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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636968/t-regulating-hair-follicle-stem-cells
#1
Maria Maryanovich, Paul S Frenette
Regulatory T (Treg) cells are well known to modulate inflammatory responses. In a recent issue of Cell, Ali et al. (2017) reveal a function for Treg cells in stem cell maintenance by showing that skin-resident Foxp3(+) Treg cells preferentially localize to the hair follicle stem cell (HFSC) niche to control HFSC-mediated hair regeneration.
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636882/foxn1-italian-founder-mutation-in-indian-family-implications-in-prenatal-diagnosis
#2
Akella Radha Rama Devi, Nagesh Narayan Panday, Shaik Mohammad Naushad
The Forkhead box N1 (FOXN1) is a transcriptional factor regulating the development, differentiation and function of thymic epithelial cells; maintaining T-lineage progenitors in bone marrow; promoting terminal differentiation of epithelial cells of hair follicles. Mutation in FOXN1 was reported to cause a rare disorder characterized by rudimentary thymus gland, T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia and nail dystrophy within an Italian community. This is the first report of FOXN1 p.R255X mutation from India, outside this endogamous Italian community...
June 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632917/miniaturization-of-sebaceous-glands-a-novel-histopathological-finding-in-pemphigus-vulgaris-and-pemphigus-foliaceus-of-the-scalp
#3
Marta Sar-Pomian, Joanna Czuwara, Lidia Rudnicka, Malgorzata Olszewska
BACKGROUND: Intraepidermal acantholysis is a characteristic histopathological feature of pemphigus. The histopathology of scalp biopsies in pemphigus has not been widely discussed in the literature, although the scalp is commonly involved in pemphigus. METHODS: A total of 32 consecutive patients with scalp involvement (seventeen with pemphigus vulgaris and fifteen with pemphigus foliaceus) were enrolled into the study. The histopathological examination of scalp biopsies was performed in all patients...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632903/immunohistochemical-dissection-of-cystic-panfolliculoma-focusing-on-the-expression-of-multiple-hair-follicle-lineage-markers-with-an-insight-into-the-pathogenesis
#4
Masahiro Fukuyama, Yohei Sato, Yoshimi Yamazaki, Manabu Ohyama
Panfolliculoma (PF) is a rare benign tumor with signs of differentiation toward all components of the hair follicle (HF). Cystic panfolliculoma (CPF) is a subset of PF with histological similarity to trichofolliculoma making the differential diagnosis difficult in some cases. Immunohistopathological investigations of PF have been reported; however, previous studies focused mostly on the expression profile of the outer root sheath markers. A panel of antibodies was developed and used for the detection of the expression of cytokeratin (CK) 10, CK13, CK14, CK15, hair-hard keratin (AE13), and EpCAM within the lesion, supporting the differentiation of all epithelial lineages of the HF and the diagnosis of CPF...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630424/characterization-of-slow-cycling-corneal-limbal-epithelial-cells-identifies-putative-stem-cell-markers
#5
R Sartaj, C Zhang, P Wan, Z Pasha, V Guaiquil, A Liu, J Liu, Y Luo, E Fuchs, M I Rosenblatt
In order to identify reliable markers of corneal epithelial stem cells, we employed an inducible transgenic "pulse-chase" murine model (K5Tta × TRE-H2BGFP) to localize, purify, and characterize slow cycling cells in the cornea. The retention of GFP labeling in slowly dividing cells allowed for localization of these cells to the corneal limbus and their subsequent purification by FACS. Transcriptome analysis from slow cycling cells identified differentially expressed genes when comparing to GFP(-) faster-dividing cells...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629050/novel-bilayer-wound-dressing-based-on-electrospun-gelatin-keratin-nanofibrous-mats-for-skin-wound-repair
#6
Chun-Hsu Yao, Chia-Yu Lee, Chiung-Hua Huang, Yueh-Sheng Chen, Kuo-Yu Chen
A bilayer membrane (GKU) with a commercial polyurethane wound dressing as an outer layer and electrospun gelatin/keratin nanofibrous mat as an inner layer was fabricated as a novel wound dressing. Scanning electron micrographs showed that gelatin/keratin nanofibers had a uniform morphology and bead-free structure with average fiber diameter of 160.4nm. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay using L929 fibroblast cells indicated that the residues released from the gelatin/keratin composite nanofibrous mat accelerated cell proliferation...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627318/effects-of-gamma-rays-on-the-regeneration-of-murine-hair-follicles-in-the-natural-hair-cycle
#7
Kimihiko Sugaya
PURPOSE: This review evaluates the effects of γ-rays on the regeneration of murine hair follicles in the natural hair cycle. A series of studies were performed to investigate this issue, in which the whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the 1(st) telogen phase of the hair cycle were irradiated with γ-rays. RESULTS: The dermis of the irradiated skin showed a decrease in hair follicle density and induction of curved hair follicles along with the presence of white hairs and hypopigmented hair bulbs in the 2(nd) and 3(rd) anagen phases...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626889/from-basal-cell-morphogenesis-to-the-alopecia-induced-by-hedgehog-inhibitors-connecting-the-dots
#8
REVIEW
C Dessinioti, C Antoniou, A J Stratigos
The deciphering of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway implicated in the tumorigenesis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), led to the development of targeted drug therapies, e.g. the hedgehog pathway inhibitors (HPI), vismodegib and sonidegib. In the skin, physiologic Hh signaling is activated in growing hair follicles, where it is required for proliferation of the epithelium of hair follicles during morphogenesis and for their postnatal growth. The effects of HPI treatment leading to the regression of BCC and the development of alopecia, underpin the central role of the Hh pathway in BCC formation as well as hair cycling...
June 18, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624120/histologic-features-of-chronic-cutaneous-lupus-erythematosus-of-the-scalp-using-horizontal-sectioning-emphasis-on-follicular-findings
#9
Hye Jin Chung, Lynne J Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CCLE) often affects the scalp resulting in scarring alopecia. While histopathologic findings of CCLE have been well described, there is little written on the morphologic changes to the hair follicles in this condition. OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine the histopathologic findings of hair follicles in CCLE of the scalp. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 33 transversely sectioned skin biopsy specimens of CCLE of the scalp at the Skin Pathology Laboratory at Boston University between April 2005 and March 2015...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616244/macrophages-and-fibroblasts-during-inflammation-and-tissue-repair-in-models-of-organ-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
Anthony L Mescher
This review provides a concise summary of the changing phenotypes of macrophages and fibroblastic cells during the local inflammatory response, the onset of tissue repair, and the resolution of inflammation which follow injury to an organ. Both cell populations respond directly to damage and present coordinated sequences of activation states which determine the reparative outcome, ranging from true regeneration of the organ to fibrosis and variable functional deficits. Recent work with mammalian models of organ regeneration, including regeneration of full-thickness skin, hair follicles, ear punch tissues, and digit tips, is summarized and the roles of local immune cells in these systems are discussed...
April 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614369/unlocking-the-vital-role-of-host-cells-in-hair-follicle-reconstruction-by-semi-permeable-capsules
#11
Zhexiang Fan, Yong Miao, Qian Qu, Shune Xiao, Jin Wang, Lijuan Du, Bingcheng Liu, Zhiqi Hu
Organ regeneration is becoming a promising choice for many patients; however, many details about the mechanisms underlying organ regeneration remain unknown. As regenerative organs, hair follicles offer a good model to study the mechanisms associated with regenerative medicine. The relevant studies have mainly focused on donor cells, and there are no systematic studies involving the effect of host factors on hair follicle reconstruction. Thus, we intend to explore the effect of host cells on hair follicle reconstruction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612487/anagen-effluvium-in-association-with-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#12
Lisa Cotter, Kyle Cheng, Anna Yasmine Kirkorian
Anagen effluvium (AE) is a type of alopecia with hair loss during the growth phase of a hair follicle and is most often associated with cytotoxic chemotherapy. This report describes a case of AE in a critically ill 2-year-old boy who developed cardiorespiratory failure requiring extracorporeal membranous oxygenation. We postulate that the combination of hypotension and hypoxia with subsequent reperfusion triggered an apoptotic cascade in the hair matrix, resulting in AE.
June 13, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609346/plaque-like-pilar-sheath-acanthoma-histopathologic-and-immunohistochemical-study-of-3-unusual-cases
#13
Margarita Jo-Velasco, Araceli Corrales-Rodríguez, Laura Francés-Rodríguez, Victoria Alegría-Landa, Itziar Eraña-Tomás, Arno Rütten, Luis Requena
Pilar sheath acanthoma is an uncommon, benign follicular neoplasm that frequently presents as a solitary lesion. This neoplasm usually appears on the skin around the upper lip of elderly patients. Histopathologically, the neoplasm usually shows a cystic configuration with epithelial lobules resembling to those of the outer root sheath of the hair follicle at the level of the isthmus emanating radially from the cyst wall. We present 3 peculiar cases of a pilar sheath acanthoma showing a plaque-like architecture because the lesions exhibited a horizontal configuration...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608517/unraveling-the-secret-life-of-the-hair-follicle-from-fungi-to-innovative-hair-loss-therapies
#14
EDITORIAL
Andrew G Messenger, Natalia V Botchkareva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607955/wound-healing-protects-against-chemotherapy-induced-alopecia-in-young-rats-via-up-regulating-interleukin-1%C3%AE-mediated-signaling
#15
Olivera Stojadinovic, Tongyu C Wikramanayake, Alexandra C Villasante Fricke, Natalie C Yin, Liang Liang, Eleanor Hinde, Julia Escandon, Marjana Tomic-Canic, David M Ansell, Ralf Paus, Joaquin J Jimenez
Wound healing is a complex process regulated by various cell types and a plethora of mediators. While interactions between wounded skin and the hair follicles (HFs) could induce HF neogenesis or promote wound healing, it remains unknown whether the wound healing-associated signaling milieu can be manipulated to protect against alopecia, such as chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA). Utilizing a well-established neonatal rat model of CIA, we show here that skin wounding protects from alopecia caused by several clinically relevant chemotherapeutic regimens, and that protection is dependent on the time of wounding and hair cycle stage...
May 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603898/getting-to-the-root-of-scales-feather-and-hair-as-deep-as-odontodes
#16
Danielle Dhouailly, Pascal Godefroit, Thomas Martin, Stefan Nonchev, Flavien Caraguel, Olav Oftedal
While every jawed vertebrate, or its recent ancestor, possesses teeth, skin appendages are characteristic of the living clades: skin denticles (odontodes) in chondrichthyians, dermal scales in teleosts, ducted multicellular glands in amphibians, epidermal scales in squamates, feathers in birds, and hair-gland complexes in mammals, all of them showing a dense periodic patterning. While the odontode origin of teleost scales is generally accepted, the origin of both feather and hair is still debated. They appear long before mammals and birds, at least in Jurassic in mammaliaforms and in ornithodires (pterosaurs and dinosaurs), and are contemporary to scales of early squamates...
June 11, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602615/pten-mediates-activation-of-core-clock-protein-bmal1-and-accumulation-of-epidermal-stem-cells
#17
Chiara Zagni, Luciana O Almeida, Tarek Balan, Marco T Martins, Luciana K Rosselli-Murai, Petros Papagerakis, Rogerio M Castilho, Cristiane H Squarize
Tissue integrity requires constant maintenance of a quiescent, yet responsive, population of stem cells. In the skin, hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) that reside within the bulge maintain tissue homeostasis in response to activating cues that occur with each new hair cycle or upon injury. We found that PTEN, a major regulator of the PI3K-AKT pathway, controlled HFSC number and size in the bulge and maintained genomically stable pluripotent cells. This regulatory function is central for HFSC quiescence, where PTEN-deficiency phenotype is in part regulated by BMAL1...
June 5, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601433/characterization-of-xenobiotic-metabolizing-enzymes-of-a-reconstructed-human-epidermal-model-from-adult-hair-follicles
#18
Daniel Bacqueville, Carine Jacques, Laure Duprat, Emilien L Jamin, Beatrice Guiraud, Elisabeth Perdu, Sandrine Bessou-Touya, Daniel Zalko, Hélène Duplan
In this study, a comprehensive characterization of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) based on gene expression and enzyme functionality was made in a reconstructed skin epidermal model derived from the outer root sheath (ORS) of hair follicles (ORS-RHE). The ORS-RHE model XME gene profile was consistent with native human skin. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) consistently reported to be detected in native human skin were also present at the gene level in the ORS-RHE model. The highest Phase I XME gene expression levels were observed for alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases and (carboxyl) esterases...
June 7, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599846/planar-cell-polarity-dependent-and-independent-functions-in-the-emergence-of-tissue-scale-hair-follicle-patterns
#19
Maureen Cetera, Liliya Leybova, Frank W Woo, Michael Deans, Danelle Devenport
Hair follicles of the mammalian epidermis display local order and global alignment, a complex pattern instructed by the core planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Here we address the contributions of core PCP genes, Van Gogh-like and Frizzled, to the establishment, local refinement, and global order of embryonic and postnatal hair follicles. We find that, similar to Fz6 mutants, the disordered hair patterns of Vangl2 mutants are refined over time and eventually corrected. In both mutants, we find that tissue-level reorientation occurs through locally coordinated follicle rotation at stereotyped locations...
June 7, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597017/folliculotropic-mycosis-fungoides-with-skewed-t-cell-receptor-cdr3-motif-suggestive-of-lipid-antigen-selection
#20
Panagiota Mantaka, Agnieszka Malecka, Gunhild Trøen, Per Helsing, Petter Gjersvik, Klaus Beiske, Jan Delabie
Folliculotropic mycosis fungoides (FMF), a variant of mycosis fungoides (MF) with distinct clinical features, is characterized by infiltration of malignant T cells in hair follicles. This raises the hypothesis that antigens in the hair follicle may contribute to the pathogenesis of FMF. T-cell receptor β gene (TRB) sequences as well as dendritic cell subsets in patients with FMF (n = 21) and control patients with MF (n = 20) were studied to explore this hypothesis. A recurrent usage of the TRB junctional genes TRBJ2-1 and TRBJ2-7 was found in patients with FMF compared with those with MF...
June 9, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
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