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Rafael Yutaka Scalize Hirata, Thays Brenner Dos Santos, José Simões de Andrade, Luciana Le Sueur Maluf, Hanna K M Antunes, Luís Roberto G Britto, Isabel Cristina Céspedes, Milena de Barros Viana
Previous studies showed that chronic treatment with corticosterone facilitates elevated T-maze (ETM) inhibitory avoidance and a step-down avoidance task, responses that have been used to investigate aversive conditioning and memory processes. On the other hand, chronic corticosterone does not alter ETM escape from the open arms. The purpose of the present study was to further investigate the effects of chronic corticosterone treatment (200 mg pellets, 21-day release) in an animal model of anxiety that does not involve aversive conditioning: the light/dark transition model...
August 14, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Dusti K Sloan, Diana S Spencer, Kathleen S Curtis
Multiple stimulatory and inhibitory neural circuits control eating, and these circuits are influenced by an array of hormonal, neuropeptide, and neurotransmitter signals. For example, estrogen and oxytocin (OT) both are known to decrease food intake, but the mechanisms by which these signal molecules influence eating are not fully understood. These studies investigated the interaction between estrogen and OT in the control of food intake. RT-qPCR studies revealed that 17β-estradiol benzoate (EB)-treated rats showed a two-fold increase in OT mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) compared to Oil-treated controls...
August 14, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Ancy Joseph, Tran Thi Thu Thuy, Le Tat Thanh, Masayoshi Okada
We screened a library of botanical compounds purified from plants of Vietnam for modulators of the activity of a two-pore domain K+ channel, TREK-1, and we identified a hydroxycoumarin-related compound, ostruthin, as an activator of this channel. Ostruthin increased whole-cell TREK-1 channel currents in 293T cells at a low concentration (EC50 = 5.3 μM), and also activity of the TREK-2 channel (EC50 = 3.7 mM). In contrast, ostruthin inhibited other K+ channels, e.g. human ether-à-go-go-related gene (HERG1), inward-rectifier (Kir2...
2018: PloS One
Jatin Nagpal, Ulrich Herget, Min K Choi, Soojin Ryu
The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus harbors diverse neurosecretory cells with critical physiological roles for the homeostasis. Decades of research in rodents have provided a large amount of information on the anatomy, development, and function of this important hypothalamic nucleus. However, since the hypothalamus lies deep within the brain in mammals and is difficult to access, many questions regarding development and plasticity of this nucleus still remain. In particular, how different environmental conditions, including stress exposure, shape the development of this important nucleus has been difficult to address in animals that develop in utero...
August 14, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Ping Zhu, Zhi-Hui Zhang, Xu-Feng Huang, Yan-Chuan Shi, Neeta Khandekar, He-Qin Yang, Shi-Yu Liang, Zhi-Yuan Song, Shu Lin
Cold exposure is considered to be a form of stress and has various adverse effects on the body. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic daily cold exposure on food intake, body weight, serum glucose levels and the central energy balance regulatory pathway in mice fed with a high‑fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups, which were fed with a standard chow or with a HFD. Half of the mice in each group were exposed to ice‑cold water for 1 h/day for 7 weeks, while the controls were exposed to room temperature...
August 10, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Marlena Wosiski-Kuhn, Mihail Bota, Christina A Snider, Steven P Wilson, Kannan U Venkataraju, Pavel Osten, Alexis M Stranahan
Diabetes increases adrenal steroids in humans and animal models, but potential interactions with psychological stress remain poorly understood. Diabetic rodents exhibit anxiety and reductions in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, and these studies investigated whether loss of BDNF-driven hippocampal activity promotes anxiety and disinhibits the HPA axis. Mice with genetic obesity and diabetes (db/db) received intrahippocampal injections of lentivirus for BDNF overexpression (db/db-BDNFOE), and Wt mice received lentiviral constructs for BDNF knockdown (Wt-BDNFKD)...
August 11, 2018: Hippocampus
N C Adams, T P Farrell, A O'Shea, A O'Hare, J Thornton, S Power, P Brennan, S Looby
Central or neurogenic diabetes insipidus (CDI) is due to deficient synthesis or secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as arginine vasopressin peptide (AVP). It is clinically characterised by polydipsia and polyuria (urine output > 30 mL/kg/day) of dilute urine (< 250 mOsm/L). It is the result of a defect in one of more sites involving the hypothalamic osmoreceptors, supraoptic or paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, median eminence of the hypothalamus, infundibulum or the posterior pituitary gland...
August 10, 2018: Neuroradiology
Evelin M Cotella, Antonela Scarponi Gomez, Paige Lemen, Carrie Chen, Guillermo Fernández, Christian Hansen, James P Herman, María Gabriela Paglini
Adolescence is a period of active development of stress regulatory neurocircuitry. As a consequence, mechanisms that control the responses to stress are not fully matured during this developmental period, which may result in vulnerability to chronic stress. We hypothesized that adolescent chronic stress would have negative consequences on stress adaptation later in life. Male Wistar rats (PND40) were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) for 2 weeks, with 2 daily stressors randomly presented and overnight social stressors twice a week...
August 7, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Roger A Dampney, Lisete C Michelini, De-Pei Li, Hui-Lin Pan
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a unique and important brain region involved in the control of cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and other physiological functions pertinent to homeostasis. The PVN is a major source of excitatory drive to the spinal sympathetic outflow via both direct and indirect projections. In this review, we discuss the role of the PVN in the regulation of sympathetic output in normal physiological conditions and in hypertension. In normal healthy animals, the PVN presympathetic neurons do not appear to have a major role in sustaining resting sympathetic vasomotor activity or in regulating sympathetic responses to short-term homeostatic challenges such as acute hypotension or hypoxia...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Rong-Lin Cai, Shuai Cui, Zi-Jian Wu, Lu He, Qing Yu, Jie Wang, Chuan-Yu Peng, Ling Hu, Yi-Ping Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Shenmen" (HT 7) - "Tongli" (HT 5) segment of the Heart Meridian on neuronal electrical activities of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in rats with myocardial ischemia (MI), so as to investigate its possible mechanism underlying improvement of MI. METHODS: Thirty-two SD rats were randomly divided into sham control, model, HT 7-HT 5 and "Taiyuan" (LU 9)- "Lieque" (LU 7) groups ( n =8 in each group)...
July 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Zhi Zhang, Frederico Machado, Li Zhao, Charlotte Heinen, Ewout Foppen, Mariëtte T Ackermans, Jiang-Ning Zhou, Peter Bisschop, Anita Boelen, Eric Fliers, Andries Kalsbeek
Cold exposure increases thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) expression primarily in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The PVN is a well-known hypothalamic hub in the control of energy metabolism. TRH terminals and receptors are found on PVN neurons. We hypothesized that TRH release in the PVN plays an important role in the control of thermogenesis and energy mobilization during cold exposure. <br><br>Methods: Male Wistar rats were exposed to a cold environment (4oC) or TRH retrodialysis in the PVN for 2-hours...
August 9, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Elisabet Kádár, Eva Vico Varela, Laura Aldavert-Vera, Gemma Huguet, Ignacio Morgado-Bernal, Pilar Segura-Torres
BACKGROUND: Intracranial Self-Stimulation (ICSS) of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) is a deep brain stimulation procedure, which has a powerful enhancement effect on explicit and implicit memory. However, the downstream synaptic plasticity events of MFB-ICSS in memory related areas have not been described thoroughly. This study complements previous work studying the effect of MFB-ICSS on the expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) protein, which has been widely established as a synaptic plasticity marker...
August 8, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Sameera Abuaish, Richard L Spinieli, Patrick O McGowan
The maternal environment has a profound effect on the development of offspring, including responses to stress mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In rodents, perinatal high fat diet (HFD) has been shown to program the HPA axis in a manner that persists throughout adulthood, however the effects of perinatal HFD on stress-related behaviors and physiology in neonates are limited. The first two weeks of life in rodents are known as the stress hyporesponsive period, during which animals do not respond to stressors that are otherwise known to elicit behavioral and physiological responses in mature animals...
August 2, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Sarah N Gartner, Anica Klockars, Colin Prosser, Elizabeth A Carpenter, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
A free essential amino acid, L-tryptophan (TRP), administered through a diet or directly into the gut, decreases food intake by engaging neural mechanisms. The ability of intragastric TRP to cross into the general circulation and through the blood-brain barrier, at least partly underlies hypophagia. It is unclear although, whether TRP's anorexigenic effects and accompanying neural processes occur in the absence of the initial action of TRP on the gut mucosa. Here, we addressed this issue by using a fundamental approach of examining effects of intraperitoneally administered TRP on feeding and neuronal activation in rats...
August 6, 2018: Neuroreport
Zahra Khazaeipool, Meagan Wiederman, Wataru Inoue
Inflammation-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and ensuing release of anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids are critical for the fine-tuning of the inflammatory response. This immune-induced neuroendocrine response is in large part mediated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the central actions of which ultimately translate into the excitation of parvocellular neuroendocrine cells (PNCs) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. However, the neuronal mechanisms by which PGE2 excites PNCs remain incompletely understood...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
F C Shenton, S Pyner
Changes in plasma osmolality can drive changes in the output from brain centres known to control cardiovascular homeostasis, such as the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Within the PVN hypotonicity reduces the firing rate of parvocellular neurons, a neuronal pool known to be involved in modulating sympathetic vasomotor tone. Also present in the PVN is the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) ion channel. Activation of TRPV4 within the PVN mimics the reduction in firing rate of the parvocellular neurons but it is unknown if these neurons express the channel...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Alice Farinetti, Marilena Marraudino, Giovanna Ponti, GianCarlo Panzica, Stefano Gotti
Tributyltin (TBT), an antifouling agent found in boat paints, is a common contaminant of marine and freshwater ecosystems. It is rapidly absorbed by organic materials and accumulated in many aquatic animals. Human exposure may depend on ingestion of contaminated food or by indirect exposure from household items containing organotin compounds. TBT is defined as an endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) because it binds to androgen receptors. Moreover, it is also included on the list of metabolic disruptors. The brain is a known target of TBT and this compound interferes with the orexigenic system, inducing a strong decrease in NPY expression in the hypothalamus...
August 4, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Terri M Driessen, Changjiu Zhao, Marissa Saenz, Sharon A Stevenson, Yuji Owada, Stephen C Gammie
Fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7) is a versatile protein that is linked to glial differentiation and proliferation, neurogenesis, and multiple mental health disorders. Recent microarray studies identified a robust decrease in Fabp7 expression in key brain regions of the postpartum rodents. Given its diverse functions, Fabp7 could play a critical role in sculpting the maternal brain and promoting the maternal phenotype. The present study aimed at investigating the expression profile of Fabp7 across the postpartum CNS...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Wuping Sun, Qian Zhou, Xiyuan Ba, Xiaojin Feng, Xuexue Hu, Xiaoe Cheng, Tao Liu, Jing Guo, Lizu Xiao, Jin Jiang, Donglin Xiong, Yue Hao, Zixian Chen, Changyu Jiang
Objective: Oxytocin (OT) is synthesized within the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition to its role in uterine contraction, OT plays an important antinociceptive role; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of antinociceptive role of OT remain elusive. We hypothesized that the antinociceptive effect of OT on neuropathic pain may occur via inhibition of TRPV1 activation in the spinal cord. The present study explores the antinociceptive role of OT and its mechanisms in neuropathic pain...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Susan M Barman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 30, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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