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V A Jimenez, M A Herman, V C Cuzon Carlson, N A Walter, K A Grant, M Roberto
Alcohol use disorder is a significant global burden. Stress has been identified as an etiological factor in the initiation and continuation of ethanol consumption. Understanding adaptations within stress circuitry is an important step toward novel treatment strategies. The effects of protracted abstinence following long-term ethanol self-administration on the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were evaluated in male rhesus monkeys. Using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, inhibitory GABAergic transmission in the CeA and excitatory glutamatergic transmission in the PVN were measured...
December 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
XiaoTing Niu, XiaoYun Wu, AnNa Ying, Bei Shao, XiaoFeng Li, WanLi Zhang, ChengCheng Lin, YuanShao Lin
Maternal environmental factors such as diet have profound effects on offspring development and later health. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is an important stress neuroendocrine system that is subject to programming by early life challenges. The present study was further to investigate whether maternal high fat diet (HFD) exposure during rat pregnancy and lactation can alter the HPA axis activity in adult male offspring. We observed that maternal HFD consumption exerted long-term effects on the basal activity of the HPA axis in adult offspring, with increased mean plasma corticosterone levels that result from elevated steroid pulse frequence and pulse amplitude...
December 6, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Andy C Huang, Jia-Min Wu, Ya-Han Chang, Navneet Kumar Dubey, Allen W Chiu, Chien-Yu Yeh, Tung-Hu Tsai, Kuei-Ying Yeh
RATIONALE: Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is known to promote reproductive functions. However, its role in noncontact erection (NCE) of penis initiated by brain regions including medial preoptic area (MPOA) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) regions responsible for sexual behavior has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: Therefore, this study initially investigated the effects of LBP on male sexual function, and subsequently, the mechanistic insight was investigated through assessing the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the MPOA and PVN...
December 11, 2018: Psychopharmacology
T Lee Gilman, Nathan C Mitchell, Lynette C Daws, Glenn M Toney
High dietary salt intake (HDSI) increases risk of stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we explored the contribution of HDSI-induced neuroinflammation in key stress-responsive brain regions, the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and basolateral amygdala (BLA), in promoting exaggerated neuronal activation and coping behaviors in response to acute psychogenic stress. Mice that underwent HDSI exhibited increased active stress coping behaviors during and after an acute swim stress, and these were reduced by concurrent administration of minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation, without affecting body fluid hyperosmolality caused by HDSI...
December 8, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Laverne Melón, Rebecca Hammond, Mike Lewis, Jamie Maguire
Preclinical testing of treatments for postpartum depression (PPD) has been limited due to the lack of available animal models of such a complex disorder. To address this limitation, our laboratory has generated unique preclinical mouse models that exhibit abnormal postpartum behaviors. Mice with a loss or reduction in the expression of the GABAA receptor (GABAA R) δ subunit ( Gabrd -/- or Gabrd +/- , respectively) and mice that lack the K+ /Cl- co-transporter, KCC2, specifically in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons (KCC2/Crh mice) exhibit depression-like behaviors restricted to the postpartum period and deficits in maternal care, which serve as useful tools for testing novel therapeutic compounds...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Ruifang Hua, Xu Wang, Xinfeng Chen, Xinxin Wang, Pengcheng Huang, Pengcheng Li, Wei Mei, Haohong Li
Orchestration of sleep and feeding behavior is essential for organismal health and survival. Although sleep deprivation promotes feeding and starvation suppresses sleep, the underlying neural mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we showed that starvation in mice potently promoted arousal and activated calretinin neurons (CR+) in the paraventricular thalamus (PVT). Direct activation of PVTCR+ neurons promoted arousal, and their activity was necessary for starvation-induced sleep suppression. Specifically, the PVTCR+ -bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) circuit rapidly initiated arousal...
November 26, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Minzi Qiu, Jiawen Li, Lishan Tan, Mengbi Zhang, Guang Zhou, Tao Zeng, Aiqing Li
The potential function of distal cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus (dCSF-CNs) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) development is poorly understood. We hypothesized that dCSF-CNs might affect the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in kidney injury progression, with dCSF-CNs ablation potentially alleviating local RAS and renal fibrosis in rats after five-sixths nephrectomy (5/6Nx). Part of rats were randomly administered artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) intracerebroventricularly (icv), followed by 5/6Nx or sham operation; and other part of rats were administered Cholera toxin B subunit conjugated with saporin (CB-SAP) for dCSF-CNs lesion before 5/6Nx...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Lucas Stetzik, Rex E Payne, Laura E Roache, Jessica R Ickes, Bruce S Cushing
This study tested the hypotheses that maternal and paternal effects differentially influence expression of their offspring's adult behavior and underlying neural mechanisms. We predicted that maternal influences would be greater than paternal influences on male offspring. We tested these hypotheses by cross-breeding two phenotypically-, behaviorally- and neuroanatomically-distinct populations of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) from Illinois, which are highly prosocial, and Kansas, which are significantly less prosocial...
December 3, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Yuki Uchida, Koyuki Atsumi, Shinji Hirano, Nao Koyanagi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of estradiol (E2 ) on thermoregulatory responses induced by menthol in ovariectomized rats. Wistar rats were ovariectomized, and implanted with a silastic tube with or without E2 (E2 (+) and E2 (-) groups). L-menthol (10%) or vehicle was applied to the skin of the whole trunk in selected animals, which were then exposed to 27 °C or 16 °C for 2 h. Continuous body temperature (Tb ), tail skin temperature (Ttail ), and treatment-associated behaviors were measured...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Lucas A Stetzik, Alana W Sullivan, Heather B Patisaul, Bruce S Cushing
OBJECTIVE: In this study, empathy is quantified using a novel social test. Empathy and prosocial behavior are linked to the expression of oxytocin in humans and rodent models. Specifically, prosocial behavior in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) has been linked to the expression of oxytocin in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. The animal's behavior was considered empathic if it spends significantly more time attempting to remove a loos fitting restraint (tether) from the stimulus animal than time in contact with a, simultaneously presented, non-social object similar to the tether...
December 4, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Benjamin Y Klein, Hadassah Tamir, Muhammad Anwar, Robert J Ludwig, Jasmine H Kaidbey, Sara B Glickstein, Martha G Welch
The goal of this protocol is to isolate oxytocin-receptor rich brain nuclei in the neonatal brain before and after first colostrum feeding. The expression of proteins known to respond to metabolic stress was measured in brain-nuclei isolates using Western blotting. This was done to assess whether metabolic stress-induced nutrient insufficiency in the body triggered neuronal stress. We have previously demonstrated that nutrient insufficiency in neonates elicits metabolic stress in the gut. Furthermore, colostrum oxytocin modulates cellular stress response, inflammation, and autophagy markers in newborn rat gut villi prior to and after first feed...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jing-Jing Zhou, Hui-Jie Ma, Jian-Ying Shao, Hui-Lin Pan, De-Pei Li
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a crucial region involved in maintaining homeostasis through the regulation of cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and other functions. The PVN provides a dominant source of excitatory drive to the sympathetic outflow through innervation of the brainstem and spinal cord in hypertension. We discuss current findings on the role of the PVN in the regulation of sympathetic output in both normotensive and hypertensive conditions. The PVN seems to play a major role in generating the elevated sympathetic vasomotor activity that is characteristic of multiple forms of hypertension, including primary hypertension in humans...
December 1, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Benjamin P Tooke, Hui Yu, Jessica M Adams, Graham L Jones, Talisha Sutton-Kennedy, Lakshmi Mundada, Nathan R Qi, Malcolm J Low, Kavaljit H Chhabra
OBJECTIVE: Life-threatening hypoglycemia is a major limiting factor in the management of diabetes. While it is known that counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia are impaired in diabetes, molecular mechanisms underlying the reduced responses remain unclear. Given the established roles of the hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC)/melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) circuit in regulating sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and the SNS in stimulating counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia, we hypothesized that hypothalamic POMC as well as MC4R, a receptor for POMC derived melanocyte stimulating hormones, is required for normal hypoglycemia counterregulation...
November 20, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Kengo Nomura, Takeshi Y Hiyama, Hiraki Sakuta, Takashi Matsuda, Chia-Hao Lin, Kenta Kobayashi, Kazuto Kobayashi, Tomoyuki Kuwaki, Kunihiko Takahashi, Shigeyuki Matsui, Masaharu Noda
Increases in sodium concentrations ([Na+ ]) in body fluids elevate blood pressure (BP) by enhancing sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). However, the mechanisms by which information on increased [Na+ ] is translated to SNA have not yet been elucidated. We herein reveal that sympathetic activation leading to BP increases is not induced by mandatory high salt intakes or the intraperitoneal/intracerebroventricular infusions of hypertonic NaCl solutions in Nax -knockout mice in contrast to wild-type mice. We identify Nax channels expressed in specific glial cells in the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) as the sensors detecting increases in [Na+ ] in body fluids and show that OVLT neurons projecting to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are activated via acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) by H+ ions exported from Nax -positive glial cells...
November 21, 2018: Neuron
Gustav F Jirikowski
Localization and distribution of hypothalamic neurons expressing the nonapeptide oxytocin has been extensively studied. Their projections to the neurohypophyseal system release oxytocin into the systemic circulation thus controlling endocrine events associated with reproduction in males and females. Oxytocinergic neurons seem to be confined to the ventral hypothalamus in all mammals. Groups of such cells located outside the supraoptic and the paraventricular nuclei are summarized as "accessory neurons...
November 29, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Yugen Shi, Jie Yin, Hesheng Hu, Mei Xue, Xiaolu Li, Ju Liu, Yan Li, Wenjuan Cheng, Ye Wang, Xinran Li, Yu Wang, Fuhong Liu, Qiang Liu, Jiayu Tan, Suhua Yan
BACKGROUND: The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is the center of the regulation of autonomic nervous system functions and cardiovascular activity. Phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway in PVN contributes to mediate sympathetic nerve activity and is activated in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Overactivation of the sympathetic output was considered as an important mechanism of the arrhythmias. In the present study, we aimed to explore whether targeted regulation of sympathetic activity in PVN could reduce the peripheral sympathoexcitatory and attenuate the ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) in myocardial infarction (MI) rats via PI3K-AKT pathway...
January 2019: Journal of Cardiology
Verónica Trujillo, Patricia Evelinda Durando, Marta Magdalena Suárez
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze whether early maternal separation would result in long-term, persistent alterations in stress response in adulthood, altering mineralocorticoid receptor immunoreactivity (MR-ir) in the dorsal hippocampal areas [CA1, CA2, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG)], paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and medial and central nucleus of the amygdala, key structures involved in stress response regulation. We also analyzed whether chronic treatment with the antidepressant tianeptine reverses these possible changes...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Yiming Shen, Jin Bong Park, So Yeong Lee, Seong Kyu Han, Pan Dong Ryu
Exercise training (ExT) normalizes elevated sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure (HF), but the underlying mechanisms are not well-understood. In this study, we examined the effects of 3 weeks of ExT on the electrical activity of the hypothalamic presympathetic neurons in the brain slice of HF rats. HF rats were prepared by ligating the left descending coronary artery. Electrophysiological properties of paraventricular nucleus neurons projecting to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (PVN-RVLM) was examined using slice patch-clamp technique...
November 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Chia Li, Jovana Navarrete, Jing Liang-Guallpa, Chunxia Lu, Samuel C Funderburk, Rui B Chang, Stephen D Liberles, David P Olson, Michael J Krashes
Understanding the neural framework behind appetite control is fundamental to developing effective therapies to combat the obesity epidemic. The paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) is critical for appetite regulation, yet, the real-time, physiological response properties of PVH neurons to nutrients are unknown. Using a combination of fiber photometry, electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and neural manipulation strategies, we determined the population dynamics of four molecularly delineated PVH subsets implicated in feeding behavior: glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (PVHGlp1r ), melanocortin-4 receptor (PVHMc4r ), oxytocin (PVHOxt ), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (PVHCrh )...
November 13, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Kimberly A Clark, Elyssa B Jacob, P S MohanKumar, Sheba M J MohanKumar
Type I Diabetes (T1D) is associated with reduced leptin levels and increased stress axis activity marked by elevations in norepinephrine (NE) levels in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. We hypothesized that leptin suppresses stress axis activity in T1D through central and peripheral mechanisms. In the first experiment, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were implanted with a cannula in the PVN and randomly divided into a non-diabetic group treated with vehicle (n=6) and a diabetic group treated with streptozotocin (n=13)...
November 20, 2018: Brain Research
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