela Campos Granato, Adriana Franco Paes Leme, Nilson Ivo Tonin Zanchin
In a previous study, we have shown that the gene promoter of a protein termed KIAA0082 is regulated by interferon and that this protein interacts with the RNA polymerase II. It has been subsequently shown that KIAA0082 is the human cap-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) (nucleoside-2'-O-)-methyltransferase 1 (hMTr1), which catalyzes methylation of the 2'-O -ribose of the first nucleotide of capped mRNAs. Pre-mRNAs are cotranscriptionally processed, requiring coordinate interactions or dissociations of hundreds of proteins...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Dagmar Schlenzig, Holger Cynis, Maike Hartlage-Rübsamen, Ulrike Zeitschel, Katja Menge, Anja Fothe, Daniel Ramsbeck, Claudia Spahn, Michael Wermann, Steffen Roßner, Mirko Buchholz, Stephan Schilling, Hans-Ulrich Demuth
The formation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides is causally involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A significant proportion of deposited Aβ is N-terminally truncated and modified at the N-terminus by a pGlu-residue (pGlu-Aβ). These forms show enhanced neurotoxicity compared to full-length Aβ. Although the truncation may occur by aminopeptidases after formation of Aβ, recently discovered processing pathways of amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) by proteases such as meprin β may also be involved...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
You-Cheng Shao, Xiao-Cui Nie, Guo-Qing Song, Yan Wei, Pu Xia, Xiao-Yan Xu
Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed types of cancer with a high mortality and malignancy rate in women worldwide. The Dickkopf (DKK) protein family, as a canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway antagonist, has been implicated in both physiological and pathological processes. This study aimed to comprehensively characterize the prognostic value and elucidate the mechanisms of DKKs in breast cancer and its subtypes. Firstly, DKK mRNA expression and corresponding outcome were analyzed by means of the Gene Expression-Based Outcome for Breast Cancer Online (GOBO) platform based on PAM50 intrinsic breast cancer subtypes...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Jing Yu, Xufen Cao, Ye Zheng, Liqiu Yan, Jiawang Wang
The present study aimed to investigate the expression of microRNA (miR)‑133a in patients with or without acute myocardial infarction (AMI) following radical surgery for gastric cancer, and to explore its underlying mechanisms. Blood samples were collected from patients with or without AMI in order to detect the expression levels of miR‑133a and endothelial injury markers. In addition, an AMI rat model was established. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of miR‑133a and B‑cell lymphoma 2‑like 1 (Bcl2l1)...
October 10, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Catherine Colas des Francs-Small, Lilian Vincis Pereira Sanglard, Ian Small
Mitochondrial genes encode key components of the cellular energy machinery, but their genetic analysis is difficult or impossible in most organisms (including plants) because of the lack of viable transformation approaches. We report here a method to block the expression of the mitochondrial nad6 gene encoding a subunit of respiratory complex I in Arabidopsis tha liana , via the modification of the specificity of the RNA-binding protein RNA PROCESSING FACTOR 2 (RPF2). We show that the modified RPF2 binds and specifically induces cleavage of nad6 RNA, almost eliminating expression of the Nad6 protein and consequently complex I accumulation and activity...
2018: Communications biology
Jia You, Wei Chen, Jing Chen, Qi Zheng, Jing Dong, Yueyong Zhu
ARG1, which encodes Arginase1, is expressed in the liver cytoplasm and plays a major role in the hepatic urea cycle. The past research works shed light on the fact that ARG1 participates in anti-inflammation, tumor immunity, and immunosuppression-related diseases. Nevertheless, the concrete role and clinical significance of ARG1 in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. Herein, we aimed at examining the expression and clinicopathological significance of ARG1 in HCC, together with determining the effect of ARG1 on the progression and metastasis of HCC...
2018: BioMed Research International
Megan A O'Brien, Rory M Weston, Nihar U Sheth, Steven Bradley, John Bigbee, Ashutosh Pandey, Robert W Williams, Jennifer T Wolstenholme, Michael F Miles
Alcoholism is a complex behavioral disorder characterized by loss of control in limiting intake, and progressive compulsion to seek and consume ethanol. Prior studies have suggested that the characteristic behaviors associated with escalation of drug use are caused, at least in part, by ethanol-evoked changes in gene expression affecting synaptic plasticity. Implicit in this hypothesis is a dependence on new protein synthesis and remodeling at the synapse. It is well established that mRNA can be transported to distal dendritic processes, where it can undergo localized translation...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Aleksandra Brajic, Dean Franckaert, Oliver Burton, Simon Bornschein, Anna L Calvanese, Sofie Demeyer, Jan Cools, James Dooley, Susan Schlenner, Adrian Liston
Mammalian genomes encode a plethora of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). These transcripts are thought to regulate gene expression, influencing biological processes from development to pathology. Results from the few lncRNA that have been studied in the context of the immune system have highlighted potentially critical functions as network regulators. Here we explored the nature of the lncRNA transcriptome in regulatory T cells (Tregs), a subset of CD4+ T cells required to establish and maintain immunological self-tolerance...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Roland Wirth, Gyula Kádár, Balázs Kakuk, Gergely Maróti, Zoltán Bagi, Árpád Szilágyi, Gábor Rákhely, József Horváth, Kornél L Kovács
The cow rumen harbors a great variety of diverse microbes, which form a complex, organized community. Understanding the behavior of this multifarious network is crucial in improving ruminant nutrient use efficiency. The aim of this study was to expand our knowledge by examining 10 Holstein dairy cow rumen fluid fraction whole metagenome and transcriptome datasets. DNA and mRNA sequence data, generated by Ion Torrent, was subjected to quality control and filtering before analysis for core elements. The taxonomic core microbiome consisted of 48 genera belonging to Bacteria (47) and Archaea (1)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Natalia Cichoń, Michał Bijak, Piotr Czarny, Elżbieta Miller, Ewelina Synowiec, Tomasz Sliwinski, Joanna Saluk-Bijak
Background: Neuroplasticity ensures the improvement of functional status in patients after stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field therapy (ELF-EMF) on brain plasticity in the rehabilitation of patients after stroke. Methods: Forty-eight patients were divided into two groups underwent the same rehabilitation program, but in the study group, the patients additionally were exposed to a standard series of 10 ELF-EMF treatments. To determine the level of neuroplasticity, we measured the plasma level of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the vascular-endothelial growth factor, as well as BDNF mRNA expression...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Yuri S Tokarev, Sergei A Timofeev, Julia M Malysh, Alexander A Tsarev, Anastasia N Ignatieva, Oksana G Tomilova, Vyacheslav V Dolgikh
Hexokinase (HK) is a core glycolytic enzyme of Microsporidia which regulates host cell metabolic processes. The goal of the present study was to test for the utility of HK for molecular phylogenetics, species identification and molecular detection of microsporidia in infected insects. HK sequence-based reconstructions were essentially similar to those based upon largest subunit RNA polymerase (RPB1) gene sequences, as well as previously published rRNA gene and genome-based trees. Comparing HK sequences allowed clear differentiation of closely related taxa, such as Nosema bombycis and Nosema pyrausta...
October 15, 2018: Parasitology
Gunjan D Mehta, David A Ball, Peter R Eriksson, Razvan V Chereji, David J Clark, James G McNally, Tatiana S Karpova
It is unknown how the dynamic binding of transcription factors (TFs) is molecularly linked to chromatin remodeling and transcription. Using single-molecule tracking (SMT), we show that the chromatin remodeler RSC speeds up the search process of the TF Ace1p for its response elements (REs) at the CUP1 promoter. We quantified smFISH mRNA data using a gene bursting model and demonstrated that RSC regulates transcription bursts of CUP1 only by modulating TF occupancy but does not affect initiation and elongation rates...
September 27, 2018: Molecular Cell
Kaitlin Murtha, Munok Hwang, Megan C Peccarelli, Taylor D Scott, Bessie W Kebaara
The differential regulation of COX17, COX19 and COX23 mRNAs by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway was investigated. The NMD pathway regulates mRNAs that aberrantly terminate translation. This includes mRNAs harboring premature translation termination codons and natural mRNAs. Most natural mRNAs regulated by NMD encode fully functional proteins involved in various cellular processes. However, the cause and targeting of most of these mRNAs by the pathway is not understood. Analysis of a set of mRNAs involved in copper homeostasis showed that a subset of these mRNAs function in mitochondrial copper homeostasis...
October 13, 2018: Current Genetics
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