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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324846/novel-alk5-inhibitor-tp0427736-reduces-tgf-%C3%AE-%C3%A3-induced-growth-inhibition-in-human-outer-root-sheath-cells-and-elongates-anagen-phase-in-mouse-hair-follicles
#1
Takumi Naruse, Mari Aoki, Natsuko Fujimoto, Seiji Arase, Hajimu Oura, Yasuji Ueda, Akiko Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Androgenic alopecia (AGA) occurs as a result of the contraction of the anagen phase because of the action of androgens on hair follicles. TGF-β production from dermal papillae is enhanced by androgens, and growth inhibition of hair-follicle cells is induced by TGF-β, and the hair cycle progresses from the anagen phase to the catagen phase. We investigated both the in vitro and in vivo potency of the newly identified ALK5 inhibitor TP0427736 {6-[4-(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl]-1,3-benzothiazole}...
January 25, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317864/targeted-deletion-of-crif1-in-mouse-epidermis-impairs-skin-homeostasis-and-hair-morphogenesis
#2
Jung-Min Shin, Dae-Kyoung Choi, Kyung-Cheol Sohn, Ji-Young Kim, Myung Im, Young Lee, Young-Joon Seo, Minho Shong, Jeung-Hoon Lee, Chang Deok Kim
The epidermis, which consists mainly of keratinocytes, acts as a physical barrier to infections by regulating keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Hair follicles undergo continuous cycling to produce new one. Therefore, optimum supply of energy from the mitochondria is essential for maintaining skin homeostasis and hair growth. CRIF1 is a mitochondrial protein that regulates mitoribosome-mediated synthesis and insertion of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation polypeptides into the mitochondrial membrane in mammals...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317529/repigmentation-through-melanocyte-regeneration-in-vitiligo
#3
REVIEW
Stanca A Birlea, Nathaniel B Goldstein, David A Norris
Repigmentation in vitiligo is the process that replaces, in the epidermal basal layer of vitiligo skin, the mature melanocytes that have been killed by cytotoxic T cells specific for melanocyte antigens. It consists of mobilization of melanocyte precursors in the hair follicle bulge and infundibulum to proliferate, migrate, and differentiate into mature melanocytes, moving from the hair follicle bulge to the interfollicular epidermis. The most common clinical presentation of repigmentation in vitiligo is the perifollicular pattern...
April 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316170/-advances-in-effects-of-integrin-linked-kinase-on-cutaneous-wound-healing-and-the-relative-mechanism
#4
R X Zhou, Y Y Li, W H Lin, G Li, J E Sun, W B Zhou
Previous studies have demonstrated that integrin-linked kinases (ILKs) are abundantly expressed in extracellular matrix (ECM) riche dermis, hair follicles, and basal cells of epidermis. ILKs are not only essential for the maintenance of skin structure, but also play important roles in wound healing. ILKs can promote the formation of granulation tissue by stimulating the proliferation of fibroblasts and secretion of ECM, accelerate wound contraction by inducing the differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, and boost reepithelization by promoting proliferation, migration, and differentiation of keratinocytes and follicle epidermal stem cells...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300084/alopecia-areata
#5
REVIEW
C Herbert Pratt, Lloyd E King, Andrew G Messenger, Angela M Christiano, John P Sundberg
Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder characterized by transient, non-scarring hair loss and preservation of the hair follicle. Hair loss can take many forms ranging from loss in well-defined patches to diffuse or total hair loss, which can affect all hair-bearing sites. Patchy alopecia areata affecting the scalp is the most common type. Alopecia areata affects nearly 2% of the general population at some point during their lifetime. Skin biopsies of affected skin show a lymphocytic infiltrate in and around the bulb or the lower part of the hair follicle in the anagen (hair growth) phase...
March 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299655/runx-family-genes-in-tissue-stem-cell-dynamics
#6
Chelsia Qiuxia Wang, Michelle Meng Huang Mok, Tomomasa Yokomizo, Vinay Tergaonkar, Motomi Osato
The Runx family genes play important roles in development and cancer, largely via their regulation of tissue stem cell behavior. Their involvement in two organs, blood and skin, is well documented. This review summarizes currently known Runx functions in the stem cells of these tissues. The fundamental core mechanism(s) mediated by Runx proteins has been sought; however, it appears that there does not exist one single common machinery that governs both tissue stem cells. Instead, Runx family genes employ multiple spatiotemporal mechanisms in regulating individual tissue stem cell populations...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287404/mutations-in-%C3%AE-secretase-subunit-encoding-psenen-underlie-dowling-degos-disease-associated-with-acne-inversa
#7
Damian J Ralser, F Buket Ü Basmanav, Aylar Tafazzoli, Jade Wititsuwannakul, Sarah Delker, Sumita Danda, Holger Thiele, Sabrina Wolf, Michélle Busch, Susanne A Pulimood, Janine Altmüller, Peter Nürnberg, Didier Lacombe, Uwe Hillen, Jörg Wenzel, Jorge Frank, Benjamin Odermatt, Regina C Betz
Dowling-Degos disease (DDD) is an autosomal-dominant disorder of skin pigmentation associated with mutations in keratin 5 (KRT5), protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (POFUT1), or protein O-glucosyltransferase 1 (POGLUT1). Here, we have identified 6 heterozygous truncating mutations in PSENEN, encoding presenilin enhancer protein 2, in 6 unrelated patients and families with DDD in whom mutations in KRT5, POFUT1, and POGLUT1 have been excluded. Further examination revealed that the histopathologic feature of follicular hyperkeratosis distinguished these 6 patients from previously studied individuals with DDD...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284826/permanent-alopecia-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-after-taxane-chemotherapy-and-adjuvant-hormonal-therapy-clinicopathologic-findings-in-a-cohort-of-10-patients
#8
Athina Fonia, Carlo Cota, Jane F Setterfield, Lynne J Goldberg, David A Fenton, Catherine M Stefanato
BACKGROUND: Anagen effluvium with reversible scalp alopecia is a known side effect of chemotherapy. However, there are an increasing number of reports in the literature documenting permanent alopecia in patients treated with taxanes. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the clinicopathologic features in breast cancer patients who underwent treatment with taxanes and adjuvant hormonal chemotherapy. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical and histopathologic information of a cohort of 10 patients treated with taxanes and adjuvant hormonal chemotherapy...
March 8, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284243/possible-chromosomal-and-germline-integration-of-human-herpesvirus-7
#9
Bhupesh K Prusty, Nitish Gulve, Santa Rasa, Modra Murovska, Pilar Collado Hernandez, Dharam V Ablashi
Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) is a betaherpesvirus, and is phylogenetically related to both HHV-6A and HHV-6B. The presence of telomeric repeat sequences at both ends of its genome should make it equally likely to integrate into the human telomere as HHV-6. However, numerous studies have failed to detect germline integration of HHV-7, suggesting an important difference between the HHV-6A/-6B and HHV-7 genomes. In search of possible germline integrated HHV-7, we developed a sensitive and quantitative real-time PCR assay and discovered that primers designed against some parts of the HHV-7 genome can frequently miss HHV-7 positive clinical samples even though they work efficiently in cell-culture-derived HHV-7 positive materials...
February 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283686/-topical-therapy-of-the-scalp
#10
REVIEW
J Wohlrab, J Michael
Various hair-related diseases, systemic dermatoses as well as parasitic diseases are treated via topical application of active substances. The density of hair follicles and the consequential special conditions for diffusion require specific galenic concepts that can vary considerably depending on the respective therapeutic purpose. Both the physicochemical properties of the active ingredient and the nature of the application area must be considered when choosing an appropriate galenic base. Highly relevant here are hairiness, scarring, hyperkeratosis and exoserosis...
March 10, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274354/hormonal-therapies-for-acne
#11
Brittany Barros, Diane Thiboutot
Acne is a common, worldwide problem that is usually multifactorial in etiology, but androgens may play a pivotal role in the development and severity of acne. Endocrinopathies, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, ovarian tumors, or adrenal hyperplasia or tumors, may be detected in some patients with acne, especially if acne is sudden in onset, associated with hirsutism or menstrual irregularities, or associated with cushingoid facies, acanthosis nigricans, patterned hair loss, or deepened voice. In these instances, serum-free and total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone should be tested...
March 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274348/understanding-the-role-of-propionibacterium-acnes-in-acne-vulgaris-the-critical-importance-of-skin-sampling-methodologies
#12
Hélène Omer, Andrew McDowell, Oleg A Alexeyev
Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin condition classified by the Global Burden of Disease Study as the eighth most prevalent disease worldwide. The pathophysiology of the condition has been extensively studied, with an increase in sebum production, abnormal keratinization of the pilosebaceous follicle, and an inflammatory immune response all implicated in its etiology. One of the most disputed points, however, is the role of the gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes in the development of acne, particularly when this organism is also found in normal sebaceous follicles of healthy skin...
March 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273976/trichoadenoma-of-nikolowski-a-rare-tumour-with-unusual-presentation-over-vulva
#13
Ashok Sangwaiya, Shilpa Bairwa, Shivani Kalhan, Puja Sharma, Rahul N Satarkar
Trichoadenoma is a rare benign, slowly growing, cutaneous tumour of the hair follicle first described by Nikolowski in 1958. It presents as a non-specific nodule over the face or buttocks. However, unusual sites such as the neck, upper arm, thigh, shoulder, and shaft of the penis may also be affected. The tumour is less mature than a trichofolliculoma and is more differentiated than a trichoepithelioma with a differentiation towards the infundibular portion of the pilosebaceous canal. Histologically, it consists of numerous infundibulocystic structures present throughout the dermis, few of which are lined by eosinophilic epidermal cells with attempted glandular formation and contain laminated keratin, without evidence of hair follicle formation...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270193/cutaneous-neurogenic-inflammation-in-the-sensitized-acupoints-induced-by-gastric-mucosal-injury-in-rats
#14
Wei He, Xiao-Yu Wang, Hong Shi, Wan-Zhu Bai, Bin Cheng, Yang-Shuai Su, Xiao-Chun Yu, Xiang-Hong Jing, Bing Zhu
BACKGROUND: In acupuncture practice, the most important step is to confirm the location of a sensitized acupoint which reflects a diagnosis and can be stimulated with a specialized needle to treat the disease. Abnormal symptoms such as hyperalgesia or allodynia at the sensitized acupoints in patients with visceral disorders are considered to be in relation with referred pain and neurogenic inflammation. Yet, limited study has investigated the cutaneous neurochemical changes of the sensitized acuponits...
March 7, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270164/tropomyosin-receptor-antagonism-in-cylindromatosis-trac-an-early-phase-trial-of-a-topical-tropomyosin-kinase-inhibitor-as-a-treatment-for-inherited-cyld-defective-skin-tumours-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Amy Cranston, Deborah D Stocken, Elaine Stamp, David Roblin, Julia Hamlin, James Langtry, Ruth Plummer, Alan Ashworth, John Burn, Neil Rajan
BACKGROUND: Patients with germline mutations in a tumour suppressor gene called CYLD develop multiple, disfiguring, hair follicle tumours on the head and neck. The prognosis is poor, with up to one in four mutation carriers requiring complete surgical removal of the scalp. There are no effective medical alternatives to treat this condition. Whole genome molecular profiling experiments led to the discovery of an attractive molecular target in these skin tumour cells, named tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK), upon which these cells demonstrate an oncogenic dependency in preclinical studies...
March 7, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267198/serotonergic-transmission-at-merkel-discs-modulation-by-exogenously-applied-chemical-messengers-and-involvement-of-ih-currents
#16
Weipang Chang, Hirosato Kanda, Ryo Ikeda, Jennifer Ling, Jianguo G Gu
The Merkel disc is a main type of tactile end organ consisting of Merkel cells and Aβ-afferent endings that responds to tactile stimulation with slowly adapting type 1 (SA1) afferent impulses. Our recent study has shown that Merkel discs in whisker hair follicles are serotonergic synapses using endogenous serotonin to transmit tactile signals from Merkel cells to Aβ-afferent endings. In the present study, we hypothesize that tactile sensitivity of Merkel discs can be modulated by chemical messengers. We tested this hypothesis by determining whether and how SA1 responses of mouse whisker hair follicles may be affected by exogenously applied chemical messengers...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266743/the-hair-follicle-enigma
#17
Bruno A Bernard
The hair follicle is a mini organ endowed with a unique structure and cyclic behavior. Despite the intense research efforts which have been devoted at deciphering the hair follicle biology over the past 70 years, one must admit that hair follicle remains an enigma. In this brief review, various aspects of hair follicle biology will be addressed, and more importantly, unsolved questions and new possible research tracks will be highlighted, including hair follicle glycobiology and exosome mediated cell-cell interactions...
March 7, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266599/double-stranded-rna-induces-inflammation-via-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-and-inflammasome-activation-in-the-outer-root-sheath-cells-of-hair-follicles
#18
Jung-Min Shin, Dae-Kyoung Choi, Kyung-Cheol Sohn, Soo-Yeon Kim, Jeong Min Ha, Young Ho Lee, Myung Im, Young-Joon Seo, Chang Deok Kim, Jeung-Hoon Lee, Young Lee
Alopecia areata (AA), a chronic, relapsing, hair-loss disorder, is considered to be a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. It affects approximately 1.7% of the population, but its precise pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. Despite the recent attention focused on the roles of inflammasomes in the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory diseases, little is known about inflammasome activation in AA. Thus, in this study, we investigated the pattern of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the outer root sheath (ORS) cells of hair follicles...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266050/cutaneous-dermal-non-neural-granular-cell-tumor-is-a-granular-cell-dermal-root-sheath-fibroma
#19
Angel Fernandez-Flores, David S Cassarino, Erica Riveiro-Falkenbach, José Luis Rodriguez-Peralto, Maria Teresa Fernandez-Figueras, Carlos Monteagudo
Dermal non-neural granular cell tumor (NNGCT) was first described in 1991 as an S100-negative polypoid non-melanocytic tumor. Although originally introduced in the literature as a primary cutaneous tumor, it was later emphasized that such qualification could not be held until the line of differentiation was clarified. It was also demonstrated that not all cases were polypoid. In the current study we try to further characterize this entity by presenting five cases of NNGCT. As expected, not all of them were polypoid...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259916/notch-signaling-is-significantly-suppressed-in-basal-cell-carcinomas-and-activation-induces-basal-cell-carcinoma-cell-apoptosis
#20
Feng-Tao Shi, Mei Yu, David Zloty, Robert H Bell, Eddy Wang, Noushin Akhoundsadegh, Gigi Leung, Anne Haegert, Nicholas Carr, Jerry Shapiro, Kevin J McElwee
A subset of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are directly derived from hair follicles (HFs). In some respects, HFs can be defined as 'ordered' skin appendage growths, while BCCs can be regarded as 'disordered' skin appendage growths. The aim of the present study was to examine HFs and BCCs to define the expression of common and unique signaling pathways in each skin appendage. Human nodular BCCs, along with HFs and non‑follicular skin epithelium from normal individuals, were examined using microarrays, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry...
February 2, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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