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Ram B Singh, Krasimira Hristova, Jan Fedacko, Galal El-Kilany, Germaine Cornelissen
The underlying mechanism for clinical and biochemical manifestations of chronic heart failure (HF) may be due in part to neurohumoral adaptations, such as activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems in the periphery and the brain. Internet search and discussion with colleagues are the methods for this study. Since chronic HF is associated with autonomic imbalance with increased sympathetic nerve activity and a withdrawal of parasympathetic activity, it may be considered a brain disease...
October 20, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Pang Li, Yin Jie, Shi YuGen, Wang Yu, Suhua Yan
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is associated with increased sympathetic drive in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is a key regulator of sympathetic nerve activity at post-myocardial infarction (MI). High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) exhibits inflammatory cytokine-like activity in the extracellular space. Inflammation is associated with increased sympathetic drive in CVDs. However, the role of HMGB1 in sympathetic nerve activity at post-MI remains unknown...
October 19, 2018: Cardiology Journal
Shayan Abtahi, Erin Howell, Jack T Salvucci, Joshua M R Bastacky, David P Dunn, Paul J Currie
In the current study we investigated the interaction of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin signaling in the control of metabolic function. We first demonstrated that acylated ghrelin injected directly into the PVN reliably altered the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) of adult male Sprague Dawley rats. All testing was carried out during the initial 2 h of the nocturnal cycle using an indirect open circuit calorimeter. Results indicated that acylated ghrelin induced a robust increase in RER representing a shift toward enhanced carbohydrate oxidation and reduced lipid utilization...
October 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Xiao-Jing Yu, Yu-Wang Miao, Hong-Bao Li, Qing Su, Kai-Li Liu, Li-Yan Fu, Yi-Kang Hou, Xiao-Lian Shi, Ying Li, Jian-Jun Mu, Wen-Sheng Chen, Wei Cui, Guo-Qing Zhu, Philip J Ebenezer, Joseph Francis, Yu-Ming Kang
Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) is an important biologically-active peptide of the renin-angiotensin system. This study was designed to determine whether inhibition of Ang-(1-7) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates sympathetic activity and elevates blood pressure by modulating pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and oxidative stress in the PVN in salt-induced hypertension. Rats were fed either a high-salt (8% NaCl) or a normal salt diet (0.3% NaCl) for 10 weeks, followed by bilateral microinjections of the Ang-(1-7) antagonist A-779 or vehicle into the PVN...
October 16, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Adrián Viudez-Martínez, María S García-Gutiérrez, Jorge Manzanares
BACKGROUND: Research interest has grown around the potential therapeutic use of cannabidiol in mood-related disorders, due to its anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects. These have been partially attributed to its action as an allosteric modulator of 5-HTR1A. However, the exact mechanism supporting cannabidiol properties remains unclear. AIMS: To assess the effects of cannabidiol on different targets of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis under baseline and stress conditions...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Alexandra Castillo-Ruiz, Morgan Mosley, Andrew J Jacobs, Yarely C Hoffiz, Nancy G Forger
Labor and a vaginal delivery trigger changes in peripheral organs that prepare the mammalian fetus to survive ex utero. Surprisingly little attention has been given to whether birth also influences the brain, and to how alterations in birth mode affect neonatal brain development. These are important questions, given the high rates of cesarean section (C-section) delivery worldwide, many of which are elective. We examined the effect of birth mode on neuronal cell death, a widespread developmental process that occurs primarily during the first postnatal week in mice...
October 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ranjan K Roy, Rachael A Augustine, Colin H Brown, Daryl O Schwenke
Myocardial infarction (MI) initiates an increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) that facilitates potentially fatal arrhythmias. The mechanism(s) underpinning sympathetic activation remain unclear. Some neuronal populations within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) have been implicated in SNA. This study elucidated the role of the PVN in triggering cardiac SNA following MI (left anterior descending coronary artery ligation). By means of c-Fos, oxytocin, and vasopressin immunohistochemistry accompanied by retrograde tracing we showed that MI activates parvocellular oxytocin neurons projecting to the rostral ventral lateral medulla...
2018: Communications biology
Alon Amir, Jean-Francois Paré, Yoland Smith, Denis Paré
One of the main subcortical inputs to the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BL) originates from a group of dorsal thalamic nuclei located at or near the midline, mainly from the central medial (CMT) and paraventricular (PVT) nuclei. Although similarities between the responsiveness of BL, CMT, and PVT neurons to emotionally arousing stimuli suggest that these thalamic inputs exert a significant influence over BL activity, little is known about the synaptic relationships that mediate these effects. Thus, the present study used Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHAL) anterograde tracing and electron microscopy to shed light on the ultrastructural properties and synaptic targets of CMT and PVT axon terminals in the rat BL...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Yi-Fen Cheng, Chien-Chang Chen
The prevalence of chronic pain increases with age. The pain occurrence in the elderly ranges from 25% to 80% in different countries. Ischemic heart disease is also prevailing in the aged people. Restored blood flow quickly rescues myocardium but also causes ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Brief episodes of ischemia at a distant organ could reduce the myocardial reperfusion injury. This is called remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) cardioprotection. Several circulating factors and neurogenic signals contribute to the cardioprotection by RIPC...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Bryan K Becker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Julia Bräunig, Stefan Mergler, Sabine Jyrch, Carolin S Hoefig, Mark Rosowski, Jens Mittag, Heike Biebermann, Noushafarin Khajavi
3-Iodothyronamine (3-T1 AM) is an endogenous thyroid hormone metabolite. The profound pharmacological effects of 3-T1 AM on energy metabolism and thermal homeostasis have raised interest to elucidate its signaling properties in tissues that pertain to metabolic regulation and thermogenesis. Previous studies identified G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) as targets of 3-T1 AM in different cell types. These two superfamilies of membrane proteins are largely expressed in tissue which influences energy balance and metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Elusa Cristina Oliveira, Carina Leonelli, Oduvaldo Cm Pereira, Jackson C Bittencourt, Hernandes F Carvalho
Neonatal exposure to high dose 17β-estradiol (E2) affects the morphology and physiology of sex and accessory sex organs in the long term. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 imprinting on male sexual behavior, fertility and the number of androgen receptor (AR) expressing cells in the hypothalamus. E2-treated males showed copulatory behavior represented by mounts and/or intromissions, demonstrating the preservation of aspects of male behavior. They had slightly increased latency for first intromission and a reduced number of ejaculations, associated with a 50% reduction in the fertility index...
October 5, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Zuzana Dzirbikova, Alzbeta Talarovičová, Peter Štefánik, Lucia Olexová, Lucia Kršková
Steroid hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects and play an important role in fetal programming. The aim of our study was to investigate how testosterone enhancement during pregnancy influences neurobehavioral aspects of social coping of rat offspring in adulthood. Pregnant rat dams were exposed to depot form of testosterone during the last third of pregnancy (i.e., beginning on the 14th day of pregnancy). Their adult offspring were later tested in a social interaction test and expression of oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin mRNA in the hypothalamic nuclei was evaluated...
2018: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
Yang Yu, Shun-Guang Wei, Robert M Weiss, Robert B Felder
Sex differences in the presentation, outcome and responses to treatment of systolic heart failure (HF) have been reported. We examined the effect of sex on central neural mechanisms contributing to neurohumoral excitation and its peripheral manifestations in HF rats. Male and female SD rats underwent coronary ligation (CL) to induce HF. Age-matched rats served as controls. Infarct size and left ventricular function were similar 24 hours and 4 weeks after CL. Female HF rats had a lower mortality rate and less hemodynamic compromise, pulmonary congestion and right ventricular remodeling 4 weeks after CL...
October 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Grace S Pham, Keisa W Mathis
Crosstalk between the brain and innate immune system may be dysregulated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a chronic autoimmune disease that presents with dysautonomia and aberrant inflammation. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is an endogenous neuro-endocrine-immune pathway that can regulate inflammation following activation of vagal afferents. We hypothesized that chronic inflammatory processes in SLE are in part due to HPA axis dysfunction, at the level of either the afferent vagal-paraventricular nuclei (PVN) interface, the anterior pituitary, and/or at the adrenal glands...
October 4, 2018: Brain Sciences
Shruti Varadarajan, Mary Tajiri, Rashi Jain, Rebecca Holt, Qanetha Ahmed, Joseph LeSauter, Rae Silver
A brain clock, constituted of ∼20,000 peptidergically heterogeneous neurons, is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). While many peptidergic cell types have been identified, little is known about the connections among these neurons in mice. We first sought to identify contacts among major peptidergic cell types in the SCN using triple-label fluorescent immunocytochemistry (ICC). To this end, contacts among vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and calretinin (CALR) cells of the core, and arginine vasopressin (AVP) and met-enkephalin (ENK) cells of the shell were analyzed...
September 2018: ENeuro
Jesús M López, Daniel Lozano, Ruth Morona, Agustín González
Cladistians are a group of basal non-teleost actinopterygian fishes that represent an interesting group for the study of primitive brain features, most likely present in the ancestral Osteichthyes. We have investigated the catecholaminergic (CA) systems in the brain of two representative cladistian species, the bichir Polypterus senegalus and the reedfish Erpetoichthys calabaricus, by means of antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; the first enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines) and dopamine (DA)...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Jing Sun, Xing-Sheng Ren, Ying Kang, Hang-Bing Dai, Lei Ding, Ning Tong, Guo-Qing Zhu, Ye-Bo Zhou
Intermedin/adrenomedullin-2 (IMD/AM2), a member of the calcitonin gene-related peptide/AM family, plays an important role in protecting the cardiovascular system. However, its role in the enhanced sympathoexcitation in obesity-related hypertension is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of IMD in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus on sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sympathetic activation in obesity-related hypertensive (OH) rats induced by a high-fat diet for 12 weeks...
October 1, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Byung-Ki Lee, Chang-Ju Kim, Mal-Soon Shin, Young Sam Cho
Peripheral nerve injuries are commonly encountered clinical problem and often result in chronic pain and severe functional deficit. Diosgenin is a plant steroidal saponin and has anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. In the present study, we investigated the effect of diosgenin on functional recovery following sciatic crushed nerve injury in rats. Walking track analysis for the functional recovery which can be quantified with the sciatic function index (SFI) was conducted. Immunohistochemistry for c-Fos in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and western blot for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine kinase B (TrkB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthesis (iNOS) in the sciatic nerve were performed...
August 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Zoltán Péterfi, Imre Farkas, Raphael G P Denis, Erzsébet Farkas, Motokazu Uchigashima, Tamás Füzesi, Masahiko Watanabe, Ronald M Lechan, Zsolt Liposits, Serge Luquet, Csaba Fekete
OBJECTIVE: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most potent orexigenic peptides. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a major locus where NPY exerts its effects on energy homeostasis. We investigated how NPY exerts its effect within the PVN. METHODS: Patch clamp electrophysiology and Ca2+ imaging were used to understand the involvement of Ca2+ signaling and retrograde transmitter systems in the mediation of NPY induced effects in the PVN. Immuno-electron microscopy were performed to elucidate the subcellular localization of the elements of nitric oxide (NO) system in the parvocellular PVN...
September 18, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
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